Dr. Fortmann received his undergraduate education at Stanford University and attended medical school at the University of California, San Francisco. He joined the Stanford Medical School faculty in 1983 in the Stanford Heart Disease Prevention Program (later and currently the Stanford Prevention Research Center or SPRC). His research focus is on cardiovascular disease prevention at the population and individual levels. He was director of the Stanford Five-City Project (Dr. John W. Farquhar, Principal Investigator) from 1981 to 1997. He became the C. F. Rehnborg Professor in Disease Prevention and Director of the SPRC in 1998. He retired from the Stanford Medical Faculty in 2010 and is now continuing his research program at the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Portland, Oregon.

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Medical Director, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research (2013 - Present)
  • Assistant Program Director, Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research (2010 - Present)
  • Director, Stanford Prevention Research Center (1998 - 2010)

Honors & Awards

  • Fellow, Society for Behavioral Medicine (1983)
  • Fellow, American Heart Association (1984)
  • Fellow, American College of Physicians (1987)
  • Fellow, American College of Epidemiology (1988)
  • Member, National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine (2005)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Fellow, Society for Behavioral Medicine (1983 - Present)
  • Fellow, American Heart Association (1984 - Present)
  • Fellow, American College of Medicine (1987 - Present)
  • Fellow, American College of Epidemiology (1988 - Present)

Professional Education

  • M.D., Univ. of Calif., San Francisco, Medicine (1974)
  • A.B., Stanford Universtiy, Biology (1970)

Community and International Work

  • MONICA (Multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants in CArdiovascular disease) Project


    CVD Epidemiology

    Partnering Organization(s)

    World Health Organization; 26 countries



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Fortmann has moved to the Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research in Portland, Oregon (<>). He remains active in the following studies based at Stanford and the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute.

R01 HL126172 (Waitzfelder, Beth, PhD)07/15 - 06/191.20CM (10%)

Cardiovascular Disease Among Asians and Pacific Islanders (CASPER)
This project will determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular diseases among Asian and Pacific Islander subpopulations and will study the underlying causes of differences in CVD prevalence among these groups. This study is a collaboration of Center for Health Research?Northwest (CHR) (Dr. Fortmann), CHR?Hawaii (Dr. Waitzfelder), Stanford Medical School (Dr. Latha Palaniappan), and the Palo Alto Medical Foundation Research Institute (PAMFRI) (Dr. Sukyung Chung).
Role: Multiple Principal Investigator and Site Principal Investigator

R01 CA67850 (Henriksen, Lisa, PhD) 07/15 ? 06/201.20 CM (10%)

Impact of Retail Tobacco Advertising on Youth Smoking (STORE)
This research will continue studies of retail marketing on youth tobacco use. In this renewal (the third) we propose to study small cigar, cigarillo, and electronic cigarette use among 25,000 California adolescents in 140 schools participating in the California Student Tobacco Survey in 2015-16 and 2017-18. We will simultaneously survey marketing of these products in 500 stores within a half mile of schools. The purpose of the study is to inform tobacco control policy concerning these newly-ascendant products.
Role: Co-Investigator

Since moving to CHR in 2010, Dr. Fortmann has continued his research on population health and prevention. He is principal investigator on a study to see if increased access to public transit?in this case a new light rail line in Portland?benefits health or reduces health care costs, presumably through increased physical activity. He is Site Principal Investigator for GRADE, a comparative effectiveness study of second-line medications for diabetes in patients who are not controlled on metformin alone. He is also a co-investigator on a study of diabetes disparities in Asian and Pacific Islander populations in Hawaii. He is a co-investigator on the Community Health Applied Research Network Data Coordinating Center (CHARN), the data hub for a network of federally qualified health centers and their university partners established to facilitate research among underserved populations.

In addition, Dr. Fortmann serves as principal investigator of the scientific coordinating center for the federal Centers for Education and Research on Therapeutics (CERTs) program, funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The CERTs program draws together six research centers across the U.S. that conduct research on therapeutics. Finally Dr. Fortmann is starting a new study comparing the effectiveness of two standard diuretic drugs for treating high blood pressure.


All Publications

  • Effect of Gaining Insurance Coverage on Smoking Cessation in Community Health Centers: A Cohort Study. Journal of general internal medicine Bailey, S. R., Hoopes, M. J., Marino, M., Heintzman, J., O'Malley, J. P., Hatch, B., Angier, H., Fortmann, S. P., DeVoe, J. E. 2016; 31 (10): 1198-1205


    Community health center (CHC) patients have high rates of smoking. Insurance coverage for smoking cessation assistance, such as that mandated by the Affordable Care Act, may aid in smoking cessation in this vulnerable population.We aimed to determine if uninsured CHC patients who gain Medicaid coverage experience greater primary care utilization, receive more cessation medication orders, and achieve higher quit rates, compared to continuously uninsured smokers.Longitudinal observational cohort study using electronic health record data from a network of Oregon CHCs linked to Oregon Medicaid enrollment data.Cohort of patients who smoke and who gained Medicaid coverage in 2008-2011 after ? 6 months of being uninsured and with ? 1 smoking assessment in the 24-month follow-up period from the baseline smoking status date. This group was propensity score matched to a cohort of continuously uninsured CHC patients who smoke (n?=?4140 matched pairs; 8280 patients).Gaining Medicaid after being uninsured for ? 6 months.'Quit' smoking status (baseline smoking status was 'current every day' or 'some day' and status change to 'former smoker' at a subsequent visit), smoking cessation medication order, and ? 6 documented visits (yes/no variables) at ? 1 smoking status assessment within the 24-month follow-up period.The newly insured had 40 % increased odds of quitting smoking (aOR?=?1.40, 95 % CI:1.24, 1.58), nearly triple the odds of having a medication ordered (aOR?=?2.94, 95 % CI:2.61, 3.32), and over twice the odds of having ? 6 follow-up visits (aOR?=?2.12, 95 % CI:1.94, 2.32) compared to their uninsured counterparts.Newly insured patients had increased odds of quit smoking status over 24 months of follow-up than those who remained uninsured. Providing insurance coverage to vulnerable populations may have a significant impact on smoking cessation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-016-3781-4

    View details for PubMedID 27329121

  • High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and incident coronary heart disease among asymptomatic older adults. Heart Iribarren, C., Chandra, M., Rana, J. S., Hlatky, M. A., Fortmann, S. P., Quertermous, T., Go, A. S. 2016; 102 (15): 1177-1182


    High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) is a novel biomarker of myocardial injury and ischaemia. Our objective was to ascertain correlates of hs-cTnI and its incremental prognostic utility for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among older asymptomatic subjects.We performed a cohort study among 1135 asymptomatic control participants in the ADVANCE (Atherosclerotic Disease, VAscular FunctioN and GenetiC Epidemiology) study at Kaiser Permanente Northern California and Stanford University, with follow-up through 31 December 2014. Hs-cTnI was measured in stored baseline (2002-2004) serum samples.After a median follow-up of 11.3?years, 164 CHD events were documented. The most significant correlates of hs-cTnI were black race, body mass index, hypertension, LDL cholesterol and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (R(2)=0.16) After adjustment for race/ethnicity, education level, diabetes status, ATP-III Framingham risk score (FRS), C reactive protein and eGFR, each 1 SD increment of log-transformed Hs-cTnI was associated with 1.11 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.23, p=0.04) increased hazard of CHD. The c-statistic increased to 0.70 from 0.68 (p=0.16) and the category-based net reclassification index was 18% (95% CI 8% to 30%) after adding hs-cTnI to the model containing the ATP-III FRS.Hs-cTnI conveys incremental prognostic information for incident CHD among asymptomatic older adults.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/heartjnl-2015-309136

    View details for PubMedID 27030599

  • Behavioral Counseling and Pharmacotherapy Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Pregnant Women. Annals of internal medicine Henderson, J. T., Patnode, C. D., Fortmann, S. P. 2016; 164 (9): 638-?

    View details for DOI 10.7326/L15-0624

    View details for PubMedID 27136222

  • Trends in adult body-mass index in 200 countries from 1975 to 2014: a pooled analysis of 1698 population-based measurement studies with 19.2 million participants LANCET Di Cesare, M., Bentham, J., Stevens, G. A., Zhou, B., Danaei, G., Lu, Y., Bixby, H., Cowan, M. J., Riley, L. M., Hajifathalian, K., Fortunato, L., Taddei, C., Bennett, J. E., Ikeda, N., Khang, Y., Kyobutungi, C., Laxmaiah, A., Li, Y., Lin, H., Miranda, J. J., Mostafa, A., Turley, M. L., Paciorek, C. J., Gunter, M., Ezzati, M., Abdeen, Z. A., Hamid, Z. A., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Acosta-Cazares, B., Adams, R., Aekplakorn, W., Aguilar-Salinas, C. A., Ahmadvand, A., Ahrens, W., Ali, M. M., Alkerwi, A., Alvarez-Pedrerol, M., Aly, E., Amouyel, P., Amuzu, A., Andersen, L. B., Anderssen, S. A., Andrade, D. S., Anjana, R. M., Aounallah-Skhiri, H., Ariansen, I., Aris, T., Arlappa, N., Arveiler, D., Assah, F. K., Avdicova, M., Azizi, F., Babu, B. V., Balakrishna, N., Bandosz, P., Banegas, J. R., Barbagallo, C. M., Barcelo, A., Barkat, A., Barros, M. V., Bata, I., Batieha, A. M., Batista, R. L., Baur, L. A., Beaglehole, R., Ben Romdhane, H., Benet, M., Bernabe-Ortiz, A., Bernotiene, G., Bettiol, H., Bhagyalaxmi, A., Bharadwaj, S., Bhargava, S. K., Bhatti, Z., Bhutta, Z. A., Bi, H., Bi, Y., Bjerregaard, P., Bjertness, E., Bjertness, M. B., Bjorkelund, C., Blake, M., Blokstra, A., Bo, S., Bobak, M., Boddy, L. M., Boehm, B. O., Boeing, H., Boissonnet, C. P., Bongard, V., Bovet, P., Braeckman, L., Bragt, M. C., Brajkovich, I., Branca, F., Breckenkamp, J., Brenner, H., Brewster, L. M., Brian, G. R., Bruno, G., Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B., Bugge, A., Burns, C., Cabrera de Leon, A., Cacciottolo, J., Cama, T., Cameron, C., Camolas, J., Can, G., Candido, A. P., Capuano, V., Cardoso, V. C., Carvalho, M. J., Casanueva, F. F., Casas, J., Caserta, C. A., Castetbon, K., Chamukuttan, S., Chan, A. W., Chan, Q., Chaturvedi, H. K., Chaturvedi, N., Chen, C., Chen, F., Chen, H., Chen, S., Chen, Z., Cheng, C., Chetrit, A., Chiolero, A., Chiou, S., Chirita-Emandi, A., Cho, Y., Christensen, K., Chudek, J., Cifkova, R., Claessens, F., Clays, E., Concin, H., Cooper, C., Cooper, R., Coppinger, T. C., Costanzo, S., Cottel, D., Cowell, C., Craig, C. L., Crujeiras, A. B., D'arrigo, G., D'Orsi, E., Dallongeville, J., Damasceno, A., Damsgaard, C. T., Danaei, G., Dankner, R., Dauchet, L., De Backer, G., De Bacquer, D., de Gaetano, G., De Henauw, S., De Smedt, D., Deepa, M., Deev, A. D., Dehghan, A., Delisle, H., Delpeuch, F., Dhana, K., Di Castelnuovo, A. F., Dias-da-Costa, J. S., Diaz, A., Djalalinia, S., Do, H. T., Dobson, A. J., Donfrancesco, C., Doering, A., Doua, K., Drygas, W., Egbagbe, E. E., Eggertsen, R., Ekelund, U., El Ati, J., Elliott, P., Engle-Stone, R., Erasmus, R. T., Erem, C., Eriksen, L., Escobedo-De La Pena, J., Evans, A., Faeh, D., Fall, C. H., Farzadfar, F., Felix-Redondo, F. J., Ferguson, T. S., Fernandez-berges, D., Ferrante, D., Ferrari, M., Ferreccio, C., Ferrieres, J., Finn, J. D., Fischer, K., Monterubio Flores, E., Foeger, B., Foo, L. H., Forslund, A., Fortmann, S. P., Fouad, H. M., Francis, D. K., Franco, M. d., Franco, O. H., Frontera, G., Fuchs, F. D., Fuchs, S. C., Fujita, Y., Furusawa, T., Gaciong, Z., Gafencu, M., Gareta, D., Garnett, S. P., Gaspoz, J., Gasull, M., Gates, L., Geleijnse, J. M., Ghasemian, A., Giampaoli, S., Gianfagna, F., Giovannelli, J., Giwercman, A., Goldsmith, R. A., Gonzalez Gross, M., Gonzalez Rivas, J. P., Bonet Gorbea, M., Gottrand, F., -Iversen, S. G., Grafnetter, D., Grajda, A., Grammatikopoulou, M. G., Gregor, R. D., Grodzicki, T., Grontved, A., Gruden, G., Grujic, V., Gu, D., Guan, O. P., Gudnason, V., Guerrero, R., Guessous, I., Guimaraes, A. L., Gulliford, M. C., Gunnlaugsdottir, J., Gunter, M., Guo, X. H., Guo, Y., Gupta, P. C., Gureje, O., Gurzkowska, B., Gutierrez, L., Gutzwiller, F., Halkjaer, J., Hardy, R., Kumar, R. H., Hayes, A. J., He, J., Hendriks, M. E., Hernandez Cadena, L., Heshmat, R., Hihtaniemi, I. T., Ho, S. Y., Ho, S. C., Hobbs, M., Hofman, A., Hormiga, C. M., Horta, B. L., Houti, L., Htay, T. T., Htet, A. S., Htike, M. M., Hu, Y., Hussieni, A. S., Chinh Nguyen Huu, C. N., Huybrechts, I., Hwalla, N., Iacoviello, L., Iannone, A. G., Ibrahim, M. M., Ikeda, N., Ikram, M. A., Irazola, V. E., Islam, M., Iwasaki, M., Jackson, R. T., Jacobs, J. M., Jafar, T., Jamil, K. M., Jamrozik, K., Jasienska, G., Jiang, C. Q., Joffres, M., Johansson, M., Jonas, J. B., Jorgensen, T., Joshi, P., Juolevi, A., Jurak, G., Juresa, V., Kaaks, R., Kafatos, A., Kalter-Leibovici, O., Kapantais, E., Kasaeian, A., Katz, J., Kaur, P., Kavousi, M., Keil, U., Boker, L. K., Kelishadi, R., Kemper, H. H., Kengne, A. P., Kersting, M., Key, T., Khader, Y. S., Khalili, D., Khang, Y., Khaw, K. H., Khouw, I. M., Kiechl, S., Killewo, J., Kim, J., Kiyohara, Y., Klimont, J., Kolle, E., Kolsteren, P., Korrovits, P., Koskinen, S., Kouda, K., Koziel, S., Kratzer, W., Krokstad, S., Kromhout, D., Kruger, H. S., Kula, K., Kulaga, Z., Kumar, R. K., Kusuma, Y. S., Kuulasmaa, K., Kyobutungi, C., Laamiri, F. Z., Laatikainen, T., Lachat, C., Laid, Y., Lam, T. H., Landrove, O., Lanska, V., Lappas, G., Laugsand, L. E., Laxmaiah, A., Khanh Le Nguyen Bao, K. L., Le, T. D., Leclercq, C., Lee, J., Lee, J., Lehtimaki, T., Lekhraj, R., Leon-Munoz, L. M., Li, Y., Lim, W., Fernanda Lima-Costa, M., Lin, H., Lin, X., Linneberg, A., Lissner, L., Litwin, M., Liu, J., Lorbeer, R., Lotufo, P. A., Eugenio Lozano, J., Luksiene, D., Lundqvist, A., Lunet, N., Lytsy, P., Ma, G., Machi, S., Maggi, S., Magliano, D. J., Makdisse, M., Malekzadeh, R., Malhotra, R., Rao, K. M., Manios, Y., Mann, J. I., Manzato, E., Margozzini, P., Markey, O., Marques-Vidal, P., Marrugat, J., Martin-Prevel, Y., Martorell, R., Masoodi, S. R., Matsha, T. E., Mazur, A., Mbanya, J. C., McFarlane, S. R., McGarvey, S. T., McKee, M., McLachlan, S., McLean, R. M., McNulty, B. A., Yusof, S. M., Mediene-Benchekor, S., Meirhaeghe, A., Meisinger, C., Mendes, L. L., Menezes, A. M., Mensink, G. B., Meshram, I. I., Metspalu, A., Mi, J., Michaelsen, K. F., Mikkel, K., Miller, J. C., Francisco Miquel, J., Jaime Miranda, J., Misigoj-Durakovic, M., Mohamed, M. K., Mohammad, K., Mohammadifard, N., Mohan, V., Yusoff, M. F., Molbo, D., Moller, N. C., Molnar, D., Mondo, C. K., Monterrubio, E. A., Monyeki, K. D., Moreira, L. B., Morejon, A., Moreno, L. A., Morgan, K., Mortensen, E. L., Moschonis, G., Mossakowska, M., Mostafa, A., Mota, J., Motlagh, M. E., Motta, J., Mu, T. T., Muiesan, M. L., Mueller-Nurasyid, M., Murphy, N., Mursu, J., Murtagh, E. M., Musa, K. I., Musil, V., Nagel, G., Nakamura, H., Namesna, J., Nang, E. E., Nangia, V. B., Nankap, M., Narake, S., Maria Navarrete-Munoz, E., Nenko, I., Neovius, M., Nervi, F., Neuhauser, H. K., Nguyen, N. D., Quang Ngoc Nguyen, Q. N., Nieto-Martinez, R. E., Ning, G., Ninomiya, T., Nishtar, S., Noale, M., Norat, T., Noto, D., Al Nsour, M., O'Reilly, D., Ochoa-Aviles, A. M., Oh, K., Olayan, I. H., Anselmo Olinto, M. T., Oltarzewski, M., Omar, M. A., Onat, A., Ordunez, P., Ortiz, A. P., Osler, M., Osmond, C., Ostojic, S. M., Otero, J. A., Overvad, K., Paccaud, F. M., Padez, C., Pajak, A., Palli, D., Palloni, A., Palmieri, L., Panda-Jonas, S., Panza, F., Parnell, W. R., Parsaeian, M., Pednekar, M. S., Peeters, P. H., Peixoto, S. V., Pereira, A. C., Perez, C. M., Peters, A., Peykari, N., Son Thai Pham, S. T., Pigeot, I., Pikhart, H., Pilav, A., Pilotto, L., Pistelli, F., Pitakaka, F., Piwonska, A., Piwonski, J., Plans-Rubio, P., Poh, B. K., Porta, M., Portegies, M. L., Poulimeneas, D., Pradeepa, R., Prashant, M., Price, J. F., Puiu, M., Punab, M., Qasrawi, R. F., Qorbani, M., Tran Quoc Bao, T. Q., Radic, I., Radisauskas, R., Rahman, M., Raitakari, O., Raj, M., Rao, S. R., Ramachandran, A., Ramke, J., Ramos, R., Rampal, S., Rasmussen, F., Redon, J., Reganit, P. F., Ribeiro, R., Riboli, E., Rigo, F., de Wit, T. F., Ritti-Dias, R. M., Rivera, J. A., Robinson, S. M., Robitaille, C., Rodriguez-Artalejo, F., del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M., Rodriguez-Villamizar, L. A., Rojas-Martinez, R., Rojroongwasinkul, N., Romaguera, D., Ronkainen, K., Rosengren, A., Rouse, I., Rubinstein, A., Ruehli, F. J., Rui, O., Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, B., Russo Horimoto, A. R., Rutkowski, M., Sabanayagam, C., Sachdev, H. S., Saidi, O., Salanave, B., Salazar Martinez, E., Salomaa, V., Salonen, J. T., Salvetti, M., Sanchez-Abanto, J., SANDJAJA, Sans, S., Santos, D. A., Santos, O., dos Santos, R. N., Santos, R., Sardinha, L. B., Sarrafzadegan, N., Saum, K., Savva, S. C., Scazufca, M., Rosario, A. S., Schargrodsky, H., Schienkiewitz, A., Schmidt, I. M., Schneider, I. J., Schultsz, C., Schutte, A. E., Sein, A. A., Senbanjo, I. O., Sepanlou, S. G., Shalnova, S. A., Shaw, J. E., Shibuya, K., Shin, Y., Shiri, R., Siantar, R., Sibai, A. M., Silva, A. M., Santos Silva, D. A., Simon, M., Simons, J., Simons, L. A., Sjostrom, M., Slowikowska-Hilczer, J., Slusarczyk, P., Smeeth, L., Smith, M. C., Snijder, M. B., So, H., Sobngwi, E., Soderberg, S., Soekatri, M. Y., Solfrizzi, V., Sonestedt, E., Sorensen, T. I., Soric, M., Jerome, C. S., Soumare, A., Staessen, J. A., Starc, G., Stathopoulou, M. G., Staub, K., Stavreski, B., Steene-Johannessen, J., Stehle, P., Stein, A. D., Stergiou, G. S., Stessman, J., Stieber, J., Stoeckl, D., Stocks, T., Stokwiszewski, J., Stratton, G., Strufaldi, M. W., Sun, C., Sundstrom, J., Sung, Y., Sunyer, J., Suriyawongpaisal, P., Swinburn, B. A., Sy, R. G., Szponar, L., Tai, E. S., Tammesoo, M., Tamosiunas, A., Tang, L., Tang, X., Tanser, F., Tao, Y., Tarp, J., Tarqui-Mamani, C. B., Taylor, A., Tchibindat, F., Thijs, L., Thuesen, B. H., Tjonneland, A., Tolonen, H. K., Tolstrup, J. S., Topbas, M., Topor-Madry, R., Torrent, M., Traissac, P., Trichopoulou, A., Trichopoulos, D., Trinh, O. T., Trivedi, A., Tshepo, L., Tulloch-Reid, M. K., Tuomainen, T., Tuomilehto, J., Turley, M. L., Tynelius, P., Tzotzas, T., Tzourio, C., Ueda, P., Ukoli, F. A., Ulmer, H., Unal, B., Valdivia, G., Vale, S., Valvi, D., van der Schouw, Y. T., Van Herck, K., Hoang Van Minh, H. V., van Valkengoed, I. G., Vanderschueren, D., Vanuzzo, D., Vatten, L., Vega, T., Velasquez-Melendez, G., Veronesi, G., Verschuren, W. M., Viegi, G., Viet, L., Viikari-Juntura, E., Vineis, P., Vioque, J., Virtanen, J. K., Visvikis-Siest, S., Viswanathan, B., Vollenweider, P., Voutilainen, S., Vrijheid, M., Wade, A. N., Wagner, A., Walton, J., Mohamud, W. N., Wang, M., Wang, Q., Wang, Y. X., Wannamethee, S. G., Wareham, N., Weerasekera, D., Whincup, P. H., Widhalm, K., Widyahening, I. S., Wiecek, A., Wilks, R. J., Willeit, J., Wojtyniak, B., Wong, J. E., Wong, T. Y., Woo, J., Woodward, M., Wu, F. C., Wu, J., Wu, S. L., Xu, H., Xu, L., Yamborisut, U., Yan, W., Yang, X., Yardim, N., Ye, X., Yiallouros, P. K., Yoshihara, A., You, Q. S., Younger-Coleman, N. O., Yusoff, A. F., Zainuddin, A. A., Zambon, S., Zdrojewski, T., Zeng, Y., Zhao, D., Zhao, W., Zheng, Y., Zhou, M., Zhu, D., Zimmermann, E., Zuniga Cisneros, J. 2016; 387 (10026): 1377-1396


