Bio

Current Role at Stanford


Biostatistician

Honors & Awards


  • Sudan Household Health Survey in-depth analysis grant, UNICEF- Sudan (2012)
  • RPC small grant, World Health Organization-Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office (2004)
  • Research grant, Ministry of Higher Education - Sudan (2004)
  • Al Nahas prize for best performance in undergraduate clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine- University of Khartoum (1999)
  • Baghdadi prize for outstanding performance, Faculty of Medicine-University of Khartoum (1999)
  • Department prize for best performance in undergraduate Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine - University of Khartoum (1998)
  • Department Prize for best performance in undergraduate Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine - University of Khartoum (1996)
  • JB Lynch prize in undergraduate Pathology, Faculty of Medinince - University of Khartoum (1996)

Education & Certifications


  • MFPHMI, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland, Public Health (2012)
  • MD, University of Khartoum, Community Medicine (2006)
  • MBBS, University of Khartoum, Medicine (1999)

Service, Volunteer and Community Work


  • The epidemiology of injuries in Sudan - 2010-2014 (1/1/2010 - Present)

    Location

    Sudan

  • Consultant - Sudanese Public Health Consultancy Group 2007-Present (2007 - Present)

    Location

    Solihull, UK

  • Summary Measures of Population Health workshop - Sudan Federal Ministry of Health 2008, Sudan Federal Ministry of Health (8/1/2008)

    Location

    Solihull, UK

Professional

Professional Affiliations and Activities


  • Member of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine of Ireland, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland (2012 - Present)
  • Community Medicine Specialist, Sudan Medical Council (2006 - Present)

