Impact of insulin resistance on ventricular function in pulmonary arterial hypertension.
journal of heart and lung transplantation
2014; 33 (7): 721-726
Septal curvature is marker of hemodynamic, anatomical, and electromechanical ventricular interdependence in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.)
2014; 31 (6): 699-707
Insulin resistance (IR) is an independent prognostic marker in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although the mechanism by which it engenders risk is unknown. We prospectively investigated the clinical, laboratory, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic characteristics of insulin-sensitive (IS) and IR patients with PAH.This was a prospective cohort study including well-phenotyped patients with PAH proven at cardiac catheterization. Patients were classified as IS or IR on the basis of the well-validated triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio. Clinical, laboratory, and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between cohorts. Distance walked on the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and echocardiograms were compared between IS and IR for the sub-set of patients that had these tests within 1 month of cardiac catheterization.Of the 111 PAH patients enrolled, 59 were IS, 25 were IR, and 27 were classified as indeterminate. Mean age was 45.8 ± 15.0 years. IR was associated with worse New York Heart Association class (p = 0.02). There were no differences in hemodynamics, biomarkers, 6MWT distance, or parameters of right ventricular function (i.e., tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, myocardial performance index, and fractional area change) between groups. Despite similar systemic vascular resistance, parameters of left ventricular diastolic function were more favorable for IS vs IR, including mitral inflow E wave velocity (82 ± 17 vs 64 ± 19 msec, p = 0.02), E/A ratio (1.2 ± 0.4 vs 0.8 ± 0.2, p = 0.01), and lateral mitral valve E' velocity (13.9 ± 3.5 vs 10.4 ± 2.2 msec, p = 0.01).IR is associated with worse functional class and diastology compared with IS in PAH, although other prognostic parameters are similar.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2014.02.016
View details for PubMedID 24819985
Clinical and Functional Correlates of Early Microvascular Dysfunction After Heart Transplantation
2012; 5 (6): 759-768
The objective of this study was to determine the factors independently associated with septal curvature in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).Eighty-five consecutive patients with PAH who had an echocardiogram and a right heart catheterization within 24 hours of each others were included in the study. Septal curvature was assessed at the mid-papillary level using the eccentricity index (EI). Marked early systolic septal anterior motion was defined as a change in EI > 0.2 between end-diastole and early systole. Inter-ventricular mechanical delay was calculated as the percent time difference between right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) end-ejection time normalized for the RR interval.Average age was 45 ± 11 years and the majority of patients were women (75%). Mean right atrial pressure was 11 ± 7 mmHg, mean PAP was 52 ± 13 mmHg, relative RV area 1.8 ± 0.9, and RV fractional area change 24 ± 8%. End-diastolic EI was 1.6 ± 0.4 and systolic EI was 2.5 ± 0.8. On multivariate analysis relative pulmonary pressure, relative RV area, and inter-ventricular mechanical delay were independently associated with systolic EI (R(2) = 0.72, P < 0.001). Independent determinants of diastolic EI included relative RV area and mean PAP (R(2) = 0.69, P < 0.001). A systolic EI >1.08 differentiated patients with PAH from healthy controls with an AUC = 0.99. Patients with early systolic septal anterior motion (44% of subjects) had lower exercise capacity, more extensive ventricular remodeling, and worst ventricular function.Septal curvature is a useful marker of structural, hemodynamic, and electromechanical ventricular interdependence in PAH.
