Bioengineered analog of stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha preserves the biaxial mechanical properties of native myocardium after infarction
JOURNAL OF THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS
2019; 96: 165–71
A Biocompatible Therapeutic Catheter-Deliverable Hydrogel for In Situ Tissue Engineering
ADVANCED HEALTHCARE MATERIALS
2019; 8 (5)
Ex vivo biomechanical study of apical versus papillary neochord anchoring for mitral regurgitation.
The Annals of thoracic surgery
A Biocompatible Therapeutic Catheter-Deliverable Hydrogel for In Situ Tissue Engineering.
Advanced healthcare materials
BACKGROUND: Neochordoplasty is an important repair technique, though optimal anchoring position is unknown. While typically anchored at papillary muscles, new percutaneous devices anchor the chordae at or near the ventricular apex, which may have an effect on chordal forces and the long-term durability of the repair.METHODS: Porcine mitral valves (n=6) were mounted in a left heart simulator that generates physiological pressure and flow through the valves while chordal forces were measured using Fiber Bragg Grating strain gauge sensors. Isolated mitral regurgitation was induced by cutting P2 primary chordae and the regurgitant valve was repaired using PTFE neochord with apical anchoring, followed by papillary muscle fixation for comparison. In both cases, the neochord was anchored to a customized force-sensing post positioned to mimic the relevant in vivo placement.RESULTS: Echocardiographic and hemodynamic data confirmed that the repairs restored physiologic hemodynamics. Forces on the chordae and neochord were lower for papillary fixation than the apical (p=0.003). Additionally, the maximum rate of change of force was higher for the chordae and neochord for apical fixation when compared to papillary (p=0.028).CONCLUSIONS: Apical point of anchoring results in higher forces on the chordae and neochord stitch as well as an increased rate of loading on the neochord when compared to the papillary muscle fixation. These results suggest the papillary fixation repair may have superior durability.
View details for PubMedID 30836099
A Unique Collateral Artery Development Program Promotes Neonatal Heart Regeneration.
Hydrogels have emerged as a diverse class of biomaterials offering a broad range of biomedical applications. Specifically, injectable hydrogels are advantageous for minimally invasive delivery of various therapeutics and have great potential to treat a number of diseases. However, most current injectable hydrogels are limited by difficult and time-consuming fabrication techniques and are unable to be delivered through long, narrow catheters, preventing extensive clinical translation. Here, the development of an easily-scaled, catheter-injectable hydrogel utilizing a polymer-nanoparticle crosslinking mechanism is reported, which exhibits notable shear-thinning and self-healing behavior. Gelation of the hydrogel occurs immediately upon mixing the biochemically modified hyaluronic acid polymer with biodegradable nanoparticles and can be easily injected through a high-gauge syringe due to the dynamic nature of the strong, yet reversible crosslinks. Furthermore, the ability to deliver this novel hydrogel through a long, narrow, physiologically-relevant catheter affixed with a 28-G needle is highlighted, with hydrogel mechanics unchanged after delivery. Due to the composition of the gel, it is demonstrated that therapeutics can be differentially released with distinct elution profiles, allowing precise control over drug delivery. Finally, the cell-signaling and biocompatibility properties of this innovative hydrogel are demonstrated, revealing its wide range of therapeutic applications.
View details for PubMedID 30714355
Bioengineered analog of stromal cell-derived factor 1α preserves the biaxial mechanical properties of native myocardium after infarction.
Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials
2019; 96: 165–71
Collateral arteries are an uncommon vessel subtype that can provide alternate blood flow to preserve tissue following vascular occlusion. Some patients with heart disease develop collateral coronary arteries, and this correlates with increased survival. However, it is not known how these collaterals develop or how to stimulate them. We demonstrate that neonatal mouse hearts use a novel mechanism to build collateral arteries in response to injury. Arterial endothelial cells (ECs) migrated away from arteries along existing capillaries and reassembled into collateral arteries, which we termed "artery reassembly". Artery ECs expressed CXCR4, and following injury, capillary ECs induced its ligand, CXCL12. CXCL12 or CXCR4 deletion impaired collateral artery formation and neonatal heart regeneration. Artery reassembly was nearly absent in adults but was induced by exogenous CXCL12. Thus, understanding neonatal regenerative mechanisms can identify pathways that restore these processes in adults and identify potentially translatable therapeutic strategies for ischemic heart disease.