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 LANCET Naghavi, M., Wang, H., Lozano, R., Davis, A., Liang, X., Zhou, M., Vollset, S. E., Ozgoren, A. A., Abdalla, S., Abd-Allah, F., Aziz, M. I., Abera, S. F., Aboyans, V., Abraham, B., Abraham, J. P., Abuabara, K. E., Abubakar, I., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Achoki, T., Adelekan, A., Ademi, Z. N., Adofo, K., Adou, A. K., Adsuar, J. C., Aernlov, J., Agardh, E. E., Akena, D., Al Khabouri, M. J., Alasfoor, D., Albittar, M., Alegretti, M. A., Aleman, A. V., Alemu, Z. A., Alfonso-Cristancho, R., Alhabib, S., Ali, M. K., Ali, R., Alla, F., Al Lami, F., Allebeck, P., AlMazroa, M. A., Salman, R. A., Alsharif, U., Alvarez, E., Alviz-Guzman, N., Amankwaa, A. A., Amare, A. T., Ameli, O., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Anderson, H. R., Anderson, B. O., Antonio, C. A., Anwari, P., Apfel, H., Cunningham, S. A., Arsenijevic, V. S., Al Artaman, Asad, M. M., Asghar, R. J., Assadi, R., Atkins, L. S., Atkinson, C., Badawi, A., Bahit, M. C., Bakfalouni, T., Balakrishnan, K., Balalla, S., Banerjee, A., Barber, R. M., Barker-Collo, S. L., Barquera, S., Barregard, L., Barrero, L. H., Barrientos-Gutierrez, T., Basu, A., Basu, S., Basulaiman, M. O., Beardsley, J., Bedi, N., Beghi, E., Bekele, T., Bell, M. L., Benjet, C., Bennett, D. A., Bensenor, I. M., Benzian, H., Bertozzi-Villa, A., Beyene, T. J., Bhala, N., Bhalla, A., Bhutta, Z. A., Bikbov, B., Bin Abdulhak, A., Biryukov, S., Blore, J. D., Blyth, F. M., Bohensky, M. A., Borges, G., Bose, D., Boufous, S., Bourne, R. R., Boyers, L. N., Brainin, M., Brauer, M., Brayne, C. E., Brazinova, A., Breitborde, N., Brenner, H., Briggs, A. D., Brown, J. C., Brugha, T. S., Buckle, G. C., Bui, L. N., Bukhman, G., Burch, M., Nonato, I. R., Carabin, H., Cardenas, R., Carapetis, J., Carpenter, D. O., Caso, V., Castaneda-Orjuela, C. A., Castro, R. E., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavalleri, F., Chang, J., Charlson, F. C., Che, X., Chen, H., Chen, Y., Chen, J. S., Chen, Z., Chiang, P. P., Chimed-Ochir, O., Chowdhury, R., Christensen, H., Christophi, C. A., Chuang, T., Chugh, S. S., Cirillo, M., Coates, M. M., Coffeng, L. E., Coggeshall, M. S., Cohen, A., Colistro, V., Colquhoun, S. M., Colomar, M., Cooper, L. T., Cooper, C., Coppola, L. M., Cortinovis, M., Courville, K., Cowie, B. C., Criqui, M. H., Crump, J. A., Cuevas-Nasu, L., Leite, I. d., Dabhadkar, K. C., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Dansereau, E., Dargan, P. I., Dayama, A., De la Cruz-Gongora, V., de la Vega, S. F., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Del Pozo-Cruz, B., Dellavalle, R. P., Deribe, K., Jarlais, D. C., Dessalegn, M., deVeber, G. A., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dherani, M., Diaz-Ortega, J., Diaz-Torne, C., Dicker, D., Ding, E. L., Dokova, K., Dorsey, E. R., Driscoll, T. R., Duan, L., Duber, H. C., Durrani, A. M., Ebel, B. E., Edmond, K. M., Ellenbogen, R. G., Elshrek, Y., Ermakov, S. P., Erskine, H. E., Eshrati, B., Esteghamati, A., Estep, K., Fuerst, T., Fahimi, S., Fahrion, A. S., Faraon, E. J., Farzadfar, F., Fay, D. F., Feigl, A. B., Feigin, V. L., Felicio, M. M., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fernandes, J. G., Ferrari, A. J., Fleming, T. D., Foigt, N., Foreman, K., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fowkes, F. G., Fra Paleo, U., Franklin, R. C., Futran, N. D., Gaffikin, L., Gambashidze, K., Gankpe, F. G., Garcia-Guerra, F. A., Garcia, A. C., Geleijnse, J. M., Gessner, B. D., Gibney, K. B., Gillum, R. F., Gilmour, S., Abdelmageem, I., Ginawi, M., Giroud, M., Glaser, E. L., Goenka, S., Dantes, H. G., Gona, P., Gonzalez-Medina, D., Guinovart, C., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Gosselin, R. A., Gotay, C. C., Goto, A., Gowda, H. N., Graetz, N., Greenwell, K. F., Gugnani, H. C., Gunnell, D., Gutierrez, R. A., Haagsma, J., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Hagan, H., Hagstromer, M., Halasa, Y. A., Hamadeh, R. R., Hamavid, H., Hammami, M., Hancock, J., Hankey, G. J., Hansen, G. M., Harb, H. L., Harewood, H., Haro, J. M., Havmoeller, R., Hay, R. J., Hay, S. I., Hedayati, M. T., Pi, I. B., Heuton, K. R., Heydarpour, P., Higashi, H., Hijar, M., Hoek, H. W., Hoffman, H. J., Hornberger, J. C., Hosgood, H. D., Hossain, M., Hotez, P. J., Hoy, D. G., Hsairi, M., Hu, G., Huang, J. J., Huffman, M. D., Hughes, A. J., Husseini, A., Huynh, C., Iannarone, M., Iburg, K. M., Idrisov, B. T., Ikeda, N., Innos, K., Inoue, M., Islami, F., Ismayilova, S., Jacobsen, K. H., Jassal, S., Jayaraman, S. P., Jensen, P. N., Jha, V., Jiang, G., Jiang, Y., Jonas, J. B., Joseph, J., Juel, K., Kabagambe, E. K., Kan, H., Karch, A., Karimkhani, C., Karthikeyan, G., Kassebaum, N., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Kazanjan, K., Kazi, D. S., Kemp, A. H., Kengne, A. P., Keren, A., Kereselidze, M., Khader, Y. S., Khalifa, S. E., Khan, E. A., Khan, G., Khang, Y., Kieling, C., Kinfu, Y., Kinge, J. M., Kim, D., Kim, S., Kivipelto, M., Knibbs, L., Knudsen, A. K., Kokubo, Y., Kosen, S., Kotagal, M., Kravchenko, M. A., Krishnaswami, S., Krueger, H., Defo, B. K., Kuipers, E. J., Bicer, B. K., Kulkarni, C., Kulkarni, V. S., Kumar, K., Kumar, R. B., Kwan, G. F., Kyu, H., Lai, T., Balaji, A. L., Lalloo, R., Lallukka, T., Lam, H., Lan, Q., Lansingh, V. C., Larson, H. J., Larsson, A., Lavados, P. M., Lawrynowicz, A. E., Leasher, J. L., Lee, J., Leigh, J., Leinsalu, M., Leung, R., Levitz, C., Li, B., Li, Y., Li, Y., Liddell, C., Lim, S. S., de Lima, G. M., Lind, M. L., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., Lofgren, K. T., Logroscino, G., London, S. J., Lortet-Tieulent, J., Lotufo, P. A., Lucas, R. M., Lunevicius, R., Lyons, R. A., Ma, S., Machado, V. M., MacIntyre, M. F., Mackay, M. T., Maclachlan, J. H., Magis-Rodriguez, C., Mahdi, A. A., Majdan, M., Malekzadeh, R., Mangalam, S., Mapoma, C. C., Marape, M., Marcenes, W., Margono, C., Marks, G. B., Marzan, M. B., Masci, J. R., Mashal, M. T., Masiye, F., Mason-Jones, A. J., Matzopolous, R., Mayosi, B. M., Mazorodze, T. T., McGrath, J. J., Mckay, A. C., McKee, M., McLain, A., Meaney, P. A., Mehndiratta, M. M., Mejia-Rodriguez, F., Melaku, Y. A., Meltzer, M., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Mensah, G. A., Meretoja, A., Mhimbira, F. A., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Misganaw, A., Mishra, S. K., Mock, C. N., Moffitt, T. E., Ibrahim, N. M., Mohammad, K. A., Mokdad, A. H., Mola, G. L., Monasta, L., Monis, J. d., Hernandez, J. C., Montico, M., Montine, T. J., Mooney, M. D., Moore, A. R., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Moran, A. E., Mori, R., Moschandreas, J., Moturi, W. N., Moyer, M. L., Mozaffarian, D., Mueller, U. O., Mukaigawara, M., Mullany, E. C., Murray, J., Mustapha, A., Naghavi, P., Naheed, A., Naidoo, K. S., Naldi, L., Nand, D., Nangia, V., Narayan, K. M., Nash, D., Nasher, J., Nejjari, C., Nelson, R. G., Neuhouser, M., Neupane, S. P., Newcomb, P. A., Newman, L., Newton, C. R., Ng, M., Ngalesoni, F. N., Nguyen, G., Nhung Thi Trang Nguyen, N. T., Nisar, M. I., Nolte, S., Norheim, O. F., Norman, R. E., Norrving, B., Nyakarahuka, L., Odell, S., O'Donnell, M., Ohkubo, T., Ohno, S. L., Olusanya, B. O., Omer, S. B., Opio, J. N., Orisakwe, O. E., Ortblad, K. F., Ortiz, A., Otayza, M. L., Pain, A. W., Pandian, J. D., Panelo, C. I., Panniyammakal, J., Papachristou, C., Paternina Caicedo, A. J., Patten, S. B., Patton, G. C., Paul, V. K., Pavlin, B., Pearce, N., Pellegrini, C. A., Pereira, D. M., Peresson, S. C., Perez-Padilla, R., Perez-Ruiz, F. P., Perico, N., Pervaiz, A., Pesudovs, K., Peterson, C. B., Petzold, M., Phillips, B. K., Phillips, D. E., Phillips, M. R., Plass, D., Piel, F. B., Poenaru, D., Polinder, S., Popova, S., Poulton, R. G., Pourmalek, F., Prabhakaran, D., Qato, D., Quezada, A. D., Quistberg, D. A., Rabito, F., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, S. u., Raju, M., Rakovac, I., Rana, S. M., Refaat, A., Remuzzi, G., Ribeiro, A. L., Ricci, S., Riccio, P. M., Richardson, L., Richardus, J. H., Roberts, B., Roberts, D. A., Robinson, M., Roca, A., Rodriguez, A., Rojas-Rueda, D., Ronfani, L., Room, R., Roth, G. A., Rothenbacher, D., Rothstein, D. H., Rowley, J. T., Roy, N., Ruhago, G. M., Rushton, L., Sambandam, S., Soreide, K., Saeedi, M. Y., Saha, S., Sahathevan, R., Sahraian, M. A., Sahle, B. W., Salomon, J. A., Salvo, D., Samonte, G. M., Sampson, U., Sanabria, J. R., Sandar, L., Santos, I. S., Satpathy, M., Sawhney, M., Saylan, M., Scarborough, P., Schoettker, B., Schmidt, J. C., Schneider, I. J., Schumacher, A. E., Schwebel, D. C., Scott, J. G., Sepanlou, S. G., Servan-Mori, E. E., Shackelford, K., Shaheen, A., Shahraz, S., Shakh-Nazarova, M., Shangguan, S., She, J., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shepard, D. S., Shibuya, K., Shinohara, Y., Shishani, K., Shiue, I., Shivakoti, R., Shrime, M. G., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Silberberg, D. H., Silva, A. P., Simard, E. P., Sindi, S., Singh, J. A., Singh, L., Sioson, E., Skirbekk, V., Sliwa, K., So, S., Soljak, M., Soneji, S., Soshnikov, S. S., Sposato, L. A., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stanaway, J. R., Stathopoulou, V. K., Steenland, K., Stein, C., Steiner, C., Stevens, A., Stoeckl, H., Straif, K., Stroumpoulis, K., Sturua, L., Sunguya, B. F., Swaminathan, S., Swaroop, M., Sykes, B. L., Tabb, K. M., Takahashi, K., Talongwa, R. T., Tan, F., Tanne, D., Tanner, M., Tavakkoli, M., Ao, B. T., Teixeira, C. M., Templin, T., Tenkorang, E. Y., Terkawi, A. S., Thomas, B. A., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Thrift, A. G., Thurston, G. D., Tillmann, T., Tirschwell, D. L., Tleyjeh, I. M., Tonelli, M., Topouzis, F., Towbin, J. A., Toyoshima, H., Traebert, J., Tran, B. X., Truelsen, T., Trujillo, U., Trillini, M., Dimbuene, Z. T., Tsilimbaris, M., Tuzcu, E. M., Ubeda, C., Uchendu, U. S., Ukwaja, K. N., Undurraga, E. A., Vallely, A. J., van de Vijver, S., van Gool, C. H., Varakin, Y. Y., Vasankari, T. J., Vasconcelos, A. M., Vavilala, M. S., Venketasubramanian, N., Vijayakumar, L., Villalpando, S., Violante, F. S., Vlassov, V. V., Wagner, G. R., Waller, S. G., Wang, J., Wang, L., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Warouw, T. S., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Wenzhi, W., Werdecker, A., Wessells, K. R., Westerman, R., Whiteford, H. A., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, T. N., Woldeyohannes, S. M., Wolfe, C. D., Wolock, T. M., Woolf, A. D., Wong, J. Q., Wright, J. L., Wulf, S., Wurtz, B., Xu, G., Yang, Y. C., Yano, Y., Yatsuya, H., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M., Yu, C., Jin, K. Y., Zaki, M. E., Zamakhshary, M. F., Zeeb, H., Zhang, Y., Zhao, Y., Zheng, Y., Zhu, J., Zhu, S., Zonies, D., Zou, X. N., Zunt, J. R., Vos, T., Lopez, A. D., Murray, C. J. 2015; 385 (9963): 117-171
  • Effects of cinacalcet on atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients receiving hemodialysis: the EValuation Of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) trial. Journal of the American Heart Association Wheeler, D. C., London, G. M., Parfrey, P. S., Block, G. A., Correa-Rotter, R., Dehmel, B., Drüeke, T. B., Floege, J., Kubo, Y., Mahaffey, K. W., Goodman, W. G., Moe, S. M., Trotman, M., Abdalla, S., Chertow, G. M., Herzog, C. A. 2014; 3 (6)