    Underweight and severe and morbid obesity are associated with highly elevated risks of adverse health outcomes. We estimated trends in mean body-mass index (BMI), which characterises its population distribution, and in the prevalences of a complete set of BMI categories for adults in all countries.We analysed, with use of a consistent protocol, population-based studies that had measured height and weight in adults aged 18 years and older. We applied a Bayesian hierarchical model to these data to estimate trends from 1975 to 2014 in mean BMI and in the prevalences of BMI categories (<18·5 kg/m(2) [underweight], 18·5 kg/m(2) to <20 kg/m(2), 20 kg/m(2) to <25 kg/m(2), 25 kg/m(2) to <30 kg/m(2), 30 kg/m(2) to <35 kg/m(2), 35 kg/m(2) to <40 kg/m(2), ?40 kg/m(2) [morbid obesity]), by sex in 200 countries and territories, organised in 21 regions. We calculated the posterior probability of meeting the target of halting by 2025 the rise in obesity at its 2010 levels, if post-2000 trends continue.We used 1698 population-based data sources, with more than 19·2 million adult participants (9·9 million men and 9·3 million women) in 186 of 200 countries for which estimates were made. Global age-standardised mean BMI increased from 21·7 kg/m(2) (95% credible interval 21·3-22·1) in 1975 to 24·2 kg/m(2) (24·0-24·4) in 2014 in men, and from 22·1 kg/m(2) (21·7-22·5) in 1975 to 24·4 kg/m(2) (24·2-24·6) in 2014 in women. Regional mean BMIs in 2014 for men ranged from 21·4 kg/m(2) in central Africa and south Asia to 29·2 kg/m(2) (28·6-29·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia; for women the range was from 21·8 kg/m(2) (21·4-22·3) in south Asia to 32·2 kg/m(2) (31·5-32·8) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Over these four decades, age-standardised global prevalence of underweight decreased from 13·8% (10·5-17·4) to 8·8% (7·4-10·3) in men and from 14·6% (11·6-17·9) to 9·7% (8·3-11·1) in women. South Asia had the highest prevalence of underweight in 2014, 23·4% (17·8-29·2) in men and 24·0% (18·9-29·3) in women. Age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 3·2% (2·4-4·1) in 1975 to 10·8% (9·7-12·0) in 2014 in men, and from 6·4% (5·1-7·8) to 14·9% (13·6-16·1) in women. 2·3% (2·0-2·7) of the world's men and 5·0% (4·4-5·6) of women were severely obese (ie, have BMI ?35 kg/m(2)). Globally, prevalence of morbid obesity was 0·64% (0·46-0·86) in men and 1·6% (1·3-1·9) in women.If post-2000 trends continue, the probability of meeting the global obesity target is virtually zero. Rather, if these trends continue, by 2025, global obesity prevalence will reach 18% in men and surpass 21% in women; severe obesity will surpass 6% in men and 9% in women. Nonetheless, underweight remains prevalent in the world's poorest regions, especially in south Asia.Wellcome Trust, Grand Challenges Canada.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000373217500031

    View details for PubMedID 27115820

  • Assessing Trends in Tobacco Cessation in Diverse Patient Populations NICOTINE & TOBACCO RESEARCH Stevens, V. J., Solberg, L. I., Bailey, S. R., Kurtz, S. E., McBurnie, M. A., Priest, E. L., Puro, J. E., Williams, R. J., Fortmann, S. P., Hazlehurst, B. L. 2016; 18 (3): 275-280


    This study examined change in tobacco use over 4 years among the general population of patients in six diverse health care organizations using electronic medical record data.The study cohort (N = 34 393) included all patients age 18 years or older who were identified as smokers in 2007, and who then had at least one primary care visit in each of the following 4 years.In the 4 years following 2007, this patient cohort had a median of 13 primary care visits, and 38.6% of the patients quit smoking at least once. At the end of the fourth follow-up year, 15.4% had stopped smoking for 1 year or more. Smokers were more likely to become long-term quitters if they were 65 or older (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = [1.16, 1.49]), or had a diagnoses of cancer (1.26 [1.12, 1.41]), cardiovascular disease (1.22 [1.09, 1.37]), asthma (1.15 [1.06, 1.25]), or diabetes (1.17 [1.09, 1.27]). Characteristics associated with lower likelihood of becoming a long-term quitter were female gender (0.90 [0.84, 0.95]), black race (0.84 [0.75, 0.94]) and those identified as non-Hispanic (0.50 [0.43, 0.59]).Among smokers who regularly used these care systems, one in seven had achieved long-term cessation after 4 years. This study shows the practicality of using electronic medical records for monitoring patient smoking status over time. Similar methods could be used to assess tobacco use in any health care organization to evaluate the impact of environmental and organizational programs.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ntr/ntv092

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371598600007

    View details for PubMedID 25921356

  • Dyslipidemia in Special Ethnic Populations. Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America Pu, J., Romanelli, R., Zhao, B., Azar, K. M., Hastings, K. G., Nimbal, V., Fortmann, S. P., Palaniappan, L. P. 2016; 45 (1): 205-216


    This article reviews racial/ethnic differences in dyslipidemia-prevalence of dyslipidemia, its relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke mortality rates, response to lipid-lowering agents, and lifestyle modification. Asian Indians, Filipinos, and Hispanics are at higher risk for dyslipidemia, which is consistent with the higher CHD mortality rates in these groups. Statins may have greater efficacy for Asians, but the data are mixed. Lifestyle modifications are recommended. Culturally-tailored prevention and intervention should be provided to the minority populations with elevated risk for dyslipidemia and considerably more research is needed to determine the best approaches to helping specific subgroups.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ecl.2015.09.013

    View details for PubMedID 26893006

  • Susceptibility Loci for Clinical Coronary Artery Disease and Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis Throughout the Life-Course. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics Salfati, E., Nandkeolyar, S., Fortmann, S. P., Sidney, S., Hlatky, M. A., Quertermous, T., Go, A. S., Iribarren, C., Herrington, D. M., Goldstein, B. A., Assimes, T. L. 2015; 8 (6): 803-811


    -Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with clinical CAD. The mechanism by which these loci influence risk remains largely unclear.-We examined the association between a genetic risk score (GRS) composed of high-risk alleles at the 49 SNPs and the degree of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in 7,798 participants from six studies stratified into four age groups at the time of assessment (15-34, 35-54, 55-74, >75 years). Atherosclerosis was quantified by staining and direct visual inspection of the right coronary artery in the youngest group, and by scanning for coronary artery calcification in the remaining groups. We defined cases as subjects within the top quartile of degree of atherosclerosis in three groups and as subjects with a CAC>0 in the fourth (35-54 years) where less than one quarter had any CAC. In our meta-analysis of all strata, we found one SD increase in the GRS increased the risk of advanced subclinical coronary atherosclerosis by 36% (p=8.3×10(-25)). This increase in risk was significant in all four age groups including the youngest group where atherosclerosis consisted primarily of raised lesions without macroscopic evidence of plaque rupture or thrombosis. Results were similar when we restricted the GRS to 32 SNPs not associated with traditional risk factors (TRFs) and/or when we adjusted for TRFs.-A GRS for clinical CAD is associated with advanced subclinical coronary atherosclerosis throughout the life-course. This association is apparent even at the earliest, uncomplicated stages of atherosclerosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.114.001071

    View details for PubMedID 26417035

  • Comparative Effectiveness of Statin Therapy in Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Retrospective Cohort Study AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Smith, D. H., Johnson, E. S., Boudreau, D. M., Cassidy-Bushrow, A. E., Fortmann, S. P., Greenlee, R. T., Gurwitz, J. H., Magid, D. J., McNeal, C. J., Reynolds, K., Steinhubl, S. R., Thorp, M., Tom, J. O., Vupputuri, S., VanWormer, J. J., Weinstein, J., Yang, X., Go, A. S., Sidney, S. 2015; 128 (11)
  • Behavioral Counseling and Pharmacotherapy Interventions for Tobacco Cessation in Adults, Including Pregnant Women: A Review of Reviews for the US Preventive Services Task Force ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Patnode, C. D., Henderson, J. T., Thompson, J. H., Senger, C. A., Fortmann, S. P., Whitlock, E. P. 2015; 163 (8): 608-?

    View details for DOI 10.7326/M15-0171

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363737400019

  • Response to Transdermal Selegiline Smoking Cessation Therapy and Markers in the 15q24 Chromosomal Region NICOTINE & TOBACCO RESEARCH Sarginson, J. E., Killen, J. D., Lazzeroni, L. C., Fortmann, S. P., Ryan, H. S., Ameli, N., Schatzberg, A. F., Murphy, G. M. 2015; 17 (9): 1126-1133


    Current treatments for smoking cessation have limited efficacy. A potential pharmaceutical treatment for smoking cessation is selegiline, a selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase B inhibitor. A few clinical trials have been carried out using selegiline but the results have been mixed. We sought to determine if genetic markers in cholinergic loci in the 15q24 chromosomal region predict response to smoking cessation therapy with selegiline.We performed an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of the selegiline transdermal system (STS) in heavy smokers, with follow-up at weeks 25 and 52. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 15q24 region, which contains the genes for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits CHRNA5, CHRNA3, and CHRNB4, were investigated for association with treatment response.The CHRNB4 promoter SNP rs3813567 was associated with both point prevalence abstinence (PPA) and post-quit craving. Carriers of the minor C allele treated with selegiline showed lower rates of abstinence and higher levels of craving than selegiline-treated non-carriers, indicating that the rs3813567 C allele adversely affects abstinence in selegiline-treated smokers. This effect was not present among placebo-treated smokers. Selegiline-treated smokers with the CHRNA5 rs680244 GG genotype had lower post-quit craving, and unlike placebo-treated GG-carrying smokers, did not experience a post-quit increase in depressive symptoms.Variants in genes encoding cholinergic receptors affect abstinence, craving and mood in selegiline-treated smokers. Selegiline primarily affects dopamine levels in the brain, but cholinergic input affects nicotine-induced dopaminergic activity. These markers may have value in identifying those likely to respond to selegiline for smoking cessation.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ntr/ntu273

    View details for Web of Science ID 000363174000010

    View details for PubMedID 25572450

  • Convenience store visits by US adolescents: Rationale for healthier retail environments HEALTH & PLACE Sanders-Jackson, A., Parikh, N. M., Schleicher, N. C., Fortmann, S. P., Henriksen, L. 2015; 34: 63-66


    Given interest in the public health impact of convenience stores, it is surprising that so little is known about the popularity of these destinations for youth. We surveyed 2772 adolescents (age 13-16) from a nationally representative web panel of US households. Nearly half (47.5%) of adolescents reported visiting convenience stores at least weekly. Significant risk factors for frequent visits were age, being African-American, living in rural areas and in areas with higher levels of neighborhood deprivation. With approximately 4.1 million US adolescents visiting convenience stores at least weekly, new policies and other interventions are needed to promote a healthier retail environment for youth.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.03.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357475600008

    View details for PubMedID 25955537

  • Racial/Ethnic Differences in Hypertension Prevalence, Treatment, and Control for Outpatients in Northern California 2010-2012 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION Zhao, B., Jose, P. O., Pu, J., Chung, S., Ancheta, I. B., Fortmann, S. P., Palaniappan, L. P. 2015; 28 (5): 631-639