View details for PubMedID 30686582
Development and ex vivo validation of novel force-sensing neochordae for measuring chordae tendineae tension in the mitral valve apparatus using optical fibers with embedded Bragg gratings.
Journal of biomechanical engineering
Adverse remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) after myocardial infarction (MI) results in abnormal tissue biomechanics and impaired cardiac function, often leading to heart failure. We hypothesized that intramyocardial delivery of engineered stromal cell-derived factor 1α analog (ESA), our previously-developed supra-efficient pro-angiogenic chemokine, preserves biaxial LV mechanical properties after MI. Male Wistar rats (n = 45) underwent sham surgery (n = 15) or permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Rats sustaining MI were randomized for intramyocardial injections of either saline (100 μL, n = 15) or ESA (6 μg/kg, n = 15), delivered at four standardized borderzone sites. After 4 weeks, echocardiography was performed, and the hearts were explanted. Tensile testing of the anterolateral LV wall was performed using a displacement-controlled biaxial load frame, and modulus was determined after constitutive modeling. At 4 weeks post-MI, compared to saline controls, ESA-treated hearts had greater wall thickness (1.68 ± 0.05 mm vs 1.42 ± 0.08 mm, p = 0.008), smaller end-diastolic LV internal dimension (6.88 ± 0.29 mm vs 7.69 ± 0.22 mm, p = 0.044), and improved ejection fraction (62.8 ± 3.0% vs 49.4 ± 4.5%, p = 0.014). Histologic analysis revealed significantly reduced infarct size for ESA-treated hearts compared to saline controls (29.4 ± 2.9% vs 41.6 ± 3.1%, p = 0.021). Infarcted hearts treated with ESA exhibited decreased modulus compared to those treated with saline in both the circumferential (211.5 ± 6.9 kPa vs 264.3 ± 12.5 kPa, p = 0.001) and longitudinal axes (194.5 ± 6.5 kPa vs 258.1 ± 14.4 kPa, p < 0.001). In both principal directions, ESA-treated infarcted hearts possessed similar tissue compliance as sham non-infarcted hearts. Overall, intramyocardial ESA therapy improves post-MI ventricular remodeling and function, reduces infarct size, and preserves native LV biaxial mechanical properties.
View details for PubMedID 31035067
Modeling conduit choice for valve-sparing aortic root replacement on biomechanics with a 3-dimensional-printed heart simulator.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
Few technologies exist that can provide quantitative data on forces within the mitral valve apparatus. Marker-based strain measurements can be performed, but chordal geometry and restricted optical access are limitations. Foil-based strain sensors have been described and work well, but the sensor footprint limits the number of chordae that can be measured. We instead utilized Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors-optical strain gauges made of 125µm diameter silica fibers- to overcome some limitations of previous methods of measuring chordae tendineae forces. Using FBG sensors, we created a force-sensing neochord that mimics the natural shape and movement of native chordae. FBG sensors reflect a specific wavelength of light depending on the spatial period of gratings. When force is applied, the gratings move relative to one another, shifting the wavelength of reflected light. This shift is directly proportional to force applied. The FBG sensors were housed in a protective sheath fashioned from a 0.025" flat coil, and attached to the chordae using polytetrafluoroethylene suture. The function of the force-sensing neochordae was validated in a 3D-printed left heart simulator, which demonstrated that FBG sensors provide highly sensitive force measurements of mitral valve chordae at a temporal resolution of 1000 Hz. As ventricular pressures increased, such as in hypertension, chordae forces also increased. Overall, FBG sensors are a viable, durable, and high-fidelity sensing technology that can be effectively used to measure mitral valve chordae forces and overcome some limitations of other such technologies.