    Abstract

    Premature cardiovascular disease limits the duration and quality of life on long-term hemodialysis. The objective of this study was to define the frequency of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events attributable to atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic mechanisms, risk factors for these events, and the effects of cinacalcet, using adjudicated data collected during the EValuation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) Trial.EVOLVE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet or matched placebo for up to 64 months. For this post hoc analysis, the outcome measure was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events reflecting atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. During the trial, 1518 patients experienced an adjudicated cardiovascular event, including 958 attributable to nonatherosclerotic disease. Of 1421 deaths during the trial, 768 (54%) were due to cardiovascular disease. Sudden death was the most frequent fatal cardiovascular event, accounting for 24.5% of overall mortality. Combining fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, randomization to cinacalcet reduced the rates of sudden death and heart failure. Patients randomized to cinacalcet experienced fewer nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular events (adjusted relative hazard 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96), while the effect of cinacalcet on atherosclerotic events did not reach statistical significance.Accepting the limitations of post hoc analysis, any benefits of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in the context of hemodialysis may result from attenuation of nonatherosclerotic processes.Unique identifier: NCT00345839. URL: ClinicalTrials.gov.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.001363

    View details for PubMedID 25404192

  • Respondents' recall of injury events: an investigation of recall bias in cross-sectional injury data from the Sudan Household Health Survey 2010. International journal of injury control and safety promotion Abdalla, S., Abdelgadir, N., Shahraz, S., Bhalla, K. 2014: 1-9

    Abstract

    Recall bias is a well-documented limitation of population-based cross-sectional injury surveys. To fill some gaps in this area, we investigated the extent and nature of recall bias in Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS 2010) injury data. The extent of incomplete recall was measured by comparing the total reported injuries over 12 months with the annualised number of injuries in the four weeks preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of socio-demographic variables, injury attributes and interviewee characteristics with differential recall. Relevant interactions were tested. Overall, reported injuries were 33% of the expected. Injuries among children 1-4 years had lower odds of being reported to have occurred earlier than the four weeks preceding the survey than people aged 65 years and over (OR = 0.24, 95% CI 0.12-0.47). Injuries that received inpatient care in the first week were more likely to be recalled than those that did not receive care (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.14-3.75). Respondent's age was associated with differential recall. Differential injury recall should be considered when using SHHS 2010 to compare injury occurrence between children under five and older groups or at the level of health care received.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/17457300.2014.908222

    View details for PubMedID 24758160

  • Use of healthcare services by injured people in Khartoum State, Sudan. International health El Tayeb, S., Abdalla, S., Van den Bergh, G., Heuch, I. 2014