    Hypertension (HTN) is a known major cardiovascular disease risk factor, but prevalence, treatment, and control of HTN among rapidly growing minority groups such as Asian Americans and Hispanics are unknown largely due to either underrepresentation in epidemiologic studies or aggregation of Asian American subgroups.A three-year cross-section (2010-2012) of patients from a large ambulatory care setting in northern California was examined in the following subgroups: Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Mexicans, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs), and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). We defined HTN as two separate nonemergent office visit blood pressure measurements ?140/90mm Hg, physician diagnosis of HTN, or use of antihypertensive medications.A total of 208,985 patients were included in the study. Age-adjusted HTN prevalence ranged from 30.0% in Chinese women to 59.9% in Filipino men. Most minority subgroups had lower or similar odds of having HTN compared with NHWs, except for Filipinos and NHBs whose odds were significantly higher after adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Asian Americans and NHBs were more likely to be treated for HTN compared with NHWs. Achievement of blood pressure control was lower among Filipino women (odds ratio = 0.82, 99% confidence interval 0.70-0.96) and NHB men (odds ratio = 0.73, 99% confidence interval 0.58-0.91), compared with NHW women and men.Substantial racial/ethnic variation in HTN prevalence, treatment, and control was found in our study population. Filipino and NHB women and men are at especially high risk for HTN and may have more difficulty in achieving adequate blood pressure control.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ajh/hpu189

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355623900010

  • Dyslipidemia in Special Ethnic Populations CARDIOLOGY CLINICS Pu, J., Romanelli, R., Zhao, B., Azar, K. M., Hastings, K. G., Nimbal, V., Fortmann, S. P., Palaniappan, L. P. 2015; 33 (2): 325-?
  • Dyslipidemia in special ethnic populations. Cardiology clinics Pu, J., Romanelli, R., Zhao, B., Azar, K. M., Hastings, K. G., Nimbal, V., Fortmann, S. P., Palaniappan, L. P. 2015; 33 (2): 325-333


    This article reviews racial/ethnic differences in dyslipidemia-prevalence of dyslipidemia, its relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke mortality rates, response to lipid-lowering agents, and lifestyle modification. Asian Indians, Filipinos, and Hispanics are at higher risk for dyslipidemia, which is consistent with the higher CHD mortality rates in these groups. Statins may have greater efficacy for Asians, but the data are mixed. Lifestyle modifications are recommended. Culturally-tailored prevention and intervention should be provided to the minority populations with elevated risk for dyslipidemia and considerably more research is needed to determine the best approaches to helping specific subgroups.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccl.2015.01.005

    View details for PubMedID 25939303

  • Estimating demand for care after a medicaid expansion: lessons from Oregon. The Journal of ambulatory care management Gold, R., Bailey, S. R., O'Malley, J. P., Hoopes, M. J., Cowburn, S., Marino, M., Heintzman, J., Nelson, C., Fortmann, S. P., DeVoe, J. E. 2014; 37 (4): 282-292


    To estimate how the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansions will affect demand for services, we measured ambulatory care utilization among adult patients who gained insurance during Oregon's 2008 Medicaid expansion. Using electronic health record data from 67 community health centers, we assessed pre- and postcoverage utilization among patients who gained insurance, compared with patients continuously insured or uninsured. In comparisons of the pre- and postcoverage periods, mean annual encounters among persons who gained insurance increased 22% to 35%, but declined in the comparison groups. These findings suggest that providers should expect a significant increase in demand among patients who gain Medicaid coverage through the Affordable Care Act.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JAC.0000000000000023

    View details for PubMedID 24608921

  • Vitamin and mineral supplements in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Annals of internal medicine Fortmann, S. P., Whitlock, E. P., Burda, B. U. 2014; 160 (9): 656-?

    View details for DOI 10.7326/L14-5009-5

    View details for PubMedID 24798534

  • Racial/Ethnic Differences in Dyslipidemia Patterns CIRCULATION Frank, A. T., Zhao, B., Jose, P. O., Azar, K. M., Fortmann, S. P., Palaniappan, L. P. 2014; 129 (5): 570-579


    No studies have comprehensively examined the prevalence of dyslipidemia, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, among diverse racial/ethnic minority groups. The primary aim of this study was to identify racial/ethnic differences in dyslipidemia among minorities including Asian Americans (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese), Mexican Americans, and African Americans compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs).Using a three-year cross-section (2008-2011), we identified 169,430 active primary care patients (35 years or older) from an outpatient health care organization in Northern California. Age-standardized prevalence rates were calculated for three dyslipidemia subtypes: high TG (fasting lab ?150 mg/dL), low HDL-C (fasting lab <40 [men] and <50 [women] mg/dL), and high LDL-C (fasting lab ?130mg/dL or taking LDL-lowering agents). Odds ratios were calculated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for patient characteristics (age, measured BMI, smoking). Compared to NHWs, every minority subgroup had increased prevalence of high TGs, except African Americans. Most minority groups had increased prevalence of low HDL-C, except for Japanese and African Americans. The prevalence of high LDL-C was increased among Asian Indians, Filipinos, Japanese, and Vietnamese, compared to NHWs.Minority groups, except for African Americans, were more likely to have high TG/low HDL-C dyslipidemia. Further research is needed to determine how racial/ethnic differences in dyslipidemia affect racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005757

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330583300013

  • The Association Between Different A1C-Based Measures of Glycemia and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Hospitalization DIABETES CARE Nichols, G. A., Rosales, A. G., Perrin, N. A., Fortmann, S. P. 2014; 37 (1): 167-172


    OBJECTIVE We tested whether average monthly glycemic burden (AMGB), a marker of hyperglycemia that is a function of the extent and duration that A1C exceeded 7%, indicated greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than traditional A1C measures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using a case-control design, we studied 2,456 members of Kaiser Permanente Northwest with type 2 diabetes: 1,228 who experienced a CVD hospitalization, matched on age, sex, and duration of diabetes to 1,228 patients who were not hospitalized for CVD. We calculated AMGB from diabetes diagnosis until CVD hospitalization as a function of the difference between each actual or interpolated A1C measurement and 7%, resulting in an area under the curve estimate of hyperglycemic exposure, adjusted for number of months of observation. We used conditional logistic regression to compare the association between several A1C-based measures of glycemia and CVD, controlling for clinical characteristics and comorbidities. RESULTS AMGB was associated with increased CVD risk of 29% (odds ratio 1.29 [95% CI 1.16-1.44]; P < 0.001), while mean A1C was associated with a 22% risk increase (1.22 [1.09-1.37]; P < 0.001). A1C ever exceeding 7% was associated with increased CVD risk of 39% (1.39 [1.08-1.79]; P = 0.010). No model with a glycemia measure provided substantially more information than an identical model without a glycemia measure. CONCLUSIONS AMGB demonstrated somewhat greater CVD risk than mean A1C, but its clinical usefulness may be limited. A1C ever rising above 7% (53 mmol/mol) was a simple predictor of CVD risk that may have important clinical ramifications for newly diagnosed patients.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc13-1300

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328676000036

    View details for PubMedID 23990520

  • Vitamin and Mineral Supplements in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: An Updated Systematic Evidence Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Fortmann, S. P., Burda, B. U., Senger, C. A., Lin, J. S., Whitlock, E. P. 2013; 159 (12): 824-?


    Vitamin and mineral supplements are commonly used to prevent chronic diseases.To systematically review evidence for the benefit and harms of vitamin and mineral supplements in community-dwelling, nutrient-sufficient adults for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer.MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from January 2005 to 29 January 2013, with manual searches of reference lists and gray literature.Two investigators independently selected and reviewed fair- and good-quality trials for benefit and fair- and good-quality trials and observational studies for harms.Dual quality assessments and data abstraction.Two large trials (n = 27 658) reported lower cancer incidence in men taking a multivitamin for more than 10 years (pooled unadjusted relative risk, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.89 to 1.00]). The study that included women showed no effect in them. High-quality studies (k = 24; n = 324,653) of single and paired nutrients (such as vitamins A, C, or D; folic acid; selenium; or calcium) were scant and heterogeneous and showed no clear evidence of benefit or harm. Neither vitamin E nor ?-carotene prevented CVD or cancer, and ?-carotene increased lung cancer risk in smokers.The analysis included only primary prevention studies in adults without known nutritional deficiencies. Studies were conducted in older individuals and included various supplements and doses under the set upper tolerable limits. Duration of most studies was less than 10 years.Limited evidence supports any benefit from vitamin and mineral supplementation for the prevention of cancer or CVD. Two trials found a small, borderline-significant benefit from multivitamin supplements on cancer in men only and no effect on CVD.Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329735300015

    View details for PubMedID 24217421

  • Racial/Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Proteinuric and Nonproteinuric Diabetic Kidney Disease DIABETES CARE Bhalla, V., Zhao, B., Azar, K. M., Wang, E. J., Choi, S., Wong, E. C., Fortmann, S. P., Palaniappan, L. P. 2013; 36 (5): 1215-1221


    OBJECTIVE To examine racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD), with and without proteinuria, in an outpatient health care organization. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined electronic health records for 15,683 persons of non-Hispanic white (NHW), Asian (Asian Indian, Chinese, and Filipino), Hispanic, and non-Hispanic black (NHB) race/ethnicity with type 2 diabetes and no prior history of kidney disease from 2008 to 2010. We directly standardized age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates of proteinuric DKD (proteinuria with or without low estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) or nonproteinuric DKD (low eGFR alone). We calculated sex-specific odds ratios of DKD in racial/ethnic minorities (relative to NHWs) after adjustment for traditional DKD risk factors. RESULTS Racial/ethnic minorities had higher rates of proteinuric DKD than NHWs (24.8-37.9 vs. 24.8%) and lower rates of nonproteinuric DKD (6.3-9.8 vs. 11.7%). On adjusted analyses, Chinese (odds ratio 1.39 for women and 1.56 for men), Filipinos (1.57 for women and 1.85 for men), Hispanics (1.46 for women and 1.34 for men), and NHBs (1.50 for women) exhibited significantly (P < 0.01) higher odds of proteinuric DKD than NHWs. Conversely, Chinese, Hispanic, and NHB women and Hispanic men had significantly lower odds of nonproteinuric DKD than NHWs. CONCLUSIONS We found novel racial/ethnic differences in DKD among patients with type 2 diabetes. Racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to have proteinuric DKD and less likely to have nonproteinuric DKD. Future research should examine diverse DKD-related outcomes by race/ethnicity to inform targeted prevention and treatment efforts and to explore the etiology of these differences.

    View details for DOI 10.2337/dc12-0951

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319782100025

  • American Heart Association Guide for Improving Cardiovascular Health at the Community Level, 2013 Update A Scientific Statement for Public Health Practitioners, Healthcare Providers, and Health Policy Makers CIRCULATION Pearson, T. A., Palaniappan, L. P., Artinian, N. T., Carnethon, M. R., Criqui, M. H., Daniels, S. R., Fonarow, G. C., Fortmann, S. P., Franklin, B. A., Galloway, J. M., Goff, D. C., Heath, G. W., Frank, A. T., Kris-Etherton, P. M., Labarthe, D. R., Murabito, J. M., Sacco, R. L., Sasson, C., Turner, M. B. 2013; 127 (16): 1730-1753

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0b013e31828f8a94

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318031800016

    View details for PubMedID 23519758

  • Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking. BMC public health Dauphinee, A. L., Doxey, J. R., Schleicher, N. C., Fortmann, S. P., Henriksen, L. 2013; 13: 170-?


    African Americans are disproportionately exposed to cigarette advertisements, particularly for menthol brands. Tobacco industry documents outline strategic efforts to promote menthol cigarettes to African Americans at the point of sale, and studies have observed more outdoor and retail menthol advertisements in neighborhoods with more African-American residents. Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of this target marketing on adolescents' recognition of cigarette brand advertising and on smoking uptake. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine racial differences in brand recognition and to assess the prospective relationship between brand recognition and smoking uptake.School-based surveys assessing tobacco use and environmental and social influences to smoke were administered to 6th through 9th graders (ages 11 to 15) in an urban and racially diverse California school district. The primary outcome for the cross-sectional analysis (n?=?2,589) was brand recognition, measured by students' identification of masked tobacco advertisements from the point of sale. The primary outcome for the longitudinal analysis (n?=?1,179) was progression from never to ever smoking within 12?months.At baseline, 52% of students recognized the Camel brand, 36% Marlboro, and 32% Newport. African-American students were three times more likely than others to recognize Newport (OR?=?3.03, CI?=?2.45, 3.74, p?

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-13-170

    View details for PubMedID 23442215

  • Third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction CIRCULATION Thygesen, K., Alpert, J. S., Jaffe, A. S., Simoons, M. L., Chaitman, B. R., White, H. D., Katus, H. A., Apple, F. S., Lindahl, B., Morrow, D. A., Clemmensen, P. M., Johanson, P., Hod, H., Underwood, R., Bax, J. J., Bonow, R. O., Pinto, F., Gibbons, R. J., Fox, K. A., Atar, D., Newby, L. K., Galvani, M., Hamm, C. W., Uretsky, B. F., Steg, G., Wijns, W., Bassand, J., Menasche, P., Ravkilde, J., Ohman, E. M., Antman, E. M., Wallentin, L. C., Armstrong, P. W., Januzzi, J. L., Nieminen, M. S., Gheorghiade, M., Filippatos, G., Luepker, R. V., Fortmann, S. P., Rosamond, W. D., Levy, D., Wood, D., Smith, S. C., Hu, D., Lopez-Sendon, J., Robertson, R. M., Weaver, D., Tendera, M., Bove, A. A., Parkhomenko, A. N., Vasilieva, E. J., Mendis, S., Bax, J. J., Baumgartner, H., Ceconi, C., Dean, V., Deaton, C., Fagard, R., Funck-Brentano, C., Hasdai, D., Hoes, A., Kirchhof, P., Knuuti, J., Kolh, P., McDonagh, T., Moulin, C., Popescu, B. A., Reiner, Z., Sechtem, U., Sirnes, P. A., Tendera, M., Torbicki, A., Vahanian, A., Windecker, S., Morais, J., Aguiar, C., Almahmeed, W., Arnar, D. O., Barili, F., Bloch, K. D., Bolger, A. F., Botker, H. E., Bozkurt, B., Bugiardini, R., Cannon, C., de Lemos, J., Eberli, F. R., Escobar, E., Hlatky, M., James, S., Kern, K. B., Moliterno, D. J., Mueller, C., Neskovic, A. N., Pieske, B. M., Schulman, S. P., Storey, R. F., Taubert, K. A., Vranckx, P., Wagner, D. R. 2012; 126 (16): 2020-?

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0b013e31826e1058

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309973700020

    View details for PubMedID 22923432

  • Third universal definition of myocardial infarction EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Thygesen, K., Alpert, J. S., Jaffe, A. S., Simoons, M. L., Chaitman, B. R., White, H. D. 2012; 33 (20): 2551-2567

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs184

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310167200014

    View details for PubMedID 22922414

  • Design of the Value of Imaging in Enhancing the Wellness of Your Heart (VIEW) trial and the impact of uncertainty on power CLINICAL TRIALS Ambrosius, W. T., Polonsky, T. S., Greenland, P., Goff, D. C., Perdue, L. H., Fortmann, S. P., Margolis, K. L., Pajewski, N. M. 2012; 9 (2): 232-246


    Although observational evidence has suggested that the measurement of coronary artery calcium (CAC) may improve risk stratification for cardiovascular events and thus help guide the use of lipid-lowering therapy, this contention has not been evaluated within the context of a randomized trial. The Value of Imaging in Enhancing the Wellness of Your Heart (VIEW) trial is proposed as a randomized study in participants at low intermediate risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) events to evaluate whether CAC testing leads to improved patient outcomes.To describe the challenges encountered in designing a prototypical screening trial and to examine the impact of uncertainty on power.The VIEW trial was designed as an effectiveness clinical trial to examine the benefit of CAC testing to guide therapy on a primary outcome consisting of a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, probable or definite angina with revascularization, resuscitated cardiac arrest, nonfatal stroke (not transient ischemic attack (TIA)), CHD death, stroke death, other atherosclerotic death, or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) death. Many critical choices were faced in designing the trial, including (1) the choice of primary outcome, (2) the choice of therapy, (3) the target population with corresponding ethical issues, (4) specifications of assumptions for sample size calculations, and (5) impact of uncertainty in these assumptions on power/sample size determination.We have proposed a sample size of 30,000 (800 events), which provides 92.7% power. Alternatively, sample sizes of 20,228 (539 events), 23,138 (617 events), and 27,078 (722 events) provide 80%, 85%, and 90% power. We have also allowed for uncertainty in our assumptions by computing average power integrated over specified prior distributions. This relaxation of specificity indicates a reduction in power, dropping to 89.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 89.8-89.9) for a sample size of 30,000. Samples sizes of 20,228, 23,138, and 27,078 provide power of 78.0% (77.9-78.0), 82.5% (82.5-82.6), and 87.2% (87.2-87.3), respectively.These power estimates are dependent on form and parameters of the prior distributions.Despite the pressing need for a randomized trial to evaluate the utility of CAC testing, conduct of such a trial requires recruiting a large patient population, making efficiency of critical importance. The large sample size is primarily due to targeting a study population at relatively low risk of a CVD event. Our calculations also illustrate the importance of formally considering uncertainty in power calculations of large trials as standard power calculations may tend to overestimate power.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1740774512436882

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302636500010

    View details for PubMedID 22333998

  • Targeted Advertising, Promotion, and Price For Menthol Cigarettes in California High School Neighborhoods NICOTINE & TOBACCO RESEARCH Henriksen, L., Schleicher, N. C., Dauphinee, A. L., Fortmann, S. P. 2012; 14 (1): 116-121