View details for DOI 10.1115/1.4044142
View details for PubMedID 31253992
Rapid Self-Assembly of Bioengineered Cardiovascular Bypass Grafts From Scaffold-Stabilized, Tubular Bilevel Cell Sheets
2018; 138 (19): 2130–44
Angiogenesis precedes cardiomyocyte migration in regenerating mammalian hearts
JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY
2018; 155 (3): 1118-+
OBJECTIVE: The optimal conduit for valve-sparing aortic root replacement is still debated, with several conduit variations available, ranging from straight tubular grafts to Valsalva grafts. Benefits of neosinus reconstruction include enhanced flow profiles and improved hemodynamics. Curiously, however, some clinical data suggest that straight grafts may have greater long-term durability. In this study, we hypothesized that straight tubular grafts may help maintain the native cylindrical position of the aortic valve commissures radially, resulting in preserved leaflet coaptation, reduced stresses, and potentially improved valve performance.METHODS: Using 3D printing, a left heart simulator with a valve-sparing root replacement model and a physiologic coronary circulation was constructed. Aortic valves were dissected from fresh porcine hearts and reimplanted into either straight tubular grafts (n=6) or Valsalva grafts (n=6). Conduits were mounted into the heart simulator and hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and high-speed videometric data were collected.RESULTS: Hemodynamic parameters and coronary blood flow were similar between straight and Valsalva grafts, although the former were associated with lower regurgitant fractions, less peak intercommissural radial separation, preserved leaflet coaptation, decreased leaflet velocities, and lower relative leaflet forces compared with Valsalva grafts.CONCLUSIONS: Valsalva grafts and straight grafts perform equally well in terms of gross hemodyanics and coronary blood flow. Interestingly, however, the biomechanics of these 2 conduits differ considerably, with straight grafts providing increased radial commissural stability and leaflet coaptation. Further investigation into how these parameters influence clinical outcomes is warranted.
View details for PubMedID 30745047
SDF 1-alpha Attenuates Myocardial Injury Without Altering the Direct Contribution of Circulating Cells.
Journal of cardiovascular translational research
Although the mammalian heart's ability to fully regenerate is debated, its potential to extensively repair itself is gaining support. We hypothesized that heart regeneration relies on rapid angiogenesis to support myocardial regrowth and sought to characterize the timeline for angiogenesis and cell proliferation in regeneration.One-day-old CD-1 mice (P1, N = 60) underwent apical resection or sham surgery. Hearts were explanted at serial time points from 0 to 30 days postresection and analyzed with immunohistochemistry to visualize vessel ingrowth and cardiomyocyte migration into the resected region. Proliferating cells were labeled with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine injections 12 hours before explant. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-positive cells were counted in both the apex and remote areas of the heart. Masson's trichrome was used to assess fibrosis.By 30 days postresection, hearts regenerated with minimal fibrosis. Compared with sham surgery, apical resection stimulated a significant increase in proliferation of preexisting cardiomyocytes between 3 and 11 days after injury. Capillary migration into the apical thrombus was detected as early as 2 days postresection, with development of mature arteries by 5 days postresection. New vessels became perfused by 5 days postresection as evidenced by lectin injection. Vessel density and diameter significantly increased within the resected area over 21 days, and vessel ingrowth always preceded cardiomyocyte migration, with coalignment of most migrating cardiomyocytes with ingrowing vessels.Endothelial cells migrate into the apical thrombus early after resection, develop into functional arteries, and precede cardiomyocyte ingrowth during mammalian heart regeneration. This endogenous neonatal response emphasizes the importance of expeditious angiogenesis required for neomyogenesis.
View details for PubMedID 29452461
Rapid Self-Assembly of Bioengineered Cardiovascular Bypass Grafts From Scaffold-Stabilized, Tubular Bilevel Cell Sheets.
2018; 138 (19): 2130–44
Stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha (SDF) is a potent bone marrow chemokine capable of recruiting circulating progenitor populations to injured tissue. SDF has known angiogenic capabilities, but bone marrow-derived cellular contributions to tissue regeneration remain controversial. Bone marrow from DsRed-transgenic donors was transplanted into recipients to lineage-trace circulating cells after myocardial infarction (MI). SDF was delivered post-MI, and hearts were evaluated for recruitment and plasticity of bone marrow-derived populations. SDF treatment improved ventricular function, border zone vessel density, and CD31+ cell frequency post-MI. Bone marrow-derived endothelial cells were observed; these cells arose through both cell fusion and transdifferentiation. Circulating cells also adopted cardiomyocyte fates, but such events were exceedingly rare and almost exclusively resulted from cell fusion. SDF did not significantly alter the proportion of circulating cells that adopted non-hematopoietic fates. Mechanistic insight into the governance of circulating cells is essential to realizing the full potential of cytokine therapies.
View details for PubMedID 29468554
An innovative biologic system for photon-powered myocardium in the ischemic heart.
