Feasibility of Direct Sputum Molecular Testing for Drug Resistance as Part of Tuberculosis Clinical Trials Eligibility Screening.
Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)
2019; 9 (2)
Tuberculosis progression rates in U.S. Immigrants following screening with interferon-gamma release assays.
BMC public health
2016; 16 (1): 875
A rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is critical for early initiation of effective therapy. Molecular testing with line probe assays (MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl) on culture isolates has been available for some time and significantly reduces the time to diagnosis of drug resistance. However, routine use of this test directly on sputum is less common. As part of enrollment screening procedures for tuberculosis clinical trials conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam, we evaluated the feasibility and performance of line probe assay (LPA) testing directly on sputum samples from 315 participants with no prior history of TB treatment. Test performance characteristics for the detection of rifampin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) drug resistance as compared to culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) reference standard were calculated. LPA demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of drug resistance. Scaling up molecular testing on sputum as part of time-sensitive clinical trial screening procedures in high TB burden settings is feasible and will reduce both time to initiation of appropriate therapy and the risk of late exclusions due to microbiologic ineligibility.
View details for DOI 10.3390/diagnostics9020056
View details for PubMedID 31151255
In vitro immunomodulation for enhancing T cell-based diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection
DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE
2015; 83 (1): 41-45
Interferon-gamma release assays may be used as an alternative to the tuberculin skin test for detection of M. tuberculosis infection. However, the risk of active tuberculosis disease following screening using interferon-gamma release assays in immigrants is not well defined. To address these uncertainties, we determined the incidence rates of active tuberculosis disease in a cohort of high-risk immigrants with Class B TB screened with interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) upon arrival in the United States.Using a retrospective cohort design, we enrolled recent U.S. immigrants with Class B TB who were screened with an IGRA (QuantiFERON ® Gold or Gold In-Tube Assay) at the San Francisco Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Control Clinic from January 2005 through December 2010. We reviewed records from the Tuberculosis Control Patient Management Database and from the California Department of Public Health Tuberculosis Case Registry to determine incident cases of active tuberculosis disease through February 2015.Of 1233 eligible immigrants with IGRA screening at baseline, 81 (6.6 %) were diagnosed with active tuberculosis disease as a result of their initial evaluation. Of the remaining 1152 participants without active tuberculosis disease at baseline, 513 tested IGRA-positive and 639 tested IGRA-negative. Seven participants developed incident active tuberculosis disease over 7730 person-years of follow-up, for an incidence rate of 91 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 43-190). Five IGRA-positive and two IGRA-negative participants developed active tuberculosis disease (incidence rates 139 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 58-335) and 48 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 12-193), respectively) for an unadjusted incidence rate ratio of 2.9 (95 % CI 0.5-30, p = 0.21). IGRA test results had a negative predictive value of 99.7 % but a positive predictive value of only 0.97 %.Among high-risk immigrants without active tuberculosis disease at the time of entry into the United States, risk of progression to active tuberculosis disease was higher in IGRA-positive participants compared with IGRA-negative participants. However, these findings did not reach statistical significance, and a positive IGRA at enrollment had a poor predictive value for progressing to active tuberculosis disease. Additional research is needed to identify biomarkers and develop clinical algorithms that can better predict progression to active tuberculosis disease among U.S. immigrants.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3519-6
View details for PubMedID 27558397
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4997768
A pain in the…ventricle.
Journal of general internal medicine
2014; 29 (5): 816–17
Interferon-gamma release assays have limited sensitivity for detecting latent tuberculosis infection. In this study, we determine if the addition of immunomodulators to the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) increased test sensitivity without compromising specificity. We prospectively compared QFT-GIT results with and without incubation with 2 immunomodulators (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [PolyIC]) in 2 cohorts-113 culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) subjects in Hanoi, Vietnam, and 226 documented QFT-GIT-negative, low TB risk health care workers undergoing annual TB screening at a US academic institution. Sensitivity of the tests in TB subjects was 84.1% with the standard QFT-GIT and 85.8% and 74.3% after incubation with LPS and PolyIC, respectively. Specificity in low TB risk health care workers was 100% with the standard QFT-GIT by design and 86.7% with LPS and 63.3% with PolyIC. In conclusion, use of the 2 immunomodulators did not improve sensitivity of the QFT-GIT in TB patients and reduced specificity in low-risk health care workers.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2015.05.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000359754000010
View details for PubMedID 26081239