    To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics.In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics.For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%-31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = -0.18, -0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics.In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer's claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ntr/ntr122

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299219200014

    View details for PubMedID 21705460

  • Chronic Kidney Disease and Risk for Presenting With Acute Myocardial Infarction Versus Stable Exertional Angina in Adults With Coronary Heart Disease JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Go, A. S., Bansal, N., Chandra, M., Lathon, P. V., Fortmann, S. P., Iribarren, C., Hsu, C., Hlatky, M. A. 2011; 58 (15): 1600-1607


    The aim of this study was to examine whether kidney dysfunction is associated with the type of clinical presentation of coronary heart disease (CHD).Reduced kidney function increases the risk for developing CHD, but it is not known whether it also influences the acuity of clinical presentation, which has important prognostic implications.A case-control study was conducted of subjects whose first clinical presentation of CHD was either acute myocardial infarction or stable exertional angina between October 2001 and December 2003. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before the incident event was calculated using calibrated serum creatinine and the abbreviated MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) equation. Patient characteristics and use of medications were ascertained from self-report and health plan databases. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association of reduced eGFR and CHD presentation.A total of 803 adults with incident acute myocardial infarctions and 419 adults with incident stable exertional angina who had baseline eGFRs ?130 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were studied. Mean eGFR was lower in subjects with acute myocardial infarctions compared with those with stable angina. Compared with eGFR of 90 to 130 ml/min/1.73 m(2), a strong, graded, independent association was found between reduced eGFR and presenting with acute myocardial infarction, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.99 to 1.86) for eGFR 60 to 89 ml/min/1.73 m(2), 1.55 (95% confidence interval: 0.92 to 2.62) for eGFR 45 to 59 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and 3.82 (95% confidence interval: 1.55 to 9.46) for eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (p < 0.001 for trend).An eGFR <45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) is a strong, independent predictor of presenting with acute myocardial infarction versus stable angina as the initial manifestation of CHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.07.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295868000008

    View details for PubMedID 21958887

  • Potential role of differential medication use in explaining excess risk of cardiovascular events and death associated with chronic kidney disease: A cohort study BMC NEPHROLOGY Bansal, N., Hsu, C., Chandra, M., Iribarren, C., Fortmann, S. P., Hlatky, M. A., Go, A. S. 2011; 12


    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are less likely to receive cardiovascular medications. It is unclear whether differential cardiovascular drug use explains, in part, the excess risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with CKD and coronary heart disease (CHD).The ADVANCE Study enrolled patients with new onset CHD (2001-2003) who did (N = 159) or did not have (N = 1088) CKD at entry. The MDRD equation was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using calibrated serum creatinine measurements. Patient characteristics, medication use, cardiovascular events and death were ascertained from self-report and health plan electronic databases through December 2008.Post-CHD event ACE inhibitor use was lower (medication possession ratio 0.50 vs. 0.58, P = 0.03) and calcium channel blocker use higher (0.47 vs. 0.38, P = 0.06) in CKD vs. non-CKD patients, respectively. Incidence of cardiovascular events and death was higher in CKD vs. non-CKD patients (13.9 vs. 11.5 per 100 person-years, P < 0.001, respectively). After adjustment for patient characteristics, the rate of cardiovascular events and death was increased for eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10 to 2.02) and eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.50). After further adjustment for statins, ?-blocker, calcium channel blocker, ACE inhibitor/ARB use, the association was no longer significant for eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.25 to 2.66) or for eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.25 to 5.58).In adults with CHD, differential use of cardiovascular medications may contribute to the higher risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with CKD.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2369-12-44

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304364300001

    View details for PubMedID 21917174

  • Type 2 diabetes: Identifying high risk Asian American subgroups in a clinical population DIABETES RESEARCH AND CLINICAL PRACTICE Wang, E. J., Wong, E. C., Dixit, A. A., Fortmann, S. P., Linde, R. B., Palaniappan, L. P. 2011; 93 (2): 248-254


    We compared the prevalence and treatment of type 2 diabetes across Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) in a Northern California healthcare system.A three-year, cross-sectional sample of patient electronic health records was accessed to compare diabetes prevalence in 21,816 Asian and 73,728 NHWs aged 35+ years. Diabetes was classified through ICD-9 codes, abnormal laboratory values, or use of oral anti-diabetic medication. Multivariate adjusted prevalence rates for each Asian subgroup, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) relative to NHWs, were compared.Age-adjusted prevalence ranged from 5.8% to 18.2% (women) and 8.1 to 25.3% (men). Age-adjusted ORs of Asian subgroups ranged 1.11-3.94 (women) and 1.14-4.56 (men). The odds of diabetes were significantly higher in Asian Indians (women OR 3.44, men OR 3.54) and Filipinos (women OR 3.94, men OR 4.56), compared to NHWs. Results for Asian Indians and Filipinos were similar with age-and-BMI adjustment. Treatment rates across subgroups were 59.7-82.0% (women) and 62.9-79.4% (men).Heterogeneity exists in the prevalence of diabetes across Asian subgroups, independent of obesity prevalence. Asian Indian and Filipino subgroups had particularly high prevalence of diabetes when compared to NHWs. Future studies should explore these clinically important differences among Asian subgroups.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.diabres.2011.05.025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293825400027

    View details for PubMedID 21665315

  • Racial variation in lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) in older adults BMC CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS Lee, K. K., Fortmann, S. P., Varady, A., Fair, J. M., Go, A. S., Quertermous, T., Hlatky, M. A., Iribarren, C. 2011; 11


    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A? (Lp-PLA?) is a predictor of cardiovascular events that has been shown to vary with race. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with this racial variation.We measured Lp-PLA? mass and activity in 714 healthy older adults with no clinical coronary heart disease and not taking dyslipidemia medication. We evaluated the association between race and Lp-PLA? mass and activity levels after adjustment for various covariates using multivariable linear regression. These covariates included age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, lipid measurements, C-reactive protein, smoking status, physical activity, diet, income, and education level. We further examined genetic covariates that included three single nucleotide polymorphisms shown to be associated with Lp-PLA? activity levels.The mean age was 66 years. Whites had the highest Lp-PLA? mass and activity levels, followed by Hispanics and Asians, and then African-Americans; in age and sex adjusted analyses, these differences were significant for each non-White race as compared to Whites (p < 0.0001). For example, African-Americans were predicted to have a 55.0 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA? mass and 24.7 nmol/ml-min lower activity, compared with Whites, independent of age and sex (p < 0.0001). After adjustment for all covariates, race remained significantly correlated with Lp-PLA? mass and activity levels (p < 0.001) with African-Americans having 44.8 ng/ml lower Lp-PLA? mass and 17.3 nmol/ml-min lower activity compared with Whites (p < 0.0001).Biological, lifestyle, demographic, and select genetic factors do not appear to explain variations in Lp-PLA? mass and activity levels between Whites and non-Whites, suggesting that Lp-PLA? mass and activity levels may need to be interpreted differently for various races.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2261-11-38

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293271500001

    View details for PubMedID 21714927

  • Physical Activity in Older Subjects Is Associated With Increased Coronary Vasodilation The ADVANCE Study JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING Nguyen, P. K., Terashima, M., Fair, J. M., Varady, A., Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Iribarren, C., Go, A. S., Haskell, W. L., Hlatky, M. A., Fortmann, S. P., McConnell, M. V. 2011; 4 (6): 622-629


    We investigated the association between physical activity and coronary vasodilation to nitroglycerin (NTG) in the ADVANCE (Atherosclerotic Disease, Vascular Function, and Genetic Epidemiology) cohort of older healthy subjects.Physical activity may exert its beneficial effects by augmenting coronary responsiveness to nitric oxide. The relationship between physical activity and coronary vasodilatory response to NTG, an exogenous nitric oxide donor, has not been studied in a community-based population with typical activity levels.In 212 older adults (ages 60 to 72 years) without cardiovascular disease, we measured the coronary vasodilatory response to NTG using magnetic resonance angiography and physical activity using the Stanford Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire. The primary predictor measure was total physical activity (kcal/kg/day). The primary outcome measure was coronary vasodilatory response (percent increase of cross-sectional area post-NTG).Coronary vasodilation was 27.6% in more active subjects (>35 kcal/kg/day, e.g., 1 h of walking per day) compared to 18.9% in less active subjects (p=0.03). Regression analysis showed a significant positive correlation between coronary vasodilation and physical activity (p=0.003), with a slope (beta) of 1.2% per kcal/kg/day. This finding remained significant after adjustment for cardiac risk factors, coronary calcium, the use of vasoactive or statin medications, and analysis of physical activity by quintiles (p < 0.05). Coronary vasodilation was also associated with physical activity intensity (p = 0.03).In an asymptomatic, community-based cohort of older adults, increased coronary vasodilatory response was independently associated with greater physical activity, supporting the benefits of exercise on the order of 1 h of walking per day.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcmg.2011.05.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292042900009

    View details for PubMedID 21679897

  • Ankle brachial index screening in asymptomatic older adults AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Fair, J. M., Varady, A. N., Hlatky, M. A., Norton, L. C., Iribarren, C., Go, A. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2011; 161 (5): 979-985


    Screening for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) by measuring ankle brachial index (ABI) in asymptomatic older adults is currently recommended to improve cardiovascular disease risk assessment and establish early treatment, but it is not clear if the strategy is useful in all populations. We examined the prevalence and independent predictors of an abnormal ABI (<0.90), in an asymptomatic sample of 1,017 adults, 60 to 69 years old, enrolled in the ADVANCE study.Baseline data collected between December 2001 and January 2004 among the healthy older controls enrolled in ADVANCE was examined. Frequency distributions and prevalence estimates of an abnormal ABI were calculated, using both standard and modified definitions of ABI. Stepwise logistic regression was used to examine independent predictors of ABI <0.90. Signal detection analysis using recursive partitioning was employed to explore potential demographic and clinical variables related to ABI <0.90.The prevalence of ABI <0.90 was 2% when using the standard definition and 5% when using a modified definition. ABI prevalence did not differ by gender (P > .05). Compared with subjects who had a normal ABI (0.90-1.39), subjects with an ABI <0.90 were more likely to currently smoke, be physically inactive, have a coronary artery calcium score >10, and an FRS >20% (P ? .02). Independent predictors of ABI <0.90 when using the standard definition included currently smoking, physical inactivity, and body mass index >30 (all P values ?.03), and when using the modified definition included currently smoking, physical inactivity, and hypertension (all P values ?.04). Currently, smoking was the only significant variable for ABI <0.90 derived through recursive partitioning (P = .02), and indicated that prevalence of ABI <0.90 was 1.5% for nonsmokers, while it was 6.6% for current smokers.ABI screening in generally healthy individuals 60 to 69 years old may result in lower prevalence rates of a positive result than estimates based on studies in clinical populations. The modified definition for calculating ABI captured more asymptomatic adults with suspected peripheral arterial disease. More evaluation of the appropriate role of ABI screening in unselected populations is needed before routine screening is implemented.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.02.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290559300032

    View details for PubMedID 21570532

  • Markers in the 15q24 Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Gene Cluster (CHRNA5-A3-B4) Predict Severity of Nicotine Addiction and Response to Smoking Cessation Therapy AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART B-NEUROPSYCHIATRIC GENETICS Sarginson, J. E., Killen, J. D., Lazzeroni, L. C., Fortmann, S. P., Ryan, H. S., Schatzberg, A. F., Murphy, G. M. 2011; 156B (3): 275-284


    Stopping smoking is difficult even with treatment. Many patients prescribed pharmacologic treatments for smoking cessation experience side effects or lack of efficacy. We performed a pharmacogenetic study of the efficacy and tolerability of bupropion and transdermal nicotine (TN), two treatments for smoking cessation. Samples were drawn from two studies. In the first study (Maintenance 1, MT1), 301 smokers received bupropion plus TN for 11 weeks, followed by 14 weeks of placebo or bupropion. In the second study (MT2), 276 smokers received bupropion and TN for 8 weeks. We focused on eight SNPs in the 15q24 region, which contains the genes for the nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunits CHRNA5, CHRNA3, and CHRNB4, and has previously been implicated in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation. Analyses of baseline smoking quantity (SQ) identified an association between SQ and both the functional CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 (D398N) and the CHRNA3 SNP rs1051730 (Y215Y) in a combined cohort containing MT1 and MT2. An association between SQ and ethnicity was also identified in the combined cohort. Pharmacogenetic analysis showed a significant association between rs8192475 (R37H) in CHRNA3 and both higher craving after quitting and increased withdrawal symptoms over time in MT2. Two markers for point prevalence abstinence, CHRNA5 SNP rs680244 and CHRNB4 SNP rs12914008, were also identified in MT2, with the strongest findings at week 52. These results provide further support for the role of the CHRNA5/A3/B4 subunits in determining number of cigarettes smoked and response to smoking cessation therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.b.31155

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288332600003

    View details for PubMedID 21268243

  • Asian Americans have greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome despite lower body mass index INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF OBESITY Palaniappan, L. P., Wong, E. C., Shin, J. J., Fortmann, S. P., Lauderdale, D. S. 2011; 35 (3): 393-400


    To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome for Asian Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), given that existing evidence shows racial/ethnic heterogeneity exists in how BMI predicts metabolic syndrome.Electronic health records of 43,507 primary care patients aged 35 years and older with self-identified race/ethnicity of interest (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese or NHW) were analyzed in a mixed-payer, outpatient-focused health-care organization in the San Francisco Bay Area.Metabolic syndrome prevalence is significantly higher in Asians compared with NHWs for every BMI category. For women at the mean age of 55 and BMI of 25 ?kg? m(-2), the predicted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 12% for NHW women compared with 30% for Asians; similarly for men, the predicted prevalence of metabolic syndrome is 22% for NHWs compared with 43% of Asians. Compared with NHW women and men with a BMI of 25 ?kg? m(-2), comparable prevalence of metabolic syndrome was observed at BMI of 19.6? kg ?m(-2) for Asian women and 19.9 ?kg ?m(-2) for Asian men. A similar pattern was observed in disaggregated Asian subgroups.In spite of the lower BMI values and lower prevalence of overweight/obesity than NHWs, Asian Americans have higher rates of metabolic syndrome over the range of BMI. Our results indicate that BMI ranges for defining overweight/obesity in Asian populations should be lower than for NHWs.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ijo.2010.152

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288486300010

    View details for PubMedID 20680014

  • Racial and Ethnic Variation in Lipoprotein (a) Levels among Asian Indian and Chinese Patients. Journal of lipids Banerjee, D., Wong, E. C., Shin, J., Fortmann, S. P., Palaniappan, L. 2011; 2011: 291954-?


    Background. Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There are known racial/ethnic differences in Lp(a) levels, and the association of Lp(a) with CVD outcomes has not been examined in Asian Americans in the USA. Objective. We hypothesized that Lp(a) levels would differ in Asian Indians and Chinese Americans when compared to NHW and that the relationship between Lp(a) and CVD outcomes would be different in these Asian racial/ethnic subgroups when compared to NHW. Methods. We studied the outpatient electronic health records of 2022 NHW, 295 Asian Indians, and 151 Chinese adults age ?18?y in Northern California in whom Lp(a) levels were assessed during routine clinical care from 2001 to 2008, excluding those who had received prescriptions for niacin (14.6%). Nonparametric methods were used to compare median Lp(a) levels. Significance was assessed at the P < .0001 level to account for multiple comparisons. CVD outcomes were defined as ischemic heart disease (IHD) (265 events), stroke (122), or peripheral vascular disease (PVD) (87). We used logistic regression to determine the relationship between Lp(a) and CVD outcomes. Results. Both Asian Indians (36?nmol/L) and NHW (29?nmol/L) had higher median Lp(a) levels than Chinese (22?nmol/L, P ? .0001 and P = .0032). When stratified by sex, the differences in median Lp(a) between these groups persisted in the 1761 men (AI v CH: P = .001, NHW v CH: P = .0018) but were not statistically significant in the 1130 women (AI v CH: P = .0402, NHW v CH: P = .0761). Asian Indians (OR = 2.0) and Chinese (OR = 4.8) exhibited a trend towards greater risk of IHD with high Lp(a) levels than NHW (OR = 1.4), but no relationship was statistically significant. Conclusion. Asian Indian and NHW men have higher Lp(a) values than Chinese men, with a trend toward, similar associations in women. High Lp(a) may be more strongly associated with IHD in Asian Indians and Chinese, although we did not have a sufficient number of outcomes to confirm this. Further studies should strive to elucidate the relationship between Lp(a) levels, CVD, and race/ethnicity among Asian subgroups in the USA.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2011/291954

    View details for PubMedID 21660301

  • Right coronary wall cmr in the older asymptomatic advance cohort: positive remodeling and associations with type 2 diabetes and coronary calcium JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE Terashima, M., Nguyen, P. K., Rubin, G. D., Meyer, C. H., Shimakawa, A., Nishimura, D. G., Ehara, S., Iribarren, C., Courtney, B. K., Go, A. S., Hlatky, M. A., Fortmann, S. P., McConnell, M. V. 2010; 12


    Coronary wall cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a promising noninvasive approach to assess subclinical atherosclerosis, but data are limited in subjects over 60 years old, who are at increased risk. The purpose of the study was to evaluate coronary wall CMR in an asymptomatic older cohort.Cross-sectional images of the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) were acquired using spiral black-blood coronary CMR (0.7 mm resolution) in 223 older, community-based patients without a history of cardiovascular disease (age 60-72 years old, 38% female). Coronary measurements (total vessel area, lumen area, wall area, and wall thickness) had small intra- and inter-observer variabilities (r = 0.93~0.99, all p < 0.0001), though one-third of these older subjects had suboptimal image quality. Increased coronary wall thickness correlated with increased coronary vessel area (p < 0.0001), consistent with positive remodeling. On multivariate analysis, type 2 diabetes was the only risk factor associated with increased coronary wall area and thickness (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007, respectively). Coronary wall CMR measures were also associated with coronary calcification (p = 0.01-0.03).Right coronary wall CMR in asymptomatic older subjects showed increased coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes as well as coronary calcification. Coronary wall CMR may contribute to the noninvasive assessment of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in older, at-risk patient groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1532-429X-12-75