    Abstract

    Trauma care is an important factor in preventing death and reducing disability. Injured persons in low- and middle-income countries are expected to use the formal healthcare system in increasing numbers. The objective of this paper is to examine use of healthcare services after injury in Khartoum State, Sudan.A community-based survey using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique in Khartoum State was performed. Information on healthcare utilisation was taken from injured people. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors affecting the probability of using formal healthcare services.During the 12 months preceding the survey a total of 441 cases of non-fatal injuries occurred, with 260 patients accessing formal healthcare. About a quarter of the injured persons were admitted to hospital. Injured people with primary education were less likely to use formal healthcare compared to those with no education. Formal health services were most used by males and in cases of road traffic injuries. The lowest socio-economic strata were least likely to use formal healthcare.Public health measures and social security should be strengthened by identifying other real barriers that prevent low socio-economic groups from making use of formal healthcare facilities. Integration and collaboration with traditional orthopaedic practitioners are important aspects that need further attention.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/inthealth/ihu063

    View details for PubMedID 25205849

  • Injuries in Khartoum state, the Sudan: a household survey of incidence and risk factors. International journal of injury control and safety promotion El Tayeb, S., Abdalla, S., Mørkve, O., Heuch, I., Van den Bergh, G. 2014; 21 (2): 144-153

    Abstract

    Low- and middle-income countries have a higher burden of fatal and non-fatal injuries. The lack of evidence-based information hampers efforts for injury prevention. The aim of this study was to calculate non-fatal injury incidence rates and to investigate causes and risk factors for non-fatal injuries in Khartoum state. Information was gathered in a community-based survey using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. Methods of data collection were face-to-face interviews during October and November 2010. The total number of individuals included was 5661, residing in 973 households. The overall injury incidence rate was 82.0/1000 person-years-at-risk. The three leading causes were falls, mechanical forces and road traffic crashes. Low socio-economic status was a risk factor for injuries in urban areas. Males had a significantly higher risk of being injured in both urban and rural areas. Our findings can contribute to the planning of prevention programmes.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/17457300.2013.792283

    View details for PubMedID 23654301

  • Effects of Cinacalcet on Fracture Events in Patients Receiving Hemodialysis: The EVOLVE Trial Journal of the American Society of Nephrology - In process Moe, S., Abdalla, S., Chertow, G., et al 2014
  • Social inequalities in health expectancy and the contribution of mortality and morbidity: the case of Irish Travellers. Journal of public health Abdalla, S., Kelleher, C., Quirke, B., Daly, L. 2013; 35 (4): 533-540

    Abstract

    The health expectancy of Irish Travellers, a disadvantaged indigenous minority group in Ireland has not been previously estimated. This study aimed to examine health expectancy inequalities between Irish Travellers and the general population.We used Sullivan's life table method to construct healthy life expectancy (HLE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). The All-Ireland Traveller Health Study provided Irish Traveller population's mortality and health data. Vital registration, census and comparable national survey health data were used for the general population. We calculated the absolute and relative life expectancy, HLE and DFLE gaps between Irish Travellers and the general population and decomposed the HLE and DFLE gaps into mortality and morbidity contributions.Irish Travellers had consistently lower HLE and DFLE than the general population. The health expectancy gap displayed notable age and gender variations and was wider than the life expectancy gap. Mortality contributed more than morbidity to the health expectancy gap in men but not in women.This study illustrated the true extent of health inequalities experienced by an indigenous minority in Europe, clarifying the importance of reducing the burden of non-fatal disabling conditions for addressing these inequalities. The health expectancy measure used has application for other similar indigenous minorities elsewhere.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/pubmed/fds106

    View details for PubMedID 23315684

  • Patterns of vulnerability to non-fatal injuries in Sudan: initial evidence from a national cross-sectional survey. Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention Abdalla, S. 2013

    Abstract

    Successful injury prevention requires identification and targeting of particularly vulnerable groups. Little is known about injury vulnerability patterns in Sudan. This paper aimed to fill this gap using survey data.Data from the Sudan Household Health Survey were used. This was a national cross-sectional interview survey of 83 510 individuals selected by multistage cluster random sampling. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to investigate the association of cause-specific injury that received care by traditional healers, outpatient care and inpatient care, and those that received only inpatient care, with age, gender, area of residence (urban or rural), socioeconomic status and education. Relevant interactions were tested.Independent of other sociodemographic variables, men were at higher risk of road traffic injury (prevalence ratio (PR): 3.3 95% CI 2.4 to 4.7), falls (PR: 1.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.9), assault (PR: 3.0 95% CI 1.8-5) and mechanical injury (PR: 2.0 95% CI 1.2 to 3.1) that received any form of healthcare. Those aged 65 years and over also had the highest risk of those injury causes, while children under 5 years were the most likely to suffer burn injuries. Socioeconomic status was associated with assault (PR for the richest group 0.4 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8). Vulnerability patterns for injury that received inpatient care were fairly similar for some causes.In Sudan, existing disease prevention and health promotion programmes should expand to target men, children under 5 years, elderly people and those of low socioeconomic status with injury prevention interventions. Further research is needed to investigate the context-specific proximal risk factors that shape the various vulnerability patterns observed.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/injuryprev-2013-040884

    View details for PubMedID 24327580

  • Socioeconomic and disability consequences of injuries in the Sudan: a community-based survey in Khartoum State. Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention El Tayeb, S., Abdalla, S., Heuch, I., Van den Bergh, G. 2013

    Abstract

    Fatal and non-fatal injuries are of increasing public health concern globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries. Injuries sustained by individuals also impact society, creating a loss of productivity with serious economic consequences. In Sudan, there is no documentation of the burden of injuries on individuals and society.A community-based survey was performed in Khartoum State, using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique. Households were selected in each cluster by systematic random sampling. Face-to-face interviews during October and November 2010 were conducted. Fatal injuries occurring during 5 years preceding the survey and non-fatal injuries occurring during 12 months preceding interviews were included.The total number of individuals included was 5661, residing in 973 households. There were 28 deaths due to injuries out of a total of 129 reported deaths over 5 years. A total of 441 cases of non-fatal injuries occurred during the 12 months preceding the survey. The number of disability days differed significantly between mechanisms of injury. Road traffic crashes and falls caused the longest duration of disability. Men had a higher probability than women of losing a job due to an injury.This study demonstrates the importance of prioritising prevention of road traffic crashes and falls. The loss of productivity in lower socioeconomic strata highlights the need for social security policies. Further research is needed for estimating the economic cost of injuries in Sudan.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/injuryprev-2013-040818