2017; 3 (6): e1603078
Cardiovascular bypass grafting is an essential treatment for complex cases of atherosclerotic disease. Because the availability of autologous arterial and venous conduits is patient-limited, self-assembled cell-only grafts have been developed to serve as functional conduits with off-the-shelf availability. The unacceptably long production time required to generate these conduits, however, currently limits their clinical utility. Here, we introduce a novel technique to significantly accelerate the production process of self-assembled engineered vascular conduits.Human aortic smooth muscle cells and skin fibroblasts were used to construct bilevel cell sheets. Cell sheets were wrapped around a 22.5-gauge Angiocath needle to form tubular vessel constructs. A thin, flexible membrane of clinically approved biodegradable tissue glue (Dermabond Advanced) served as a temporary, external scaffold, allowing immediate perfusion and endothelialization of the vessel construct in a bioreactor. Subsequently, the matured vascular conduits were used as femoral artery interposition grafts in rats (n=20). Burst pressure, vasoreactivity, flow dynamics, perfusion, graft patency, and histological structure were assessed.Compared with engineered vascular conduits formed without external stabilization, glue membrane-stabilized conduits reached maturity in the bioreactor in one-fifth the time. After only 2 weeks of perfusion, the matured conduits exhibited flow dynamics similar to that of control arteries, as well as physiological responses to vasoconstricting and vasodilating drugs. The matured conduits had burst pressures exceeding 500 mm Hg and had sufficient mechanical stability for surgical anastomoses. The patency rate of implanted conduits at 8 weeks was 100%, with flow rate and hind-limb perfusion similar to those of sham controls. Grafts explanted after 8 weeks showed a histological structure resembling that of typical arteries, including intima, media, adventitia, and internal and external elastic membrane layers.Our technique reduces the production time of self-assembled, cell sheet-derived engineered vascular conduits to 2 weeks, thereby permitting their use as bypass grafts within the clinical time window for elective cardiovascular surgery. Furthermore, our method uses only clinically approved materials and can be adapted to various cell sources, simplifying the path toward future clinical translation.
View details for PubMedID 30474423
Tissue-engineered smooth muscle cell and endothelial progenitor cell bi-level cell sheets prevent progression of cardiac dysfunction, microvascular dysfunction, and interstitial fibrosis in a rodent model of type 1 diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy.
2017; 16 (1): 142
Coronary artery disease is one of the most common causes of death and disability, afflicting more than 15 million Americans. Although pharmacological advances and revascularization techniques have decreased mortality, many survivors will eventually succumb to heart failure secondary to the residual microvascular perfusion deficit that remains after revascularization. We present a novel system that rescues the myocardium from acute ischemia, using photosynthesis through intramyocardial delivery of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. By using light rather than blood flow as a source of energy, photosynthetic therapy increases tissue oxygenation, maintains myocardial metabolism, and yields durable improvements in cardiac function during and after induction of ischemia. By circumventing blood flow entirely to provide tissue with oxygen and nutrients, this system has the potential to create a paradigm shift in the way ischemic heart disease is treated.
View details for PubMedID 28630913
A Simple, Standard Method to Characterize Pressure/Flow Performance of Vascular Access Cannulas
2013; 59 (1): 24-29
Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for coronary artery disease and diabetic cardiomyopathy, and adversely impacts outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting. Current treatments focus on macro-revascularization and neglect the microvascular disease typical of diabetes mellitus-induced cardiomyopathy (DMCM). We hypothesized that engineered smooth muscle cell (SMC)-endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) bi-level cell sheets could improve ventricular dysfunction in DMCM.Primary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and EPCs were isolated from the bone marrow of Wistar rats, and MSCs were differentiated into SMCs by culturing on a fibronectin-coated dish. SMCs topped with EPCs were detached from a temperature-responsive culture dish to create an SMC-EPC bi-level cell sheet. A DMCM model was induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection. Four weeks after induction, rats were randomized into 3 groups: control (no DMCM induction), untreated DMCM, and treated DMCM (cell sheet transplant covering the anterior surface of the left ventricle).SMC-EPC cell sheet therapy preserved cardiac function and halted adverse ventricular remodeling, as demonstrated by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 8 weeks after DMCM induction. Myocardial contrast echocardiography demonstrated that myocardial perfusion and microvascular function were preserved in the treatment group compared with untreated animals. Histological analysis demonstrated decreased interstitial fibrosis and increased microvascular density in the SMC-EPC cell sheet-treated group.Treatment of DMCM with tissue-engineered SMC-EPC bi-level cell sheets prevented cardiac dysfunction and microvascular disease associated with DMCM. This multi-lineage cellular therapy is a novel, translatable approach to improve microvascular disease and prevent heart failure in diabetic patients.