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286371000001

    View details for PubMedID 21192815

  • Lack of Association Between the Trp719Arg Polymorphism in Kinesin-Like Protein-6 and Coronary Artery Disease in 19 Case-Control Studies JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Assimes, T. L., Holm, H., Kathiresan, S., Reilly, M. P., Thorleifsson, G., Voight, B. F., Erdmann, J., Willenborg, C., Vaidya, D., Xie, C., Patterson, C. C., Morgan, T. M., Burnett, M. S., Li, M., Hlatky, M. A., Knowles, J. W., Thompson, J. R., Absher, D., Iribarren, C., Go, A., Fortmann, S. P., Sidney, S., Risch, N., Tang, H., Myers, R. M., Berger, K., Stoll, M., Shah, S. H., Thorgeirsson, G., Andersen, K., Havulinna, A. S., Herrera, J. E., Faraday, N., Kim, Y., Kral, B. G., Mathias, R. A., Ruczinski, I., Suktitipat, B., Wilson, A. F., Yanek, L. R., Becker, L. C., Linsel-Nitschke, P., Lieb, W., Koenig, I. R., Hengstenberg, C., Fischer, M., Stark, K., Reinhard, W., Winogradow, J., Grassl, M., Grosshennig, A., Preuss, M., Schreiber, S., Wichmann, H., Meisinger, C., Yee, J., Friedlander, Y., Do, R., Meigs, J. B., Williams, G., Nathan, D. M., MacRae, C. A., Qu, L., Wilensky, R. L., Matthai, W. H., Qasim, A. N., Hakonarson, H., Pichard, A. D., Kent, K. M., Satler, L., Lindsay, J. M., Waksman, R., Knouff, C. W., Waterworth, D. M., Walker, M. C., Mooser, V. E., Marrugat, J., Lucas, G., Subirana, I., Sala, J., Ramos, R., Martinelli, N., Olivieri, O., Trabetti, E., Malerba, G., Pignatti, P. F., Guiducci, C., Mirel, D., Parkin, M., Hirschhorn, J. N., Asselta, R., Duga, S., Musunuru, K., Daly, M. J., Purcell, S., Eifert, S., Braund, P. S., Wright, B. J., Balmforth, A. J., Ball, S. G., Ouwehand, W. H., Deloukas, P., Scholz, M., Cambien, F., Huge, A., Scheffold, T., Salomaa, V., Girelli, D., Granger, C. B., Peltonen, L., McKeown, P. P., Altshuler, D., Melander, O., Devaney, J. M., Epstein, S. E., Rader, D. J., Elosua, R., Engert, J. C., Anand, S. S., Hall, A. S., Ziegler, A., O'Donnell, C. J., Spertus, J. A., Siscovick, D., Schwartz, S. M., Becker, D., Thorsteinsdottir, U., Stefansson, K., Schunkert, H., Samani, N. J., Quertermous, T. 2010; 56 (19): 1552-1563


    We sought to replicate the association between the kinesin-like protein 6 (KIF6) Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455), and clinical coronary artery disease (CAD).Recent prospective studies suggest that carriers of the 719Arg allele in KIF6 are at increased risk of clinical CAD compared with noncarriers.The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455) was genotyped in 19 case-control studies of nonfatal CAD either as part of a genome-wide association study or in a formal attempt to replicate the initial positive reports.A total of 17,000 cases and 39,369 controls of European descent as well as a modest number of South Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, East Asians, and admixed cases and controls were successfully genotyped. None of the 19 studies demonstrated an increased risk of CAD in carriers of the 719Arg allele compared with noncarriers. Regression analyses and fixed-effects meta-analyses ruled out with high degree of confidence an increase of ?2% in the risk of CAD among European 719Arg carriers. We also observed no increase in the risk of CAD among 719Arg carriers in the subset of Europeans with early-onset disease (younger than 50 years of age for men and younger than 60 years of age for women) compared with similarly aged controls as well as all non-European subgroups.The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism was not associated with the risk of clinical CAD in this large replication study.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.06.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283538000005

    View details for PubMedID 20933357

  • Perceived drug assignment and treatment outcome in smokers given nicotine patch therapy JOURNAL OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT Bailey, S. R., Fong, D. M., Bryson, S. W., Fortmann, S. P., Killen, J. D. 2010; 39 (2): 150-156


    This study assessed the relationship between treatment outcome and perceived drug assignment in smokers (nicotine patch [NP] or placebo) using abstinence and relapse status. Smokers (N = 424) were randomly assigned to receive either NP or placebo as part of a study that examined the effects of combining NP with self-help programs. Beliefs about drug assignment, assessed at the 12-month follow-up, were obtained from 384 participants. Beliefs were related to abstinence at the 2-month, p < .05, and 6-month follow-ups, p < .05, for the NP group, but not the placebo. Beliefs were not related to abstinence at 12 months for either group. Survival analysis assessing relapse revealed that beliefs were related to relapse status, regardless of actual group assignment. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between perceived drug assignment and treatment outcome. Future studies using multiple treatment outcome measures and assessments of beliefs over time are warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsat.2010.05.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280623600008

    View details for PubMedID 20598833

  • Failure to improve cigarette smoking abstinence with transdermal selegiline plus cognitive behavior therapy ADDICTION Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P., Murphy, G. M., Hayward, C., Fong, D., Lowenthal, K., Bryson, S. W., Killen, D. T., Schatzberg, A. F. 2010; 105 (9): 1660-1668


    To examine the effectiveness of transdermal selegiline for producing cigarette smoking abstinence.Adult smokers were randomly assigned to receive selegiline transdermal system (STS) or placebo given for 8 weeks. All participants received cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). Follow-ups were conducted at 25 and 52 weeks.Community smoking cessation clinic.243 adult smokers (> or =18 years of age; > or =10 cigarettes/day).Expired-air carbon monoxide confirmed 7-day point prevalence abstinence.STS was not superior to placebo. More women than men were abstinent at 52 week follow-up (28% vs 16%, P < 0.05). Behavioral activation (BAS) moderated treatment response (P = 0.01). The survival rate through week 52 for those with high 'drive' scores on the BAS was 47% if assigned to selegiline and 34% if assigned to placebo. The survival rate for those with low 'drive scores' on the BAS was 35% if assigned to selegiline compared to 53% if assigned to placebo.Transdermal selegiline does not appear generally effective in aiding smoking cessation though there may be a selective effect in those smokers with low 'behavioral activation'.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03020.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280668200027

    View details for PubMedID 20707784

  • A Longitudinal Study of Exposure to Retail Cigarette Advertising and Smoking Initiation PEDIATRICS Henriksen, L., Schleicher, N. C., Feighery, E. C., Fortmann, S. P. 2010; 126 (2): 232-238


    Accumulating evidence suggests that widespread advertising for cigarettes at the point of sale encourages adolescents to smoke; however, no longitudinal study of exposure to retail tobacco advertising and smoking behavior has been reported.A school-based survey included 1681 adolescents (aged 11-14 years) who had never smoked. One measure of exposure assessed the frequency of visiting types of stores that contain the most cigarette advertising. A more detailed measure combined data about visiting stores near school with observations of cigarette advertisements and pack displays in those stores. Follow-up surveys 12 and 30 months after baseline (retention rate: 81%) documented the transition from never to ever smoking, even just a puff.After 12 months, 18% of adolescents initiated smoking, but the incidence was 29% among students who visited convenience, liquor, or small grocery stores at least twice per week and 9% among those who reported the lowest visit frequency (less than twice per month). Adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds of initiation remained significantly higher (odds ratio: 1.64 [95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.55]) for adolescents who reported moderate visit frequency (0.5-1.9 visits per week), and the odds of initiation more than doubled for those who visited > or = 2 times per week (odds ratio: 2.58 [95% confidence interval: 1.68-3.97]). Similar associations were observed for the more detailed exposure measure and persisted at 30 months.Exposure to retail cigarette advertising is a risk factor for smoking initiation. Policies and parenting practices that limit adolescents' exposure to retail cigarette advertising could improve smoking prevention efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2009-3021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280565700006

    View details for PubMedID 20643725

  • Genome-wide meta-analyses identify multiple loci associated with smoking behavior NATURE GENETICS Furberg, H., Kim, Y., Dackor, J., Boerwinkle, E., Franceschini, N., Ardissino, D., Bernardinelli, L., Mannucci, P. M., Mauri, F., Merlini, P. A., Absher, D., Assimes, T. L., Fortmann, S. P., Iribarren, C., Knowles, J. W., Quertermous, T., Ferrucci, L., Tanaka, T., Bis, J. C., Furberg, C. D., Haritunians, T., McKnight, B., Psaty, B. M., Taylor, K. D., Thacker, E. L., Almgren, P., Groop, L., Ladenvall, C., Boehnke, M., Jackson, A. U., Mohlke, K. L., Stringham, H. M., Tuomilehto, J., Benjamin, E. J., Hwang, S., Levy, D., Preis, S. R., Vasan, R. S., Duan, J., Gejman, P. V., Levinson, D. F., Sanders, A. R., Shi, J., Lips, E. H., McKay, J. D., Agudo, A., Barzan, L., Bencko, V., Benhamou, S., Castellsague, X., Canova, C., Conway, D. I., Fabianova, E., Foretova, L., Janout, V., Healy, C. M., Holcatova, I., Kjaerheim, K., Lagiou, P., Lissowska, J., Lowry, R., Macfarlane, T. V., Mates, D., Richiardi, L., Rudnai, P., Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N., Zaridze, D., Znaor, A., Lathrop, M., Brennan, P., Bandinelli, S., Frayling, T. M., Guralnik, J. M., Milaneschi, Y., Perry, J. R., Altshuler, D., Elosua, R., Kathiresan, S., Lucas, G., Melander, O., O'Donnell, C. J., Salomaa, V., Schwartz, S. M., Voight, B. F., Penninx, B. W., Smit, J. H., Vogelzangs, N., Boomsma, D. I., de Geus, E. J., Vink, J. M., Willemsen, G., Chanock, S. J., Gu, F., Hankinson, S. E., Hunter, D. J., Hofman, A., Tiemeier, H., Uitterlinden, A. G., van Duijn, C. M., Walter, S., Chasman, D. I., Everett, B. M., Pare, G., Ridker, P. M., Li, M. D., Maes, H. H., Audrain-McGovern, J., Posthuma, D., Thornton, L. M., Lerman, C., Kaprio, J., Rose, J. E., Ioannidis, J. P., Kraft, P., Lin, D., Sullivan, P. F. 2010; 42 (5): 441-U134


    Consistent but indirect evidence has implicated genetic factors in smoking behavior. We report meta-analyses of several smoking phenotypes within cohorts of the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (n = 74,053). We also partnered with the European Network of Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) and Oxford-GlaxoSmithKline (Ox-GSK) consortia to follow up the 15 most significant regions (n > 140,000). We identified three loci associated with number of cigarettes smoked per day. The strongest association was a synonymous 15q25 SNP in the nicotinic receptor gene CHRNA3 (rs1051730[A], beta = 1.03, standard error (s.e.) = 0.053, P = 2.8 x 10(-73)). Two 10q25 SNPs (rs1329650[G], beta = 0.367, s.e. = 0.059, P = 5.7 x 10(-10); and rs1028936[A], beta = 0.446, s.e. = 0.074, P = 1.3 x 10(-9)) and one 9q13 SNP in EGLN2 (rs3733829[G], beta = 0.333, s.e. = 0.058, P = 1.0 x 10(-8)) also exceeded genome-wide significance for cigarettes per day. For smoking initiation, eight SNPs exceeded genome-wide significance, with the strongest association at a nonsynonymous SNP in BDNF on chromosome 11 (rs6265[C], odds ratio (OR) = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.04-1.08, P = 1.8 x 10(-8)). One SNP located near DBH on chromosome 9 (rs3025343[G], OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.08-1.18, P = 3.6 x 10(-8)) was significantly associated with smoking cessation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ng.571

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277179500017

    View details for PubMedID 20418890

  • Distribution of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine among 980 Healthy, Older Adults of Different Ethnicities CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Sydow, K., Fortmann, S. P., Fair, J. M., Varady, A., Hlatky, M. A., Go, A. S., Iribarren, C., Tsao, P. S. 2010; 56 (1): 111-120


    Endothelium-derived nitric oxide plays a crucial role in the regulation of vascular tone and the development of cardiovascular disease. The endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has emerged as a novel cardiovascular risk factor. ADMA appears to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular and overall mortality. However, the majority of studies investigating the clinical role of ADMA were performed in European study populations with few individuals of other ethnicities.We performed a cross-sectional study of 980 healthy, older (age 60-72 years) individuals of different ethnicities living in the San Francisco Bay area and analyzed ADMA plasma concentrations and their relationship to other cardiovascular risk factors. Plasma ADMA concentrations were measured using a recently developed, highly sensitive ELISA.In our entire sample, we were able to define a reference interval for ADMA plasma concentrations of 0.47 (90% CI 0.46-0.48) mumol/L to 0.85 (0.84-0.89) mumol/L. The mean ADMA concentration was 0.63 (SD 0.11) mumol/L (median 0.61 mumol/L). Mean ADMA concentrations were significantly lower in African Americans (0.60 mumol/L; P < 0.01) and mixed non-Hispanics (0.60 mumol/L; P < 0.05) compared with whites (0.63 mumol/L). ADMA was positively correlated with cystatin-C in both men (rho = 0.29) and women (rho = 0.37), and median plasma ADMA concentrations increased across cystatin-C quintiles.ADMA varies nearly 2-fold across a healthy sample of older men and women, correlates with age, body mass index, and renal function, and is different across ethnic groups. Additional studies in a wider age range and including larger ethnic subgroups would be useful.

    View details for DOI 10.1373/clinchem.2009.136200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273466300017

    View details for PubMedID 19892843

  • Validation of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey: Examining Psychological Factors and Physical Activity Levels in Older Adults JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & HEALTH Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Fair, J. M., Haskell, W. L., Varady, A. N., Iribarren, C., Hlatky, M. A., Go, A. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2010; 7 (1): 87-94


    This study examined the construct validity and reliability of the new 2-item Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS).Secondary analysis was conducted using data collected from the healthy older controls (n = 1023) enrolled in the Atherosclerotic Disease Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study. Construct validity was examined by regression analyses to evaluate significant trends (P < or = .05) across the SBAS activity categories for the selected psychological health factors measured at baseline and year 2, adjusted for gender, ethnicity and education level. Test-retest reliability was performed using Spearman's rank correlation.At baseline, subjects were 66 +/- 2.8 years old, 38% female, 77% married, 61% retired, 24% college graduate, and 68% Caucasian. At baseline, lower self-reported stress, anxiety, depression, and cynical distrust, and higher self-reported mental and physical well-being were significantly associated with higher levels of physical activity (p trend < or = 0.01). These associations held at year 2. The test-retest reliability of the SBAS was statistically significant (r(s)= 0.62, P < .001).These results provide evidence of the construct validity and reliability of the SBAS in older adults. We also found a strong dose-response relationship between regular physical activity and psychological health in older adults, independent of gender, education level and ethnicity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280737800012

    View details for PubMedID 20231759

  • Insulin resistance independently predicts the progression of coronary artery calcification AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Lee, K. K., Fortmann, S. P., Fair, J. M., Iribarren, C., Rubin, G. D., Varady, A., Go, A. S., Quertermous, T., Hlatky, M. A. 2009; 157 (5): 939-945


    Change in coronary artery calcification is a surrogate marker of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD). In the only large prospective study, CAD risk factors predicted progression of coronary artery calcium (CAC).We measured CAC at enrollment and after 24 months in a community-based sample of 869 healthy adults aged 60 to 72 years who were free of clinical CAD. We assessed predictors of the progression of CAC using univariate and multivariate models after square root transformation of the Agatston scores. Predictors tested included age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, body mass index, family history of CAD, C-reactive protein and several measures of diabetes, insulin levels, blood pressure, and lipids.The mean age of the cohort was 66 years, and 62% were male. The median CAC at entry was 38.6 Agatston units and increased to 53.3 Agatston units over 24 months (P < .01). The CAC progression was associated with white race, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, lower diastolic blood pressure, and higher pulse pressure. After controlling for these variables, higher fasting insulin levels independently predicted CAC progression.Insulin resistance, in addition to the traditional cardiac risk factors, independently predicts progression of CAC in a community-based population without clinical CAD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.02.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265987800031

    View details for PubMedID 19376325

  • Examining Racial/Ethnic Differences in Lipoprotein(a) Levels Banerjee, D., Palaniappan, L., Wong, E., Makielski, T., Shin, J., Fortmann, S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2009: E345-E345
  • Asian Americans Have a Greater Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Despite Lower Body Mass Index Palaniappan, L., Wong, E. C., Shin, J., Fortmann, S. P., Lauderdale, D. S. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2009: E363-E363
  • Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Polymorphisms and Coronary Heart Disease PPAR RESEARCH Dallongeville, J., Iribarren, C., Ferrieres, J., Lyon, L., Evans, A., Go, A. S., Arveiler, D., Fortmann, S. P., Ducimetiere, P., Hlatky, M. A., Amouyel, P., Southwick, A., Quertermous, T., Meirhaeghe, A. 2009