    View details for PubMedID 24225061

  • Disparities in fatal and non-fatal injuries between Irish travellers and the Irish general population are similar to those of other indigenous minorities: a cross-sectional population-based comparative study. BMJ open Abdalla, S., Kelleher, C. C., Quirke, B., Daly, L. 2013; 3 (1)

    Abstract

    To assess recent disparities in fatal and non-fatal injury between travellers and the general population in Ireland.A cross-sectional population-based comparative study.Republic of Ireland.Population census and retrospective mortality data were collected from 7042 traveller families, travellers being those identified by themselves and others as members of the traveller community. Retrospective injury incidence was estimated from a survey of a random sample of travellers in private households, aged 15 years or over (702 men and 961 women). Comparable general population data were obtained from official statistical reports, while retrospective incidence was estimated from the Survey of Lifestyle, Attitude and Nutrition 2002, a random sample of 5992 adults in private households aged 18 years or over.Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL), Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMR), Standardised Incidence Ratios (SIR) and Case Fatality Ratios (CFR).Injury accounted for 36% of PYLL among travellers, compared with 13% in the general population. travellers were more likely to die of unintentional injury than the general population (SMR=454 (95% CI 279 to 690) in men and 460 (95% CI 177 to 905) in women), with a similar pattern for intentional injury (SMR=637 (95% CI 367 to 993) in men and 464 (95% CI 107 to 1204 in women). They had a lower incidence of unintentional injury but those aged 65 years or over were about twice as likely to report an injury. Travellers had a higher incidence of intentional injuries (SIR=181 (95% CI 116 to 269) in men and 268 (95% CI 187 to 373) in women). Injury CFR were consistently higher among travellers.Irish travellers continue to bear a disproportionate burden of injury, which calls for scaling up injury prevention efforts in this group. Prevention and further research should focus on suicide, alcohol misuse and elderly injury among Irish travellers.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002296

    View details for PubMedID 23358563

  • Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 LANCET Murray, C. J., Vos, T., Lozano, R., Naghavi, M., Flaxman, A. D., Michaud, C., Ezzati, M., Shibuya, K., Salomon, J. A., Abdalla, S., Aboyans, V., Abraham, J., Ackerman, I., Aggarwal, R., Ahn, S. Y., Ali, M. K., Alvarado, M., Anderson, H. R., Anderson, L. M., Andrews, K. G., Atkinson, C., Baddour, L. M., Bahalim, A. N., Barker-Collo, S., Barrero, L. H., Bartels, D. H., Basanez, M., Baxter, A., Bell, M. L., Benjamin, E. J., Bennett, D., Bernabe, E., Bhalla, K., Bhandari, B., Bikbov, B., Bin Abdulhak, A., Birbeck, G., Black, J. A., Blencowe, H., Blore, J. D., Blyth, F., Bolliger, I., Bonaventure, A., Boufous, S. A., Bourne, R., Boussinesq, M., Braithwaite, T., Brayne, C., Bridgett, L., Brooker, S., Brooks, P., Brugha, T. S., Bryan-Hancock, C., Bucello, C., Buchbinder, R., Buckle, G., Budke, C. M., Burch, M., Burney, P., Burstein, R., Calabria, B., Campbell, B., Canter, C. E., Carabin, H., Carapetis, J., Carmona, L., Cella, C., Charlson, F., Chen, H., Cheng, A. T., Chou, D., Chugh, S. S., Coffeng, L. E., Colan, S. D., Colquhoun, S., Colson, K. E., Condon, J., Connor, M. D., Cooper, L. T., Corriere, M., Cortinovis, M., de Vaccaro, K. C., Couser, W., Cowie, B. C., Criqui, M. H., Cross, M., Dabhadkar, K. C., Dahiya, M., Dahodwala, N., Damsere-Derry, J., Danaei, G., Davis, A., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Dellavalle, R., Delossantos, A., Denenberg, J., Derrett, S., Des Jarlais, D. C., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dherani, M., Diaz-Torne, C., Dolk, H., Dorsey, E. R., Driscoll, T., Duber, H., Ebel, B., Edmond, K., Elbaz, A., Ali, S. E., Erskine, H., Erwin, P. J., Espindola, P., Ewoigbokhan, S. E., Farzadfar, F., Feigin, V., Felson, D. T., Ferrari, A., Ferri, C. P., Fevre, E. M., Finucane, M. M., Flaxman, S., Flood, L., Foreman, K., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fowkes, F. G., Fransen, M., Freeman, M. K., Gabbe, B. J., Gabriel, S. E., Gakidou, E., Ganatra, H. A., Garcia, B., Gaspari, F., Gillum, R. F., Gmel, G., Gonzalez-Medina, D., Gosselin, R., Grainger, R., Grant, B., Groeger, J., Guillemin, F., Gunnell, D., Gupta, R., Haagsma, J., Hagan, H., Halasa, Y. A., Hall, W., Haring, D., Maria Haro, J., Harrison, J. E., Havmoeller, R., Hay, R. J., Higashi, H., Hill, C., Hoen, B., Hoffman, H., Hotez, P. J., Hoy, D., Huang, J. J., Ibeanusi, S. E., Jacobsen, K. H., James, S. L., Jarvis, D., Jasrasaria, R., Jayaraman, S., Johns, N., Jonas, J. B., Karthikeyan, G., Kassebaum, N., Kawakami, N., Keren, A., Khoo, J., King, C. H., Knowlton, L. M., Kobusingye, O., Koranteng, A., Krishnamurthi, R., Laden, F., Lalloo, R., Laslett, L. L., Lathlean, T., Leasher, J. L., Lee, Y. Y., Leigh, J., Levinson, D., Lim, S. S., Limb, E., Lin, J. K., Lipnick, M., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, W., Loane, M., Ohno, S. L., Lyons, R., Mabweijano, J., MacIntyre, M. F., Malekzadeh, R., Mallinger, L., Manivannan, S., Marcenes, W., March, L., Margolis, D. J., Marks, G. B., Marks, R., Matsumori, A., Matzopoulos, R., Mayosi, B. M., McAnulty, J. H., McDermott, M. M., McGill, N., McGrath, J., Elena Medina-Mora, M., Meltzer, M., Mensah, G. A., Merriman, T. R., Meyer, A., Miglioli, V., Miller, M., Miller, T. R., Mitchell, P. B., Mock, C., Mocumbi, A. O., Moffitt, T. E., Mokdad, A. A., Monasta, L., Montico, M., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Moran, A., Morawska, L., Mori, R., Murdoch, M. E., Mwaniki, M. K., Naidoo, K., Nair, M. N., Naldi, L., Narayan, K. M., Nelson, P. K., Nelson, R. G., Nevitt, M. C., Newton, C. R., Nolte, S., Norman, P., Norman, R., O'Donnell, M., O'Hanlon, S., Olives, C., Omer, S. B., Ortblad, K., Osborne, R., Ozgediz, D., Page, A., Pahari, B., Pandian, J. D., Panozo Rivero, A., Patten, S. B., Pearce, N., Perez Padilla, R., Perez-Ruiz, F., Perico, N., Pesudovs, K., Phillips, D., Phillips, M. R., Pierce, K., Pion, S., Polanczyk, G. V., Polinder, S., Pope, C. A., Popova, S., Porrini, E., Pourmalek, F., Prince, M., Pullan, R. L., Ramaiah, K. D., Ranganathan, D., Razavi, H., Regan, M., Rehm, J. T., Rein, D. B., Remuzzi, G., Richardson, K., Rivara, F. P., Roberts, T., Robinson, C., Rodriguez De Leon, F., Ronfani, L., Room, R., Rosenfeld, L. C., Rushton, L., Sacco, R. L., Saha, S., Sampson, U., Sanchez-Riera, L., Sanman, E., Schwebel, D. C., Scott, J. G., Segui-Gomez, M., Shahraz, S., Shepard, D. S., Shin, H., Shivakoti, R., Singh, D., Singh, G. M., Singh, J. A., Singleton, J., Sleet, D. A., Sliwa, K., Smith, E., Smith, J. L., Stapelberg, N. J., Steer, A., Steiner, T., Stolk, W. A., Stovner, L. J., Sudfeld, C., Syed, S., Tamburlini, G., Tavakkoli, M., Taylor, H. R., Taylor, J. A., Taylor, W. J., Thomas, B., Thomson, W. M., Thurston, G. D., Tleyjeh, I. M., Tonelli, M., Towbin, J. R., Truelsen, T., Tsilimbaris, M. K., Ubeda, C., Undurraga, E. A., Van der Werf, M. J., van Os, J., Vavilala, M. S., Venketasubramanian, N., Wang, M., Wang, W., Watt, K., Weatherall, D. J., Weinstock, M. A., Weintraub, R., Weisskopf, M. G., Weissman, M. M., White, R. A., Whiteford, H., Wiebe, N., Wiersma, S. T., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, H. C., Williams, S. R., Witt, E., Wolfe, F., Woolf, A. D., Wulf, S., Yeh, P., Zaidi, A. K., Zheng, Z., Zonies, D., Lopez, A. D. 2012; 380 (9859): 2197-2223