View details for DOI 10.1111/echo.12468
View details for PubMedID 24372843
Characteristics and Outcome After Hospitalization for Acute Right Heart Failure in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
2011; 4 (6): 692-699
Microvascular dysfunction is emerging as a strong predictor of outcome in heart transplant recipients. At this time, the determinants and consequences of early microvascular dysfunction are not well established. The objective of the study was to determine the risk factors and functional correlates associated with early microvascular dysfunction in heart transplant recipients.Sixty-three heart transplant recipients who had coronary physiology assessment, right heart catheterization, and echocardiography performed at the time of their first annual evaluation were included in the study. Microvascular dysfunction was assessed using the recently described index of microcirculatory resistance. The presence of microvascular dysfunction, predefined by an index of microcirculatory resistance >20, was observed in 46% of patients at 1 year. A history of acute rejection and undersized donor hearts were associated with microvascular dysfunction at 1 year, with odds ratio of 4.0 (1.3-12.8) and 3.6 (1.2-11.1), respectively. Patients with microvascular dysfunction had lower cardiac index (3.1±0.7 versus 3.5±0.7 L/min per m(2); P=0.02) and mild graft dysfunction measured by echocardiography-derived left and right myocardial performance indices ([0.54±0.09 versus 0.43±0.09; P<0.01] and [0.47±0.14 versus 0.32±0.05; P<0.01], respectively). Microvascular dysfunction was also associated with a higher likelihood of death, graft failure, or allograft vasculopathy at 5 years after transplant (hazard ratio, 2.52 [95% CI, 1.04-5.91]).A history of acute rejection during the first year and smaller donor hearts were identified as risk factors for early microvascular dysfunction. Microvascular dysfunction assessed using index of microcirculatory resistances at 1 year was also associated with worse graft function and possibly worse clinical outcomes.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.111.962787
View details for PubMedID 22933526
Incidence, Correlates, and Consequences of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Hospitalized With Acute Right-Side Heart Failure
JOURNAL OF CARDIAC FAILURE
2011; 17 (7): 533-539
Although much is known about the risk factors for poor outcome in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction, much less is known about the syndrome of acute heart failure primarily affecting the right ventricle (acute right heart failure).By using Stanford Hospital's pulmonary hypertension database, we identified consecutive acute right heart failure hospitalizations in patients with PAH. We used longitudinal regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method to identify factors associated with an increased likelihood of 90-day mortality or urgent transplantation. From June 1999 to September 2009, 119 patients with PAH were hospitalized for acute right heart failure (207 episodes). Death or urgent transplantation occurred in 34 patients by 90 days of admission. Multivariable analysis identified a higher respiratory rate on admission (>20 breaths per minute; OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.5-7.8), renal dysfunction on admission (glomerular filtration rate <45 mL/min per 1.73 m2; OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-6.3), hyponatremia (serum sodium ≤136 mEq/L; OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.7-7.9), and tricuspid regurgitation severity (OR, 2.5 per grade; 95% CI, 1.2-5.5) as independent factors associated with an increased likelihood of death or urgent transplantation.These results highlight the high mortality after hospitalizations for acute right heart failure in patients with PAH. Factors identifiable within hours of hospitalization may help predict the likelihood of death or the need for urgent transplantation in patients with PAH.
View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.110.949933
View details for PubMedID 21908586
Evidence-Based Management of Right Heart Failure: a Systematic Review of an Empiric Field
REVISTA ESPANOLA DE CARDIOLOGIA
2010; 63 (4): 451-471
Though much is known about the prognostic influence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in left-side heart failure, much less is known about AKI in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).We identified consecutive patients with PAH who were hospitalized at Stanford Hospital for acute right-side heart failure. AKI was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Acute Kidney Injury Network. From June 1999 to June 2009, 105 patients with PAH were hospitalized for acute right-side heart failure (184 hospitalizations). AKI occurred in 43 hospitalizations (23%) in 34 patients (32%). The odds of developing AKI were higher among patients with chronic kidney disease (odds ratio [OR] 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-8.5), high central venous pressure (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.4, per 5 mm Hg), and tachycardia on admission (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.1-8.8). AKI was strongly associated with 30-day mortality after acute right-side heart failure hospitalization (OR 5.3, 95% CI 2.2-13.2).AKI is relatively common in patients with PAH and associated with a short-term risk of death.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cardfail.2011.03.003
View details for PubMedID 21703524
In recent years, several studies have shown that right ventricular function is an important predictor of survival in patients with congenital heart disease, pulmonary hypertension or left heart failure. Our understanding of right heart failure has improved considerably over the last two decades. In this review article, our objective was to provide a critical summary of the evidence underlying the management of right heart failure. A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed and the latest issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify studies conducted between January 1975 and January 2010. The literature search encompassed observational studies, randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. The evidence underlying the use of beta-blockade, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, inhaled nitric oxide, hydralazine, warfarin, and resynchronization therapy in right heart failure was systematically reviewed. Emerging new therapies, such as metabolic modulators, and the pearls and pitfalls of managing right heart failure are also discussed in the article.
View details for Web of Science ID 000276217300011
View details for PubMedID 20334811