    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) gene have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors, particularly obesity and diabetes. We assessed the relationship between 4 PPARG SNPs (C-681G, C-689T, Pro12Ala, and C1431T) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the PRIME (249 cases/494 controls, only men) and ADVANCE (1,076 cases/805 controls, men or women) studies. In PRIME, homozygote individuals for the minor allele of the PPARG C-689T, Pro12Ala, and C1431T SNPs tended to have a higher risk of CHD than homozygote individuals for the frequent allele (adjusted OR [95% CI] = 3.43 [0.96-12.27], P = .058, 3.41 [0.95-12.22], P = .060 and 5.10 [0.99-26.37], P = .050, resp.). No such association could be detected in ADVANCE. Haplotype distributions were similar in cases and control in both studies. A meta-analysis on the Pro12Ala SNP, based on our data and 11 other published association studies (6,898 CHD cases/11,287 controls), revealed that there was no evidence for a significant association under the dominant model (OR = 0.99 [0.92-1.07], P = .82). However, there was a borderline association under the recessive model (OR = 1.29 [0.99-1.67], P = .06) that became significant when considering men only (OR = 1.73 [1.20-2.48], P = .003). In conclusion, the PPARG Ala12Ala genotype might be associated with a higher CHD risk in men but further confirmation studies are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2009/543746

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283415200001

    View details for PubMedID 20016803

  • Incidental Pulmonary Nodules on Cardiac Computed Tomography: Prognosis and Use AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Iribarren, C., Hlatky, M. A., Chandra, M., Fair, J. M., Rubin, G. D., Go, A. S., Burt, J. R., Fortmann, S. P. 2008; 121 (11): 989-996


    Small asymptomatic lung nodules are found frequently in the course of cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning. However, the utility of assessing and reporting incidental findings in healthy, asymptomatic subjects is unknown.The sample comprised 1023 60- to 69-year-old subjects free of clinical cardiovascular disease and cancer who participated in the Atherosclerotic Disease, VAscular functioN and genetiC Epidemiology Study. All subjects underwent cardiac CT for determination of coronary calcium between 2001 and 2004, and the first 459 subjects were assessed for incidental pulmonary findings. We used health plan clinical databases to ascertain 24-month health care use and clinical outcomes.Noncalcified pulmonary nodules were reported in 81 of 459 subjects (18%). Chest CT was performed on 78% of participants in the 24 months after notification, compared with 2.5% in the previous 24 months. Chest x-ray use increased from 28% to 49%. The mean number of chest CT scans per subject was 1.3 (range, 0-5). Although no malignant lesions were diagnosed in the group who had pulmonary findings read, 1 lung cancer case was diagnosed in the group who did not have lung findings read. Among the 63 participants followed up by CT, the original lesion was not identified in 22 participants (35%), the lesion had decreased or remained stable in 39 participants (62%), and there was interval growth in 2 participants (3%).Reporting noncalcified pulmonary nodules resulted in substantial rescanning that overwhelmingly revealed resolution or stability of pulmonary nodules, arguing for benign processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.05.040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260369900013

    View details for PubMedID 18954846

  • Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools? PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Henriksen, L., Feighery, E. C., Schleicher, N. C., Cowling, D. W., Kline, R. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2008; 47 (2): 210-214


    To examine the quantity (density) and location (proximity) of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in high school neighborhoods and their association with school smoking prevalence.Data from the 135 high schools that participated in the 2005-2006 California Student Tobacco Survey were combined with retailer licensing data about the location of tobacco outlets within walking distance (1/2 mi or 805 m) of the schools and with observations about the quantity of cigarette advertising in a random sample of those stores (n=384). Multiple regressions, adjusting for school and neighborhood demographics, tested the associations of high school smoking prevalence with the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising and with the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools.The prevalence of current smoking was 3.2 percentage points higher at schools in neighborhoods with the highest tobacco outlet density (>5 outlets) than in neighborhoods without any tobacco outlets. The density of retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods was similarly associated with high school smoking prevalence. However, neither the presence of a tobacco outlet within 1000 ft of a high school nor the distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from school was associated with smoking prevalence.Policy efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should aim to reduce the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods. This may be achieved through local zoning ordinances, including limiting the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.04.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258560300012

    View details for PubMedID 18544462

  • Susceptibility locus for clinical and subclinical coronary artery disease at chromosome 9p21 in the multi-ethnic ADVANCE study HUMAN MOLECULAR GENETICS Assimes, T. L., Knowles, J. W., Basu, A., Iribarren, C., Southwick, A., Tang, H., Absher, D., Li, J., Fair, J. M., Rubin, G. D., Sidney, S., Fortmann, S. P., Go, A. S., Hlatky, M. A., Myers, R. M., Risch, N., Quertermous, T. 2008; 17 (15): 2320-2328


    A susceptibility locus for coronary artery disease (CAD) at chromosome 9p21 has recently been reported, which may influence the age of onset of CAD. We sought to replicate these findings among white subjects and to examine whether these results are consistent with other racial/ethnic groups by genotyping three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the risk interval in the Atherosclerotic Disease, Vascular Function, and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study. One or more of these SNPs was associated with clinical CAD in whites, U.S. Hispanics and U.S. East Asians. None of the SNPs were associated with CAD in African Americans although the power to detect an odds ratio (OR) in this group equivalent to that seen in whites was only 24-30%. ORs were higher in Hispanics and East Asians and lower in African Americans, but in all groups the 95% confidence intervals overlapped with ORs observed in whites. High-risk alleles were also associated with increased coronary artery calcification in controls and the magnitude of these associations by racial/ethnic group closely mirrored the magnitude observed for clinical CAD. Unexpectedly, we noted significant genotype frequency differences between male and female cases (P = 0.003-0.05). Consequently, men tended towards a recessive and women tended towards a dominant mode of inheritance. Finally, an effect of genotype on the age of onset of CAD was detected but only in men carrying two versus one or no copy of the high-risk allele and presenting with CAD at age >50 years. Further investigations in other populations are needed to confirm or refute our findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/hmg/ddn132

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257788300007

    View details for PubMedID 18443000

  • Extended cognitive behavior therapy for cigarette smoking cessation ADDICTION Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P., Schatzberg, A. F., Arredondo, C., Murphy, G., Hayward, C., Celio, M., Cromp, D., Fong, D., Pandurangi, M. 2008; 103 (8): 1381-1390


    PRIMARY AIM: Examine the effectiveness of extended cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in promoting longer-term smoking abstinence.Open-label treatment phase followed by extended treatment phase. Randomization conducted prior to entry into open-label treatment phase; analysis based on intention-to-treat to avoid threat of selection bias.Community smoking cessation clinic.A total of 304 adult smokers (> or = 18 years of age; > or = 10 cigarettes/day).Open-label (8 weeks): all participants received bupropion SR, nicotine patch, CBT. Extended treatment (12 weeks): participants received either CBT + voicemail monitoring and telephone counseling or telephone-based general support.Seven-day point prevalence abstinence, expired-air carbon monoxide.At week 20 follow-up, CBT produced a higher 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate: 45% versus 29%, P = 0.006; at 52 weeks the difference in abstinence rates (31% versus 27%) was not significant. History of depression was a moderator of treatment. Those with a positive history had a better treatment response at 20 weeks when assigned to the less intensive telephone support therapy (P < 0.05).The superiority of CBT to 20 weeks suggests that continued emphasis on the development of cognitive and behavioral strategies for maintaining non-smoking during an extended treatment phase may help smokers to maintain abstinence in the longer term. At present, the minimum duration of therapy is unknown.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02273.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257692800021

    View details for PubMedID 18855829

  • Population-based prevention of obesity - The need for comprehensive promotion of healthful eating, physical activity, and energy balance - A scientific statement from American heart association council on epidemiology and prevention, interdisciplinary committee for prevention (formerly the expert panel on population and prevention science) CIRCULATION Kumanyika, S. K., Obarzanek, E., Stettler, N., Bell, R., Field, A. E., Fortmann, S. P., Franklin, B. A., Gillman, M. W., Lewis, C. E., Poston, W. C., Stevens, J., Hong, Y. 2008; 118 (4): 428-464


    Obesity is a major influence on the development and course of cardiovascular diseases and affects physical and social functioning and quality of life. The importance of effective interventions to reduce obesity and related health risks has increased in recent decades because the number of adults and children who are obese has reached epidemic proportions. To prevent the development of overweight and obesity throughout the life course, population-based strategies that improve social and physical environmental contexts for healthful eating and physical activity are essential. Population-based approaches to obesity prevention are complementary to clinical preventive strategies and also to treatment programs for those who are already obese. This American Heart Association scientific statement aims: 1) to raise awareness of the importance of undertaking population-based initiatives specifically geared to the prevention of excess weight gain in adults and children; 2) to describe considerations for undertaking obesity prevention overall and in key risk subgroups; 3) to differentiate environmental and policy approaches to obesity prevention from those used in clinical prevention and obesity treatment; 4) to identify potential targets of environmental and policy change using an ecological model that includes multiple layers of influences on eating and physical activity across multiple societal sectors; and 5) to highlight the spectrum of potentially relevant interventions and the nature of evidence needed to inform population-based approaches. The evidence-based experience for population-wide approaches to obesity prevention is highlighted.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.189702

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257797800016

    View details for PubMedID 18591433

  • A near null variant of 12/15-LOX encoded by a novel SNP in ALOX15 and the risk of coronary artery disease ATHEROSCLEROSIS Assimes, T. L., Knowles, J. W., Priest, J. R., Basu, A., Borchert, A., Volcik, K. A., Grove, M. L., Tabor, H. K., Southwick, A., Tabibiazar, R., Sidney, S., Boerwinkle, E., Go, A. S., Iribarren, C., Hlatky, M. A., Fortmann, S. P., Myers, R. M., Kuhn, H., Riseh, N., Quertermous, T. 2008; 198 (1): 136-144


    Murine genetic models suggest that function of the 12/15-LOX enzyme promotes atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that exonic and/or promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human 12/15-LOX gene (ALOX15) alter the risk of symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD).We resequenced ALOX15 and then genotyped a common promoter and a less common novel coding SNP (T560M) in 1809 subjects with CAD and 1734 controls from Kaiser Permanente including a subset of participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. We found no association between the promoter SNP and the risk of CAD. However, heterozygote carriers of the 560M allele had an increased risk of CAD (adjusted OR, 1.62; P=0.02) compared to non-carriers. In vitro studies demonstrated a 20-fold reduction in the catalytic activity of 560M when compared to 560T. We then genotyped T560M in 12,974 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and similarly found that heterozygote carriers had an increased risk of CAD compared to non-carriers (adjusted HR, 1.31; P=0.06). In both population studies, homozygote carriers were rare and associated with a non-significant decreased risk of CAD compared to non-carriers (adjusted OR, 0.55; P=0.63 and HR, 0.93; P=0.9).A coding SNP in ALOX15 (T560M) results in a near null variant of human 12/15-LOX. Assuming a co-dominant mode of inheritance, this variant does not protect against CAD. Assuming a recessive mode of inheritance, the effect of this mutation remains unclear, but is unlikely to provide a protective effect to the degree suggested by mouse knockout studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.atheroscierosis.2007.09.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255491800016

    View details for PubMedID 17959182

  • Common polymorphisms of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP and risk of coronary artery disease HUMAN GENETICS Assimes, T. L., Knowles, J. W., Priest, J. R., Basu, A., Volcik, K. A., Southwick, A., Tabor, H. K., Hartiala, J., Allayee, H., Grove, M. L., Tabibiazar, R., Sidney, S., Fortmann, S. P., Go, A., Hlatky, M., Iribarren, C., Boerwinkle, E., Myers, R., Risch, N., Quertermous, T. 2008; 123 (4): 399-408


    Recent human genetic studies suggest that allelic variants of leukotriene pathway genes influence the risk of clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. We sequenced the promoter, exonic, and splice site regions of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP and then genotyped 7 SNPs in ALOX5 and 6 SNPs in ALOX5AP in 1,552 cases with clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and 1,583 controls from Kaiser Permanente including a subset of participants of the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. A nominally significant association was detected between a promoter SNP in ALOX5 (rs12762303) and CAD in our subset of white/European subjects (adjusted odds ratio per minor allele, log-additive model, 1.32; P = 0.002). In this race/ethnic group, rs12762303 has a minor allele frequency of 15% and is tightly linked to variation at the SP1 variable tandem repeat promoter polymorphism. However, the association between CAD and rs12762303 could not be reproduced in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study (hazard rate ratio per minor allele; 1.08, P = 0.1). Assuming a recessive mode of inheritance, the association was not significant in either population study but our power to detect modest effects was limited. No significant associations were observed between all other SNPs and the risk of CAD. Overall, our findings do not support a link between common allelic variation in or near ALOX5 or ALOX5AP and the risk of CAD. However, additional studies are needed to exclude modest effects of promoter variation in ALOX5 on the risk of CAD assuming a recessive mode of inheritance.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00439-008-0489-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254959600008

    View details for PubMedID 18369664

  • Incidental findings on cardiac multidetector row computed tomography among healthy older adults ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Burt, J. R., Iribarren, C., Fair, J. M., Norton, L. C., Mahbouba, M., Rubin, G. D., Hlatky, M. A., Go, A. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2008; 168 (7): 756-761


    With the widespread use of cardiac multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), the issue of incidental findings is receiving increasing attention. Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of incidental findings discovered during cardiac MDCT scanning and to identify clinical variables associated with incidental findings.This cross-sectional analysis involved a population-based sample recruited from an integrated health care delivery system in Northern California as part of the Atherosclerotic Disease, Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) Study. Healthy men and women aged 60 to 69 years without diagnosed cardiovascular disease underwent cardiac MDCT for the detection and quantification of coronary artery calcification. The images were prospectively evaluated for incidental findings.A total of 459 participants underwent MDCT scanning, and the overall prevalence of any incidental finding was 41%. Of the 459 participants, 105 (23%) had at least 1 incidental finding that was recommended for clinical or radiological follow-up examination, the most common of which was single or multiple pulmonary nodules (18%). Participants with and without incidental findings had comparable baseline demographics and selected clinical variables, although there were significantly fewer men and a significantly lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in those with incidental findings.Incidental findings, especially pulmonary nodules, are common in cardiac MDCT performed to assess coronary artery calcification in older healthy adults. The net risks and benefits of looking for noncardiac abnormalities during cardiac MDCT should be rigorously evaluated.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254836000013

    View details for PubMedID 18413559

  • Failure to replicate an association of SNPs in the oxidized LDL receptor gene (OLRI) with CAD BMC MEDICAL GENETICS Knowles, J. W., Assimes, T. L., Boerwinkle, E., Fortmann, S. P., Go, A., Grove, M. L., Hlatky, M., Iribarren, C., Li, J., Myers, R., Risch, N., Sidney, S., Southwick, A., Volcik, K. A., Quertermous, T. 2008; 9


    The lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor LOX-1 (encoded by OLR1) is believed to play a key role in atherogenesis and some reports suggest an association of OLR1 polymorphisms with myocardial infarction (MI). We tested whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OLR1 are associated with clinically significant CAD in the Atherosclerotic Disease, VAscular FuNction, & Geneti C Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study.ADVANCE is a population-based case-control study of subjects receiving care within Kaiser Permanente of Northern California including a subset of participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. We first resequenced the promoter, exonic, and splice site regions of OLR1 and then genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including a non-synonymous SNP (rs11053646, Lys167Asn) as well as an intronic SNP (rs3736232) previously associated with CAD.In 1,809 cases with clinical CAD and 1,734 controls, the minor allele of the coding SNP was nominally associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) of CAD across all ethnic groups studied (minimally adjusted OR 0.8, P = 0.007; fully adjusted OR 0.8, P = 0.01). The intronic SNP was nominally associated with an increased risk of CAD (minimally adjusted OR 1.12, p = 0.03; fully adjusted OR 1.13, P = 0.03). However, these associations were not replicated in over 13,200 individuals (including 1,470 cases) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.Our results do not support the presence of an association between selected common SNPs in OLR1 and the risk of clinical CAD.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2350-9-23

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255652400001

    View details for PubMedID 18384690

  • Impaired Coronary Vasodilation by Magnetic Resonance Angiography Is Associated With Advanced Coronary Artery Calcification JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING Terashima, M., Nguyen, P. K., Rubin, G. D., Iribarren, C., Courtney, B. K., Go, A. S., Fortmann, S. P., McConnell, M. V. 2008; 1 (2): 167-173


    This study evaluated the hypothesis that impaired nitroglycerin (NTG)-induced coronary vasodilation is associated with advanced coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic older patients.Atherosclerosis is associated with both structural and functional abnormalities of the vessel wall. Noninvasive functional measures of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis may help characterize high-risk subjects and guide preventive therapy.A total of 236 older patients (age 60 to 72 years, 33% female) without a history of cardiovascular disease were studied. Nitroglycerin-induced coronary vasodilation was measured by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Cross-sectional images of the right coronary artery were acquired before and 5 min after 0.4-mg sublingual NTG using a gated, breath-held spiral coronary MRA sequence (0.7-mm resolution). Quantitative analysis of the increase in cross-sectional area was performed in the 90% of patients (n = 212) with adequate image quality. Quantitation of coronary artery calcification (CAC) was performed by multidetector computed tomography using the Agatston method.Forty patients (19%) had advanced CAC (> or =400). Coronary vasodilation to NTG was significantly impaired (p = 0.02) in patients with advanced CAC (median [interquartile range] = 15.9% [4.2% to 28.0%] vs. 21.5% [9.6% to 36.6%] for CAC <400). Importantly, NTG-induced coronary vasodilation remained independently associated with advanced CAC after multivariate analysis incorporating risk factors (p = 0.02) and other potential confounders (p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in coronary vasodilation between men and women, but few women (n = 3) had advanced CAC.Impaired NTG-induced coronary vasodilation by MRA is associated with advanced coronary atherosclerosis in a community-based cohort of older asymptomatic subjects. Coronary MRA may provide a noninvasive functional assessment of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcmg.2007.12.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000207649700007

