Cryogels are a subset of hydrogels synthesized under sub-zero temperatures: initially solvents undergo active freezing, which causes crystal formation, which is then followed by active melting to create interconnected supermacropores. Cryogels possess several attributes suited for their use as bioscaffolds, including physical resilience, bio-adaptability, and a macroporous architecture. Furthermore, their structure facilitates cellular migration, tissue-ingrowth, and diffusion of solutes, including nano- and micro-particle trafficking, into its supermacropores. Currently, subsets of cryogels made from both natural biopolymers such as gelatin, collagen, laminin, chitosan, silk fibroin, and agarose and/or synthetic biopolymers such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate, poly-vinyl alcohol, and poly(ethylene glycol) have been employed as 3D bioscaffolds. These cryogels have been used for different applications such as cartilage, bone, muscle, nerve, cardiovascular, and lung regeneration. Cryogels have also been used in wound healing, stem cell therapy and diabetes cellular therapy. In this review, we summarize the synthesis protocol and properties of cryogels, evaluation techniques as well as current in vitro and in vivo cryogel applications. A discussion of the potential benefit of cryogels for future research and their application are also presented. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jbm.a.36777
View details for PubMedID 31408265