Serotonin transporter polymorphism is associated with increased apnea-hypopnea index in older adults.
International journal of geriatric psychiatry
2014; 29 (3): 227-235
Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A Genetic Model of OSA.
2013; 144 (5): 1503-1511
RATIONALE: A functional polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) has previously been related to upper airway pathology, but its contribution to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a highly prevalent sleep disorder in older adults, remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the relationship between apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and genetic variations in the promoter region of the 5-HTTLPR in older adults. METHODS: DNA samples from 94 community-dwelling older adults (57% female, mean age 72 ± 8) were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. All participants were assessed in their homes with full ambulatory polysomnography in order to determine AHI and related parameters such as hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and self-reported daytime sleepiness. RESULTS: The 5-HTT l allele was significantly associated with AHI (p = 0.019), with l allele carriers displaying a higher AHI than s allele homozygotes. A single allele change in 5-HTTLPR genotype from s to l resulted in an increase of AHI by 4.46 per hour of sleep (95% CI, 0.75-8.17). The l allele was also associated with increased time during sleep spent at oxygen saturation levels below 90% (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: The observed significant association between the 5-HTTLPR l allele and severity of OSA in older adults suggests that the l allele may be important to consider when assessing for OSA in this age group. This association may also explain some of the observed variability among serotonergic pharmacological treatment studies for OSA, and 5-HTT genotype status may have to be taken into account in future therapeutic trials involving serotonergic agents. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View details for DOI 10.1002/gps.3994
View details for PubMedID 23754303
Treatment of Depression in Individuals Living with HIV/AIDS
2013; 54 (4): 336-344
The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by cartilaginous defects, including nasal-maxillary cartilages.A retrospective series of 34 patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and complaints of fatigue and poor sleep were evaluated by clinical history, physical examination, polysomnography (PSG), and, in some cases, anterior rhinomanometry. Additionally, a prospective clinical investigation of nine patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was performed in a specialized Ehlers-Danlos syndrome clinic.All patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome evaluated had SDB on PSG. In addition to apneas and hypopneas, SDB included flow limitation. With increasing age, flow limitation decreased in favor of apnea and hypopnea events, but clinical complaints were similar independent of the type of PSG finding. In the subgroup of patients who underwent nasal rhinomanometry, increased nasal resistance was increased relative to normative values. Nasal CPAP improved symptoms. Patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome presenting to the medical clinic had symptoms and clinical signs of SDB, but they were never referred for evaluation of SDB.In patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, abnormal breathing during sleep is commonly unrecognized and is responsible for daytime fatigue and poor sleep. These patients are at particular risk for SDB because of genetically related cartilage defects that lead to the development of facial structures known to cause SDB. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome may be a genetic model for OSA because of abnormalities in oral-facial growth. Early recognition of SDB may allow treatment with orthodontics and myofacial reeducation.
View details for DOI 10.1378/chest.13-0174
View details for PubMedID 23929538
Sleep Disturbance in Pediatric PTSD: Current Findings and Future Directions
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL SLEEP MEDICINE
2013; 9 (5): 503-512
Serotonin Toxicity in Aripiprazole Augmentation
JOURNAL OF NEUROPSYCHIATRY AND CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCES
2012; 24 (1): E36-E37
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in patients with HIV/AIDS, and can have an impact on quality of life, as well as various health outcomes. This study was designed to observe the efficacy of standard treatment of depression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (+) individuals in an urban psychiatric clinic. METHODS: This study consisted of a retrospective chart review of patients presenting for psychiatric services between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. A total of 211 charts were examined for factors including diagnosis given at initial visit, health status, sociodemographic factors and comorbid illnesses, as well as treatment plan prescribed; of these, 132 patients were determined to be depressed at the initial evaluation (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) 13) and to return for at least one follow-up visit. RESULTS: Of the 132 depressed patients, 48 (36.4%) reached remission (BDI <13) at some point at follow-up, and an additional 12 (50.7%) achieved response (decrease BDI 50%). Remission was correlated having disability income and having a viral load that was not detectable. CONCLUSIONS: Depression is common in HIV/AIDS, and is important to treat. Furthermore, individuals with depression and HIV/AIDS respond at rates similar to what is seen in other depressed populations.
View details for Web of Science ID 000322415600004
View details for PubMedID 23380671