    View details for PubMedID 19356424

  • Impaired coronary vasodilation by magnetic resonance angiography is associated with advanced coronary artery calcification J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. Img. Terashima M, Nguyen PK, Rubin GD, Iribarren C, Courtney BK, Go AS, Fortmann SP, McConnell MV 2008; 1: 167-173
  • Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Henriksen, L., Feighery, E. C., Schleicher, N. C., Fortmann, S. P. 2008; 42 (1): 28-35


    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined.Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics.At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline.Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.07.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252001500005

    View details for PubMedID 18155027

  • Matrix metalloproteinase circulating levels, genetic polymorphisms, and susceptibility to acute myocardial infarction among patients with coronary artery disease AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Hlatky, M. A., Ashley, E., Quertermous, T., Boothroyd, D. B., Ridker, P., Southwick, A., Myers, R. M., Iribarren, C., Fortmann, S. P., Go, A. S. 2007; 154 (6): 1043-1051


    The aim of this study was to assess systematic differences between patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and patients with stable angina in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) circulating levels and genetic polymorphisms.We identified adults in a large integrated health care delivery system whose initial clinical presentation of coronary disease was either an acute MI or stable exertional angina. A total of 909 patients with acute MI, 466 patients with stable angina, and 1023 healthy older control subjects were genotyped. Serum levels of pro-MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, and MMP10 were measured in 199 randomly selected patients from each group.At a median of 15 weeks after initial clinical presentation, higher circulating levels of MMP2 and MMP9 were independently associated with acute MI after statistical adjustment for conventional risk factors, hs-CRP levels, and cardiac medications. By contrast, none of the polymorphisms in MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, or MMP10 was significantly associated with either acute MI compared with angina, or with coronary disease compared with controls.Circulating levels of MMP2 and MMP9 are independently associated with development of an acute MI rather than stable angina as the initial clinical presentation of coronary artery disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.06.042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251396200007

    View details for PubMedID 18035073

  • Polymorphisms in hypoxia inducible factor 1 and the initial clinical presentation of coronary disease AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Hlatky, M. A., Quertermous, T., Boothroyd, D. B., Priest, J. R., Glassford, A. J., Myers, R. M., Fortmann, S. P., Iribarren, C., Tabor, H. K., Assimes, T. L., Tibshirani, R. J., Go, A. S. 2007; 154 (6): 1035-1042


    Only some patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop acute myocardial infarction (MI), and emerging evidence suggests vulnerability to MI varies systematically among patients and may have a genetic component. The goal of this study was to assess whether polymorphisms in genes encoding elements of pathways mediating the response to ischemia affect vulnerability to MI among patients with underlying CAD.We prospectively identified patients at the time of their initial clinical presentation of CAD who had either an acute MI or stable exertional angina. We collected clinical data and genotyped 34 polymorphisms in 6 genes (ANGPT1, HIF1A, THBS1, VEGFA, VEGFC, VEGFR2).The 909 patients with acute MI were significantly more likely than the 466 patients with stable angina to be male, current smokers, and hypertensive, and less likely to be taking beta-blockers or statins. Three polymorphisms in HIF1A (Pro582Ser, rs11549465; rs1087314; and Thr418Ile, rs41508050) were significantly more common in patients who presented with stable exertional angina rather than acute MI, even after statistical adjustment for cardiac risk factors and medications. The HIF-mediated transcriptional activity was significantly lower when HIF1A null fibroblasts were transfected with variant HIF1A alleles than with wild-type HIF1A alleles.Polymorphisms in HIF1A were associated with development of stable exertional angina rather than acute MI as the initial clinical presentation of CAD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.07.042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251396200006

    View details for PubMedID 18035072

  • Do plasma biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis differ between patients who have experienced an acute myocardial infarction versus stable exertional angina? AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Itakura, H., Sobel, B. E., Boothroyd, D., Leung, L. L., Iribarren, C., Go, A. S., Fortmann, S. P., Quertermous, T., Hlatky, M. A. 2007; 154 (6): 1059-1064


    Circulating concentrations of proteins associated with coagulation and fibrinolysis may differ between individuals with coronary artery disease (CAD) who develop an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) rather than stable exertional angina.We compared plasma concentrations of fibrinogen, d-dimer, tissue-type plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) between patients whose first clinical manifestation of CAD was an AMI (n = 198) rather than stable exertional angina (n = 199). We also compared plasma concentrations of these proteins between patients with symptomatic CAD (either AMI or stable angina; n = 397) and healthy, control subjects (n = 197) to confirm the sensitivity of these assays to detect epidemiologic associations.At a median of 15 weeks after presentation, patients with AMI had slightly higher d-dimer concentrations than patients with stable angina (P = .057), but were not significantly different in other markers. By contrast, fibrinogen, d-dimer, and tissue-type plasminogen activator were significantly higher (P < .001) and PAI-1 lower in patients with CAD than in healthy control subjects. After statistical adjustment for clinical covariates, cardiac risk factors, medications, and other confounders, fibrinogen, d-dimer, and PAI-1 remained significantly associated with CAD.Selected plasma markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis did not distinguish patients presenting with AMI from those with stable exertional angina.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.09.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251396200009

    View details for PubMedID 18035075

  • Association of polymorphisms in platelet and hemostasis system genes with acute myocardial infarction AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Knowles, J. W., Wang, H., Itakura, H., Southwick, A., Myers, R. M., Iribarren, C., Fortmann, S. P., Go, A. S., Quertermous, T., Hlatky, M. A. 2007; 154 (6): 1052-1058


    Genetic polymorphisms may affect the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis and thereby affect individual vulnerability to acute myocardial infarction (MI) among patients with underlying coronary atherosclerosis.We enrolled 1375 patients with an initial clinical presentation of coronary disease. We genotyped 49 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 9 coagulation system genes and compared patients who had an initial acute MI with patients who presented with stable exertional angina.An SNP in CD36 (rs3211956) was significantly (P = .04) more common among patients who presented with acute MI (minor allele frequency 10.5%) than patients with stable exertional angina (minor allele frequency 8.0%). This association became marginally significant, however, after adjustment for conventional cardiac risk factors in an additive genetic model (odds ratio 1.34, CI 1.00-1.88, P = .053). An SNP in ITGB3 (Leu59Pro, rs5918) was slightly, but not significantly (P = .083), more common among patients with acute MI (minor allele frequency 14.5%) than among patients with stable exertional angina (minor allele frequency 12.0%). Two linked SNPs in THBD (Ala473Val, rs1042579; and rs3176123) were slightly, but not significantly (P = .079 and 0.052, respectively), less common among patients with acute MI (minor allele frequency 16.1%) than among patients with stable exertional angina (18.7% and 19.0%, respectively).Four SNPs in platelet glycoprotein and hemostatic genes were nominally associated with acute MI rather than stable exertional angina as the initial clinical presentation of coronary artery disease. These findings are suggestive but require independent confirmation in larger studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.05.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251396200008

    View details for PubMedID 18035074

  • Circulating chemokines accurately identify individuals with clinically significant atherosclerotic heart disease PHYSIOLOGICAL GENOMICS Ardigo, D., Assimes, T. L., Fortmann, S. P., Go, A. S., Hlatky, M., Hytopoulos, E., Iribarren, C., Tsao, P. S., Tabibiazar, R., Quertermous, T. 2007; 31 (3): 402-409


    Serum inflammatory markers correlate with outcome and response to therapy in subjects with cardiovascular disease. However, current individual markers lack specificity for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesize that a multimarker proteomic approach measuring serum levels of vascular derived inflammatory biomarkers could reveal a "signature of disease" that can serve as a highly accurate method to assess for the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. We simultaneously measured serum levels of seven chemokines [CXCL10 (IP-10), CCL11 (eotaxin), CCL3 (MIP1 alpha), CCL2 (MCP1), CCL8 (MCP2), CCL7 (MCP3), and CCL13 (MCP4)] in 48 subjects with clinically significant CAD ("cases") and 44 controls from the ADVANCE Study. We applied three classification algorithms to identify the combination of variables that would best predict case-control status and assessed the diagnostic performance of these models with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The serum levels of six chemokines were significantly higher in cases compared with controls (P < 0.05). All three classification algorithms entered three chemokines in their final model, and only logistic regression selected clinical variables. Logistic regression produced the highest ROC of the three algorithms (AUC = 0.95; SE = 0.03), which was markedly better than the AUC for the logistic regression model of traditional risk factors of CAD without (AUC = 0.67; SE = 0.06) or with CRP (AUC = 0.68; SE = 0.06). A combination of serum levels of multiple chemokines identifies subjects with clinically significant atherosclerotic heart disease with a very high degree of accuracy. These results need to be replicated in larger cross-sectional studies and their prognostic value explored.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00104.2007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251780600005

    View details for PubMedID 17698927

  • Ethnic differences in coronary artery calcium in a healthy cohort aged 60 to 69 years AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Fair, J. M., Kiazand, A., Varady, A., Mahbouba, M., Norton, L., Rubin, G. D., Iribarren, C., Go, A. S., Hlatky, M. A., Fortmann, S. P. 2007; 100 (6): 981-985


    Measurement of coronary artery calcium (CAC) has been proposed as a screening tool, but CAC levels may differ according to race and gender. Racial/ethnic and gender distributions of CAC were examined in a randomly selected cohort of 60- to 69-year-old healthy subjects. Demographic, race/ethnicity (R/E), and clinical characteristics and assessment of CAC were collected. There were 723 white/European, 105 African-American, 73 Hispanic, and 67 East Asian subjects (597 men, 369 women) included in this analysis. Men had a significantly higher prevalence of any CAC (score>10) than women (76% vs 41%; p<0.0001). For men, the unadjusted odds of having any CAC was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 3.8) for whites compared with African-Americans. For women, CAC scores were not significantly different across ethnic groups. After adjustment for coronary risk factors, African-American and East Asian R/E remained associated with a lower prevalence of CAC in men (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] 0.33 and 0.47, respectively), as well as older age (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.3), known hyperlipidemia (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.7), and history of hypertension (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.3). In women, Asian R/E (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 5.7), history of smoking (adjusted OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.3 to 6.1), and known hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.1) were associated with a higher prevalence of CAC independent of other risk factors. In conclusion, our data indicate that the presence of CAC varied significantly across selected race/ethnic groups independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.04.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249757400014

    View details for PubMedID 17826382

  • Clinical utility of the Stanford brief activity survey in men and women with early-onset coronary artery disease JOURNAL OF CARDIOPULMONARY REHABILITATION AND PREVENTION Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Haskell, W. L., Iribarren, C., Norton, L. C., Mahbouba, M. H., Fair, J. M., Hlatky, M. A., Go, A. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2007; 27 (4): 227-232


    To determine the utility of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS) as a quick screening tool in a clinical population, where no other measure of physical activity was available.The SBAS was administered to 500 younger cases in the Atherosclerotic Disease Vascular Function and Genetic Epidemiology (ADVANCE) study, a case-control genetic association study, between December 2001 and January 2004. Younger cases in the ADVANCE study included men (<46 years old) and women (<56 years old) diagnosed with early-onset coronary artery disease. Frequency distributions of the SBAS and associations between SBAS activity categories and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors by sex were calculated.Subjects were 45.9 +/- 6.4 years old, 68% married, 61% women, 51% white, and 21% college graduates. Clinical diagnoses for early-onset coronary artery disease included 61% myocardial infarction, 23% coronary revascularization procedure, and 16% angina pectoris. In women, associations between all cardiovascular disease risk factors examined across SBAS categories were statistically significant (P trend < .01). In men, the associations across SBAS categories were statistically significant (P trend < .01), except for body mass index (P trend = .065). Adjustment for body mass index, age, ethnicity, and education with interactions by sex did not change the results.Subjects in the higher SBAS activity categories had more favorable cardiovascular disease risk profiles than did their less active counterparts, regardless of sex. The SBAS can be recommended for use in clinical populations providing immediate feedback on current physical activity level.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248736500007

    View details for PubMedID 17667019

  • Elective and isolated carotid endarterectomy: Health disparities in utilization and outcomes, but not readmission JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Kennedy, B. S., Fortmann, S. P., Winkleby, M. A., Stafford, R. S. 2007; 99 (5): 480-488


    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been shown to decrease future ischemic stroke risk in selected patients. However, clinical trials did not examine the risk-benefit ratio for nonwhites, who have a greater ischemic stroke risk than whites. In general, few studies have examined the effects of race on CEA use and complications, and data on race and CEA readmission are lacking.This study used administrative data for patients discharged from California hospitals between January 1 and December 31, 2000. Selection criteria of cases included: ICD-9 principal procedure code 38.12, principal diagnostic code 433 and diagnosis-related group 5. There were 8,080 white and 1196 nonwhite patients (228 blacks, 643 Hispanics, 325 Asians/Pacific Islanders) identified that underwent an elective and isolated CEA. For both groups, CEA rates were compared. Logistic regression was used to examine the independent effects of race on in-hospital death and stroke, as well as CEA readmission.Rates of CEA use were more than three times greater for whites than nonwhites, although nonwhites were more likely to have symptomatic disease. For all patients, the complication rate was 1.9%. However, the odds of in-hospital death and stroke were greater for nonwhites than whites, but after adjustment for patient and hospital factors, these differences were only significant for stroke (OR = 1.7, P = 0.013). For both outcomes, the final models had good predictive accuracy. Overall, CEA readmission risk was 7%, and no significant racial differences were observed (P = 0.110).The data suggest that CEA is performed safely in California. However, nonwhites had lower rates of initial CEA use but higher rates of in-hospital death and stroke than whites. Racial differences in stroke risk persisted after adjustment for patient and hospital factors. Finally, this study found that despite significant racial disparities in initial CEA use, whites and nonwhites were similar in their CEA readmission rates. These findings may suggest that screening initiatives are lacking for nonwhites, which may increase their risk for poorer outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246468500001

    View details for PubMedID 17534005

  • The relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising in stores, owning alcohol promotional items, and adolescent alcohol use ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM Hurtz, S. Q., Henriksen, L., Wang, Y., Feighery, E. C., Fortmann, S. P. 2007; 42 (2): 143-149


    This paper describes adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and to alcohol-branded promotional items and their association with self-reported drinking.A cross-sectional survey was administered in non-tracked required courses to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders (n = 2125) in three California middle schools. Logistic regressions compared the odds of ever (vs. never) drinking and current (vs. ever) drinking after controlling for psychosocial and other risk factors for adolescent alcohol use.Two-thirds of middle school students reported at least weekly visits to liquor, convenience, or small grocery stores where alcohol advertising is widespread. Such exposure was associated with higher odds of ever drinking, but was not associated with current drinking. One-fifth of students reported owning at least one alcohol promotional item. These students were three times more likely to have ever tried drinking and 1.5 times more likely to report current drinking than students without such items.This study provides clear evidence of an association of adolescent drinking with weekly exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and with ownership of alcohol promotional items. Given their potential influence on adolescent drinking behaviour, retail ads, and promotional items for alcohol deserve further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/alcal/agl119

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246015000015

    View details for PubMedID 17218364

  • Plasma leptin levels and coronary artery calcification in older adults JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM Iribarren, C., Husson, G., Go, A. S., Lo, J. C., Fair, J. M., Rubin, G. D., Hlatky, M. A., Fortmann, S. P. 2007; 92 (2): 729-732


    Leptin is associated with adiposity and insulin resistance and may play a direct role in vascular calcification. It is unclear, however, whether leptin is an independent predictor of atherosclerotic burden.The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma leptin and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in an ethnically diverse cohort of older adult men and women free of clinical cardiovascular disease.This was a cross-sectional study with data collection between January 2002 and February 2004 as part of the ADVANCE Study.The study was conducted at an integrated health care delivery system in Northern California.Participants included 949 men and women aged 60-69 yr old.There were no interventions.The main outcome measure was CAC by multidetector row computed tomography.In ordinal logistic regression, plasma leptin levels were positively associated with extent of CAC independently of age, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in women (odds ratio of higher CAC for the sex-specific upper tertile vs. lower tertile = 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.00) but not in men (odds ratio = 1.29; 95% confidence interval = 0.89-1.86). However, this association was explained by metabolic risk factors and adiposity measures.Our findings support a role of leptin on vascular calcification in women but, in our sample of older adults, the association between leptin and CAC was not independent of other cardiac risk factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1210/jc.2006-1138

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244064900062

    View details for PubMedID 17148566

  • An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores NICOTINE & TOBACCO RESEARCH Feighery, E. C., Henriksen, L., Wang, Y., Schleicher, N. C., Fortmann, S. P. 2006; 8 (6): 751-759


    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14622200601004125

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242992300005

    View details for PubMedID 17132522

  • Metabolic syndrome and early-onset coronary artery disease - Is the whole greater than its parts? JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Iribarren, C., Go, A. S., Husson, G., Sidney, S., Fair, J. M., Quertermous, T., Hlatky, M. A., Fortmann, S. P. 2006; 48 (9): 1800-1807