    Abstract

    Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time.We calculated DALYs as the sum of years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALYs were calculated for 291 causes, 20 age groups, both sexes, and for 187 countries, and aggregated to regional and global estimates of disease burden for three points in time with strictly comparable definitions and methods. YLLs were calculated from age-sex-country-time-specific estimates of mortality by cause, with death by standardised lost life expectancy at each age. YLDs were calculated as prevalence of 1160 disabling sequelae, by age, sex, and cause, and weighted by new disability weights for each health state. Neither YLLs nor YLDs were age-weighted or discounted. Uncertainty around cause-specific DALYs was calculated incorporating uncertainty in levels of all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, prevalence, and disability weights.Global DALYs remained stable from 1990 (2·503 billion) to 2010 (2·490 billion). Crude DALYs per 1000 decreased by 23% (472 per 1000 to 361 per 1000). An important shift has occurred in DALY composition with the contribution of deaths and disability among children (younger than 5 years of age) declining from 41% of global DALYs in 1990 to 25% in 2010. YLLs typically account for about half of disease burden in more developed regions (high-income Asia Pacific, western Europe, high-income North America, and Australasia), rising to over 80% of DALYs in sub-Saharan Africa. In 1990, 47% of DALYs worldwide were from communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, 43% from non-communicable diseases, and 10% from injuries. By 2010, this had shifted to 35%, 54%, and 11%, respectively. Ischaemic heart disease was the leading cause of DALYs worldwide in 2010 (up from fourth rank in 1990, increasing by 29%), followed by lower respiratory infections (top rank in 1990; 44% decline in DALYs), stroke (fifth in 1990; 19% increase), diarrhoeal diseases (second in 1990; 51% decrease), and HIV/AIDS (33rd in 1990; 351% increase). Major depressive disorder increased from 15th to 11th rank (37% increase) and road injury from 12th to 10th rank (34% increase). Substantial heterogeneity exists in rankings of leading causes of disease burden among regions.Global disease burden has continued to shift away from communicable to non-communicable diseases and from premature death to years lived with disability. In sub-Saharan Africa, however, many communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders remain the dominant causes of disease burden. The rising burden from mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes will impose new challenges on health systems. Regional heterogeneity highlights the importance of understanding local burden of disease and setting goals and targets for the post-2015 agenda taking such patterns into account. Because of improved definitions, methods, and data, these results for 1990 and 2010 supersede all previously published Global Burden of Disease results.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312387000016