View details for PubMedID 29096622
Empirical Hospital and Professional Charges for Patient Care Associated with Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Before and After Implementation of Therapeutic Hypothermia for Comatose Survivors
2012; 83 (10): 1265-1270
Vascular access cannulas for extracorporeal life support are characterized by French (Fr) size alone, which affords limited information on pressure (P) and flow (Q) performance, making their selection difficult. Previously, we developed an accurate metric of cannula performance, the M number, but its complexity and the need of a nomogram hindered its utility. We propose adoption of an easier and clinically useful metric to assess cannula performance: Q at 100 mm Hg P, the updated M number, or the "UM number." A circuit was created using a centrifugal pump, Tygon tubing, and a reservoir. A total of 74 cannulas (arterial, venous, and double lumen) ranging from 6 to 50 Fr size were studied. Glycerol solution with a viscosity of 3 cP was used to mimic blood. A Biopac system and ultrasonic flow probe was used to collect P/Q data across a cannula's performance range. The UM number describes the pressure-flow characteristics of any given cannula. It can be used to select access cannulas based on performance and to determine if flow matches expected flow during use.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MAT.0b013e3182746401
View details for Web of Science ID 000312900900005
View details for PubMedID 23183160
Hospitalist Time Usage and Cyclicality: Opportunities to Improve Efficiency
JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL MEDICINE
2010; 5 (6): 329-334
The objectives of this study are to characterize the total hospital and professional charges for patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest both with and without therapeutic hypothermia treatment.Retrospective cohort study of all adult patients with non-traumatic out of hospital cardiac arrest brought to the ED of a single tertiary care hospital over 20 months preceding and 20 months following implementation of therapeutic hypothermia for comatose survivors. Billing and clinical data were obtained from administrative databases and the electronic medical record using explicit audited abstraction. Demographic, payer characteristics, median charges and reimbursements with interquartile ranges are described before and after implementation, stratified by patient outcome.Two hundred and twenty-three patients met study criteria. The median charge was $3,112 among the 135 patients (60.5%) that did not survive to admission and $94,916 among the 88 (39.5%) that did. Median charges before and after implementation of therapeutic hypothermia were $6,324 and $15,537 respectively. Medicare was the most frequent payer. Good neurological outcome occurred in 11/115 patients (9.6%) prior to implementation and 22/108 patients (20.4%) after. Among 23 patients treated with hypothermia, good neurological outcome occurred in 11 patients (47.8%). Good neurological outcome and treatment with hypothermia were associated with increased procedure utilization and higher charges.Empirical patient level data confirm that charges for patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest are substantial, even among patients that do not survive to hospital admission. Treatment with therapeutic hypothermia is associated with better outcomes, more procedures, and higher charges.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2012.03.001
View details for Web of Science ID 000309050600028
View details for PubMedID 22410427
Academic medical centers (AMCs) have a constrained resident work force. Many AMCs have increased the use of nonresident service hospitalists to manage continued growth in clinical volume. To optimize their time in the hospital, it is important to understand hospitalists' work flow.We performed a time-motion study of hospitalists carrying the admission pager throughout the 3 types of shifts we have at our hospital (day shift, swing shift, and night shift).Tertiary academic medical center in the Midwest.Hospitalists spend about 15% of their time on direct patient care, and two-thirds of their time on indirect patient care. Of the indirect activities, communication and documentation dominate. Travel demands make up over 7% of a hospitalists' time. There are spikes in indirect patient care, followed closely by spikes in direct patient care, at shift changes.At our AMC, indirect patient care activities accounted for the majority of the admitting hospitalists' time spent in the hospital, with documentation and communication dominating this time. Travel takes a significant fraction of hospitalists' time. There is also a cyclical nature to activities performed throughout the day, which can cause patient delays and impose variability on support services. There is a need for both service-specific and systemic improvements for AMCs to efficiently manage further growth in their inpatient volume.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jhm.613
View details for Web of Science ID 000281290600004
View details for PubMedID 20803670