    View details for PubMedID 23245608

  • Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 LANCET Vos, T., Flaxman, A. D., Naghavi, M., Lozano, R., Michaud, C., Ezzati, M., Shibuya, K., Salomon, J. A., Abdalla, S., Aboyans, V., Abraham, J., Ackerman, I., Aggarwal, R., Ahn, S. Y., Ali, M. K., Alvarado, M., Anderson, H. R., Anderson, L. M., Andrews, K. G., Atkinson, C., Baddour, L. M., Bahalim, A. N., Barker-Collo, S., Barrero, L. H., Bartels, D. H., Basanez, M., Baxter, A., Bell, M. L., Benjamin, E. J., Bennett, D., Bernabe, E., Bhalla, K., Bhandari, B., Bikbov, B., Bin Abdulhak, A., Birbeck, G., Black, J. A., Blencowe, H., Blore, J. D., Blyth, F., Bolliger, I., Bonaventure, A., Boufous, S. A., Bourne, R., Boussinesq, M., Braithwaite, T., Brayne, C., Bridgett, L., Brooker, S., Brooks, P., Brugha, T. S., Bryan-Hancock, C., Bucello, C., Buchbinder, R., Buckle, G. R., Budke, C. M., Burch, M., Burney, P., Burstein, R., Calabria, B., Campbell, B., Canter, C. E., Carabin, H., Carapetis, J., Carmona, L., Cella, C., Charlson, F., Chen, H., Cheng, A. T., Chou, D., Chugh, S. S., Coffeng, L. E., Colan, S. D., Colquhoun, S., Colson, K. E., Condon, J., Connor, M. D., Cooper, L. T., Corriere, M., Cortinovis, M., de Vaccaro, K. C., Couser, W., Cowie, B. C., Criqui, M. H., Cross, M., Dabhadkar, K. C., Dahiya, M., Dahodwala, N., Damsere-Derry, J., Danaei, G., Davis, A., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Dellavalle, R., Delossantos, A., Denenberg, J., Derrett, S., Des Jarlais, D. C., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dherani, M., Diaz-Torne, C., Dolk, H., Dorsey, E. R., Driscoll, T., Duber, H., Ebel, B., Edmond, K., Elbaz, A., Ali, S. E., Erskine, H., Erwin, P. J., Espindola, P., Ewoigbokhan, S. E., Farzadfar, F., Feigin, V., Felson, D. T., Ferrari, A., Ferri, C. P., Fevre, E. M., Finucane, M. M., Flaxman, S., Flood, L., Foreman, K., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fowkes, F. G., Franklin, R., Fransen, M., Freeman, M. K., Gabbe, B. J., Gabriel, S. E., Gakidou, E., Ganatra, H. A., Garcia, B., Gaspari, F., Gillum, R. F., Gmel, G., Gosselin, R., Grainger, R., Groeger, J., Guillemin, F., Gunnell, D., Gupta, R., Haagsma, J., Hagan, H., Halasa, Y. A., Hall, W., Haring, D., Maria Haro, J., Harrison, J. E., Havmoeller, R., Hay, R. J., Higashi, H., Hill, C., Hoen, B., Hoffman, H., Hotez, P. J., Hoy, D., Huang, J. J., Ibeanusi, S. E., Jacobsen, K. H., James, S. L., Jarvis, D., Jasrasaria, R., Jayaraman, S., Johns, N., Jonas, J. B., Karthikeyan, G., Kassebaum, N., Kawakami, N., Keren, A., Khoo, J., King, C. H., Knowlton, L. M., Kobusingye, O., Koranteng, A., Krishnamurthi, R., Lalloo, R., Laslett, L. L., Lathlean, T., Leasher, J. L., Lee, Y. Y., Leigh, J., Lim, S. S., Limb, E., Lin, J. K., Lipnick, M., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, W., Loane, M., Ohno, S. L., Lyons, R., Ma, J., Mabweijano, J., MacIntyre, M. F., Malekzadeh, R., Mallinger, L., Manivannan, S., Marcenes, W., March, L., Margolis, D. J., Marks, G. B., Marks, R., Matsumori, A., Matzopoulos, R., Mayosi, B. M., McAnulty, J. H., McDermott, M. M., McGill, N., McGrath, J., Elena Medina-Mora, M., Meltzer, M., Mensah, G. A., Merriman, T. R., Meyer, A., Miglioli, V., Miller, M., Miller, T. R., Mitchell, P. B., Mocumbi, A. O., Moffitt, T. E., Mokdad, A. A., Monasta, L., Montico, M., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Moran, A., Morawska, L., Mori, R., Murdoch, M. E., Mwaniki, M. K., Naidoo, K., Nair, M. N., Naldi, L., Narayan, K. M., Nelson, P. K., Nelson, R. G., Nevitt, M. C., Newton, C. R., Nolte, S., Norman, P., Norman, R., O'Donnell, M., O'Hanlon, S., Olives, C., Omer, S. B., Ortblad, K., Osborne, R., Ozgediz, D., Page, A., Pahari, B., Pandian, J. D., Rivero, A. P., Patten, S. B., Pearce, N., Perez Padilla, R., Perez-Ruiz, F., Perico, N., Pesudovs, K., Phillips, D., Phillips, M. R., Pierce, K., Pion, S., Polanczyk, G. V., Polinder, S., Pope, C. A., Popova, S., Porrini, E., Pourmalek, F., Prince, M., Pullan, R. L., Ramaiah, K. D., Ranganathan, D., Razavi, H., Regan, M., Rehm, J. T., Rein, D. B., Remuzzi, G., Richardson, K., Rivara, F. P., Roberts, T., Robinson, C., De Leon, F. R., Ronfani, L., Room, R., Rosenfeld, L. C., Rushton, L., Sacco, R. L., Saha, S., Sampson, U., Sanchez-Riera, L., Sanman, E., Schwebel, D. C., Scott, J. G., Segui-Gomez, M., Shahraz, S., Shepard, D. S., Shin, H., Shivakoti, R., Singh, D., Singh, G. M., Singh, J. A., Singleton, J., Sleet, D. A., Sliwa, K., Smith, E., Smith, J. L., Stapelberg, N. J., Steer, A., Steiner, T., Stolk, W. A., Stovner, L. J., Sudfeld, C., Syed, S., Tamburlini, G., Tavakkoli, M., Taylor, H. R., Taylor, J. A., Taylor, W. J., Thomas, B., Thomson, W. M., Thurston, G. D., Tleyjeh, I. M., Tonelli, M., Towbin, J. R., Truelsen, T., Tsilimbaris, M. K., Ubeda, C., Undurraga, E. A., Van der Werf, M. J., van Os, J., Vavilala, M. S., Venketasubramanian, N., Wang, M., Wang, W., Watt, K., Weatherall, D. J., Weinstock, M. A., Weintraub, R., Weisskopf, M. G., Weissman, M. M., White, R. A., Whiteford, H., Wiersma, S. T., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, H. C., Williams, S. R., Witt, E., Wolfe, F., Woolf, A. D., Wulf, S., Yeh, P., Zaidi, A. K., Zheng, Z., Zonies, D., Lopez, A. D., Murray, C. J. 2012; 380 (9859): 2163-2196

    Abstract

    Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither effort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs).Of the 291 diseases and injuries in the GBD cause list, 289 cause disability. For 1160 sequelae of the 289 diseases and injuries, we undertook a systematic analysis of prevalence, incidence, remission, duration, and excess mortality. Sources included published studies, case notification, population-based cancer registries, other disease registries, antenatal clinic serosurveillance, hospital discharge data, ambulatory care data, household surveys, other surveys, and cohort studies. For most sequelae, we used a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR, designed to address key limitations in descriptive epidemiological data, including missing data, inconsistency, and large methodological variation between data sources. For some disorders, we used natural history models, geospatial models, back-calculation models (models calculating incidence from population mortality rates and case fatality), or registration completeness models (models adjusting for incomplete registration with health-system access and other covariates). Disability weights for 220 unique health states were used to capture the severity of health loss. YLDs by cause at age, sex, country, and year levels were adjusted for comorbidity with simulation methods. We included uncertainty estimates at all stages of the analysis.Global prevalence for all ages combined in 2010 across the 1160 sequelae ranged from fewer than one case per 1 million people to 350,000 cases per 1 million people. Prevalence and severity of health loss were weakly correlated (correlation coefficient -0·37). In 2010, there were 777 million YLDs from all causes, up from 583 million in 1990. The main contributors to global YLDs were mental and behavioural disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and diabetes or endocrine diseases. The leading specific causes of YLDs were much the same in 2010 as they were in 1990: low back pain, major depressive disorder, iron-deficiency anaemia, neck pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anxiety disorders, migraine, diabetes, and falls. Age-specific prevalence of YLDs increased with age in all regions and has decreased slightly from 1990 to 2010. Regional patterns of the leading causes of YLDs were more similar compared with years of life lost due to premature mortality. Neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and anaemia were important causes of YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa.Rates of YLDs per 100,000 people have remained largely constant over time but rise steadily with age. Population growth and ageing have increased YLD numbers and crude rates over the past two decades. Prevalences of the most common causes of YLDs, such as mental and behavioural disorders and musculoskeletal disorders, have not decreased. Health systems will need to address the needs of the rising numbers of individuals with a range of disorders that largely cause disability but not mortality. Quantification of the burden of non-fatal health outcomes will be crucial to understand how well health systems are responding to these challenges. Effective and affordable strategies to deal with this rising burden are an urgent priority for health systems in most parts of the world.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312387000015

    View details for PubMedID 23245607

  • Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in an indigenous minority population. The All-Ireland Traveller Health Study EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY McGorrian, C., Daly, L., Fitzpatrick, P., Moore, R. G., Turner, J., Kelleher, C. C. 2012; 19 (6): 1444-1453

    Abstract

    The Traveller community are an indigenous minority group in Great Britain and Ireland who experience premature mortality. While minority populations worldwide are known to have high rates of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), Traveller CVD risk has not previously been defined.All-Ireland cross-sectional census survey of the Traveller minority population (n?=?10,615 families).A subsample of adult respondents completed a health survey (n?=?2023). CVD was defined as self-report of doctor-diagnosed heart attack, angina, or stroke. CVD risk factors and measures of social position were examined in the Traveller group using age-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios (PR). Comparisons were made with a general population sample of low socioeconomic status.Age-adjusted prevalence of CVD in the Traveller population was 5.6% (95% CI 4.6-6.8), similar to that in the comparator population. Compared to those without CVD, Travellers with CVD had a higher prevalence of self-report of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, current smoking, and a measure of distrust. Compared with the general population sample, Travellers had a higher prevalence of diabetes (adjusted PR 2.8, 95% CI 2.1-3.8) and lifestyle-related risk factors such as smoking (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4), fried food consumption (PR 2.8, 95% CI 2.4-3.2), and physical inactivity (PR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2-1.4).This comprehensive census survey confirms CVD as an important health risk in the economically disadvantaged Irish Traveller community. Our findings add to the international knowledge base on minority populations and CVD risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1741826711428059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314505600027

    View details for PubMedID 22042910

  • The burden of malaria in Sudan: incidence, mortality and disability - adjusted life - years MALARIA JOURNAL Abdalla, S. I., Malik, E. M., Ali, K. M. 2007; 6

    Abstract

    Estimating the burden of malaria in Sudan is important for evidence-based planning of malaria control. Estimates of malaria burden in terms of DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) were not developed locally. This study synthesized information from different sources to calculate malaria incidence, mortality and DALYs lost in Sudan in 2002.A search for local studies and reports providing epidemiological data on malaria in Sudan was conducted. Preliminary estimates of incidence rate, case fatality rate and mortality rate were developed from the data found. The preliminary estimates were processed in the disease modelling computer software, DisMod II, to produce internally consistent mortality and incidence rates, which were used to calculate DALYs lost due to malaria.Malaria incidence in Sudan was estimated to be about 9 million episodes in 2002 and the number of deaths due to malaria was about 44,000. 2,877,000 DALYs were lost in Sudan in 2002 due to malaria mortality, episodes, anaemia and neurological sequelae. Children under five years of age had the highest burden. Males had the highest incidence and mortality, but females lost more DALYs.Formal health system data underestimated malaria burden. The burden estimates can be useful in informing decision making, although uncertainty around them needs to be quantified. Epidemiological research is needed to fill data gaps and update the estimates.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1475-2875-6-97

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250000400001

    View details for PubMedID 17662153

Presentations


  • S Abdalla, B Quirke, L Daly, P Fitzpatrick, C Kelleher. Inequalities in cancer mortality: findings from the All-Ireland Traveller Health Study

    Presented To

    3rd National Conference on Population Based Research in Ireland. National Cancer Registry of Ireland.

    Location

    Dublin, Ireland

  • S Abdalla, B Quirke, L Daly, P Fitzpatrick, C Kelleher. Differentials in cause-specific mortality between Irish Travellers and the general population in the Republic of Ireland.

    Presented To

    Faculty of Public Health Medicine of Ireland Winter Scientific Meeting

    Location

    Dublin, 2010

  • S Abdalla, B Quirke, L Daly, P Fitzpatrick, C Kelleher. All Ireland Traveller health Study: Increasing gap in Mortality between Traveller and general populations

    Presented To

    Society for Social Medicine 54th Annual Scientific Meeting, 2010.

    Location

    Belfast, Northern Ireland

  • Diab M, Abdalla S,Yousuf S et al. Pattern of bone setter complications presenting to Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Police Forces Hospital ? Khartoum.

    Presented To

    9th Sudanese Association of Surgeons Conference, 2001

    Location

    Khartoum

  • Estimates of incidence and mortality from injury in Sudan

    Presented To

    International Collaborative Effort on Injury Statistics / CDC - 2014

    Location

    Washington DC, USA

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