    We sought to examine the association between the metabolic syndrome (MetS) (defined both by the 2001 National Cholesterol Educational Program Adult Treatment Panel III [ATP-III] definition and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute [AHA/NHLBI] revision incorporating the lower threshold for impaired fasting glucose [IFG]) and early-onset coronary artery disease (CAD).The impact of MetS on premature CAD has not been studied extensively. Lowering the threshold to define the IFG component (from 110 to 100 mg/dl) and the value of the syndrome as a whole versus its individual components are subjects of intense debate.We performed a case-control study with 393 early-onset CAD subjects (acute myocardial infarction, angina with > or =50% stenosis, or coronary revascularization) in men under age 46 years or women under age 56 years and 393 control subjects individually matched for gender, age, and race/ethnicity.By conditional logistic regression, presence of ATP-III MetS without diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [adj-OR] 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4 to 8.0) and with diabetes (adj-OR 8.0, 95% CI 4.39 to 14.6) was a strong independent determinant of early-onset CAD. Using the AHA/NHLBI revision, these ORs became slightly stronger. However, neither definition of MetS remained significantly associated with early-onset CAD in multivariate models adjusting for individual components.The presence of MetS imparts a high risk of early-onset clinical CAD, but the prognostic information associated with the syndrome is not greater than the sum of its parts.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.03.070

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241804400012

    View details for PubMedID 17084253

  • Effects of a physical activity intervention on measures of physical performance: Results of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) study JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES A-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND MEDICAL SCIENCES Pahor, M., Blair, S. N., Espeland, M., Fielding, R., Gill, T. M., Guralnik, J. M., Hadley, E. C., King, A. C., Kritchevsky, S. B., Maraldi, C., Miller, M. E., Newman, A. B., Rejeski, W. J., Romashkan, S., Studenski, S., Blair, S. N., Church, T., Ashmore, J. A., Dubreuil, J., Frierson, G., Jordan, A. N., Morss, G., Rodarte, R. Q., Wallace, J. M., Guralnik, J. M., Hadley, E. C., Romashkan, S., King, A. C., Haskell, W. L., Pruitt, L. A., Abbott-Pilolla, K., Fortmann, S., Prosak, C., Wallace, K., Bolen, K., Fielding, R., Nelson, M., Kaplan, R. M., Groessl, E. J., Pahor, M., Perri, M., Caudle, C., Crump, L., Hayden, S., Holmes, L., Maraldi, C., Quirin, C., Newman, A. B., Studenski, S., Goodpaster, B. H., Aiken, E. K., Anthony, S., Glynn, N. W., Kadosh, J., Kost, P., Newman, M., Taylor, C. A., Vincent, P., Kritchevsky, S. B., Brubaker, P., Demons, J., Furberg, C., Katula, J. A., Marsh, A., Nicklas, B. J., Williamson, J. D., Fries, R., Kennedy, K., Murphy, K., Nagaria, S., Wickley-Krupel, K., Miller, M. E., Espeland, M., Hsu, F., Rejeski, W. J., Babcock, D. P., Costanza, L., Harvin, L. N., Kaltenbach, L., Roberson, W. A., Rushing, J., Rushing, S., Walkup, M. P., Lang, W., Gill, T. M. 2006; 61 (11): 1157-1165


    The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), which includes walking, balance, and chair stands tests, independently predicts mobility disability and activities of daily living disability. To date, however, there is no definitive evidence from randomized controlled trials that SPPB scores can be improved. Our objective was to assess the effect of a comprehensive physical activity (PA) intervention on the SPPB and other physical performance measures.A total of 424 sedentary persons at risk for disability (ages 70-89 years) were randomized to a moderate-intensity PA intervention or a successful aging (SA) health education intervention and were followed for an average of 1.2 years.The mean baseline SPPB score on a scale of 0-12, with 12 corresponding to highest performance, was 7.5. At 6 and 12 months, the PA versus SA group adjusted SPPB (+/- standard error) scores were 8.7 +/- 0.1 versus 8.0 +/- 0.1, and 8.5 +/- 0.1 versus 7.9 +/- 0.2, respectively (p < .001). The 400-meter walking speed was also significantly improved in the PA group. The PA group had a lower incidence of major mobility disability defined as incapacity to complete a 400-meter walk (hazard ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval = 0.44-1.20).A structured PA intervention improved the SPPB score and other measures of physical performance. An intervention that improves the SPPB performance may also offer benefit on more distal health outcomes, such as mobility disability.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243118800007

    View details for PubMedID 17167156

  • Physical activity independently predicts increased MRI coronary vasodilation to nitroglycerin in older adults: The ADVANCE study Nguyen, P. K., Terashima, M., Fair, J. M., Mahabouda, M. H., Varady, A., Taylor-Pillae, R. E., Courtney, B. K., Iribarren, C., Go, A. S., Haskell, W., Fortmann, S. P., McConnell, M. V. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2006: 541-541
  • Validation of a new brief physical activity survey among men and women aged 60-69 years AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Taylor-Piliae, R. E., Norton, L. C., Haskell, W. L., Mahbouda, M. H., Fair, J. M., Iribarren, C., Hlatky, M. A., Go, A. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2006; 164 (6): 598-606


    The Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS), a new two-item physical activity survey, and the Stanford Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall (PAR) questionnaire were administered to men and women, aged 60-69 years, in the Atherosclerotic Disease VAscular functioN and genetiC Epidemiology (ADVANCE) Study. Frequency distributions of SBAS activity levels, as well as a receiver operating curve, were calculated to determine if the SBAS can detect recommended physical activity levels of 150 or more minutes/week at moderate or greater intensity, with PAR minutes/week. Data were collected between December 2001 and January 2004 from 1,010 participants (38% women) and recorded. Subjects were 65.8 (standard deviation: 2.8) years of age, 77% were married, 55% were retired, 23% were college graduates, and 68% were Caucasian. SBAS scores related significantly in an expected manner to PAR minutes/week (p < 0.01), energy expenditure (kcal/kg per day) (p < 0.01), and selected cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers (p < 0.01). The SBAS of physical activity at moderate intensity had a sensitivity of 0.73 and a specificity of 0.61. The SBAS is a quick assessment of the usual amount and intensity of physical activity that a person performs throughout the day. The SBAS needs further validation in other populations but demonstrated the potential of being a reasonably valid and inexpensive tool for quickly assessing habitual physical activity in large-scale epidemiology studies and clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kwj248

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240588300011

    View details for PubMedID 16840522

  • Extended treatment with bupropion SR for cigarette smoking cessation JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P., Murphy, G. M., Hayward, C., Arredondo, C., Cromp, D., Celio, M., Abe, L., Wang, Y., Schatzberg, A. F. 2006; 74 (2): 286-294


    The authors present results of a randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of extended treatment with bupropion SR in producing longer term cigarette smoking cessation. Adult smokers (N = 362) received open-label treatment (11 weeks) that combined relapse prevention training, bupropion SR, and nicotine patch followed by extended treatment (14 weeks) with bupropion SR or matching placebo. Abstinence percentages were relatively high (week 11: 52%; week 25: bupropion, 42%; placebo, 38%; week 52: bupropion, 33%; placebo, 34%), but bupropion SR did not surpass placebo. Gender and baseline craving level were identified as significant, independent moderators of treatment response. Men were more likely to abstain than women (week 11: 59% vs. 43%, p = .001; week 25: 48% vs. 31%, p = .001; week 52: 39% vs. 27%, p = .01). Because most smokers suffer relapse with any current cessation treatment, the comparatively high abstinence percentages achieved in this trial are of interest.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0022-006X.74.2.286

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237667500009

    View details for PubMedID 16649873

  • Sociocultural factors that affect pregnancy outcomes in two dissimilar immigrant groups in the United States JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Madan, A., Palaniappan, L., Urizar, G., Wang, Y., Fortmann, S. P., Gould, J. B. 2006; 148 (3): 341-346


    To compare perinatal risks and outcomes in foreign- and U.S.-born Asian-Indian and Mexican women.We evaluated 6.4 million U.S. vital records for births during 1995-2000 to white, foreign- and U.S.-born Asian-Indian and Mexican women. Risks and outcomes were compared by use of chi2 and logistic regression.With the exception of increased teen pregnancy and tobacco use, the favorable sociodemographic profile and increased rate of adverse outcomes seen in foreign-born Asian Indians persisted in their U.S.-born counterparts. In contrast, foreign-born Mexicans had an adverse sociodemographic profile but a low incidence of low birth weight (LBW), whereas U.S.-born Mexicans had an improved sociodemographic profile and increased LBW, prematurity and neonatal death.Perinatal outcomes deteriorate in U.S.-born Mexican women. In contrast, the paradoxically increased incidence of LBW persists in U.S.-born Asian-Indian women. Further research is needed to identify the social and biologic determinants of perinatal outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.peds.2005.11.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236718700015

    View details for PubMedID 16615964

  • Statin and beta-blocker therapy and the initial presentation of coronary heart disease ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Go, A. S., Iribarren, C., Chandra, M., Lathon, P. V., Fortmann, S. P., Quertermous, T., Hlatky, M. A. 2006; 144 (4): 229-238


    Coronary atherosclerosis develops slowly over decades but is frequently characterized clinically by sudden unstable episodes. Patients who present with unstable coronary disease, such as acute myocardial infarction, may systematically differ from patients who present with relatively stable coronary disease, such as exertional angina.To examine whether medication use or patient characteristics influence the mode of initial clinical presentation of coronary disease.Case-control study.Large integrated health care delivery system in northern California.Adults whose first clinical presentation of coronary disease was either acute myocardial infarction (n = 916) or stable exertional angina (n = 468).Use of cardiac medications before the event from pharmacy databases and demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics from self-report and clinical and administrative databases.Compared with patients with incident stable exertional angina, patients with incident acute myocardial infarction were more likely to be men, smokers, physically inactive, and hypertensive but were less likely to have a parental history of coronary disease. Patients presenting with myocardial infarction were much less likely to have received statins (19.3% vs. 40.4%; P < 0.001) and beta-blockers (19.0% vs. 47.7%; P < 0.001) than patients presenting with exertional angina. After adjustment for potential confounders, recent use of statins (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.32 to 0.62]) and beta-blockers (adjusted odds ratio, 0.26 [CI, 0.19 to 0.35]) was associated with lower likelihoods of presenting with an acute myocardial infarction than with stable angina.This observational study did not have information on all possible confounding factors, including use of aspirin therapy.Statin and beta-blocker use was associated with lower odds of presenting with an acute myocardial infarction than with stable angina. Additional studies are needed to confirm that these therapies protect against unstable, higher-risk clinical presentations of coronary disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235543100001

    View details for PubMedID 16490908

  • Industry sponsored anti-smoking ads and adolescent reactance: test of a boomerang effect TOBACCO CONTROL Henriksen, L., Dauphinee, A. L., Wang, Y., Fortmann, S. P. 2006; 15 (1): 13-18


    To examine whether adolescents' exposure to youth smoking prevention ads sponsored by tobacco companies promotes intentions to smoke, curiosity about smoking, and positive attitudes toward the tobacco industry.A randomised controlled experiment compared adolescents' responses to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a tobacco company (Philip Morris or Lorillard), or to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a non-profit organisation (the American Legacy Foundation), or to five ads about preventing drunk driving.A large public high school in California's central valley.A convenience sample of 9th and 10th graders (n = 832) ages 14-17 years.Perceptions of ad effectiveness, intention to smoke, and attitudes toward tobacco companies measured immediately after exposure.As predicted, adolescents rated Philip Morris and Lorillard ads less favourably than the other youth smoking prevention ads. Adolescents' intention to smoke did not differ as a function of ad exposure. However, exposure to Philip Morris and Lorillard ads engendered more favourable attitudes toward tobacco companies.This study demonstrates that industry sponsored anti-smoking ads do more to promote corporate image than to prevent youth smoking. By cultivating public opinion that is more sympathetic toward tobacco companies, the effect of such advertising is likely to be more harmful than helpful to youth.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/tc.2003006361

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234842100010

    View details for PubMedID 16436398

  • Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis by MRI in an asymptomatic older patient cohort Terashima, M., Nguyen, P. K., Rubin, G. D., Ehara, S., Iribarren, C., Courtney, B. K., Go, A. S., Fortmann, S. P., McConnell, M. V. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2005: U623-U624
  • CDC/AHA Workshop on Markers of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease - Application to Clinical and Public Health Practice - Report from the population science discussion group CIRCULATION Fortmann, S. P., Ford, E., Criqui, M. H., Folsom, A. R., Harris, T. B., Hong, Y. L., Pearson, T. A., Siscovick, D., Vinicor, F., Wilson, P. F. 2004; 110 (25): E554-E559


    This article summarizes epidemiological studies of inflammation markers, particularly C-reactive protein, and cardiovascular disease as of early 2002. Gaps in the research and the public health practice implications are also discussed. Although considerable work has been published since this review was completed, the perspectives and issues presented are still useful in evaluating the use of inflammation markers for risk stratisfication and prevention.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000148982.95775.BF

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225841700026

    View details for PubMedID 15611381

  • Association of retail tobacco marketing with adolescent smoking AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Henriksen, L., Feighery, E. C., Wang, Y., Fortmann, S. P. 2004; 94 (12): 2081-2083


    A survey of 2125 middle-school students in central California examined adolescents' exposure to tobacco marketing in stores and its association with self-reported smoking. Two thirds of sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students reported at least weekly visits to small grocery, convenience, or liquor stores. Such visits were associated with a 50% increase in the odds of ever smoking, even after control for social influences to smoke. Youth smoking rates may benefit from efforts to reduce adolescents' exposure to tobacco marketing in stores.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225560800016

    View details for PubMedID 15569957

  • Reaching youth at the point of sale: cigarette marketing is more prevalent in stores where adolescents shop frequently TOBACCO CONTROL Henriksen, L., Feighery, E. C., Schleicher, N. C., Haladjian, H. H., Fortmann, S. P. 2004; 13 (3): 315-318


    Although numerous studies describe the quantity and nature of tobacco marketing in stores, fewer studies examine the industry's attempts to reach youth at the point of sale. This study examines whether cigarette marketing is more prevalent in stores where adolescents shop frequently.Trained coders counted cigarette ads, products, and other marketing materials in a census of stores that sell tobacco in Tracy, California (n = 50). A combination of data from focus groups and in-class surveys of middle school students (n = 2125) determined which of the stores adolescents visited most frequently.Amount of marketing materials and shelf space measured separately for the three cigarette brands most popular with adolescent smokers and for other brands combined.Compared to other stores in the same community, stores where adolescents shopped frequently contained almost three times more marketing materials for Marlboro, Camel, and Newport, and significantly more shelf space devoted to these brands.Regardless of whether tobacco companies intentionally target youth at the point of sale, these findings underscore the importance of strategies to reduce the quantity and impact of cigarette marketing materials in this venue.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/tc.2003.006577

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223532700027

    View details for PubMedID 15333890

  • Coronary heart disease mortality for six ethnic groups in California, 1990-2000 ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Palaniappan, L., Wang, Y., Fortmann, S. P. 2004; 14 (7): 499-506


    To investigate ethnic variations in coronary heart disease death in California, the authors examined total and CHD-specific mortality among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, non-Hispanic black (black), Chinese, Japanese, and Asian Indian Americans. Deaths were identified in the California Mortality Database and population information was derived from the 1990 and 2000 censuses.Age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population were calculated for ages 25 to 84 years from 1990 to 2000. Proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) for each sex and age group were calculated by dividing the proportion of deaths due to CHD in each ethnic group by the proportion of deaths due to CHD in the total population.Blacks had the highest all-cause age-standardized death rates among men (1614) and women (1014). Blacks had the highest CHD death rates among men (272) and women (190). PMRs for CHD were highest in Asian Indian men (161) and women (144), reflective of the higher percentage of CHD deaths compared with all cause deaths in this group. All sex-ethnic groups showed a decline in all cause and CHD mortality compared with the period between 1985 and 1990, except Asian Indian women, who experienced a 16% increase in all cause mortality and 5% increase in CHD mortality.There is considerable heterogeneity in CHD mortality among ethnic subgroups, and additional research is needed to guide treatment and prevention efforts. Blacks and Asian Indians in California are identified as particularly high risk populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.annepidem.2003.12.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223407900009

    View details for PubMedID 15310526

  • Depression and the metabolic syndrome in young adults: Findings from the third national health and nutrition examination survey PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Kinder, L. S., Carnethon, M. R., Palaniappan, L. P., King, A. C., Fortmann, S. P. 2004; 66 (3): 316-322


    Previous reports have suggested that depression may lead to the development of cardiovascular disease through its association with the metabolic syndrome; however, little is known about the relationship between depression and the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to establish an association between depression and the metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample.The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is a population-based health survey of noninstitutionalized US citizens completed between 1988 and 1994. Three thousand one hundred eighty-six men and 3003 women, age 17 to 39, free of coronary heart disease and diabetes, completed the depression module from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and a medical examination that provided clinical data needed to establish the presence of the metabolic syndrome, as defined by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Cholesterol in Adults.Women with a history of a major depressive episode were twice as likely to have the metabolic syndrome compared with those with no history of depression. The relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome remained after controlling for age, race, education, smoking, physical inactivity, carbohydrate consumption, and alcohol use. Men with a history of depression were not significantly more likely to have the metabolic syndrome.The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is elevated among women with a history of depression. It is important to better understand the role depression may play in the effort to reduce the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its health consequences.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.psy.0000124755.91880.f4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221548300005

    View details for PubMedID 15184689

  • Predictors of the incident metabolic syndrome in adults - The Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study DIABETES CARE Palaniappan, L., Carnethon, M. R., Wang, Y., Hanley, A. J., Fortmann, S. P., Haffner, S. M., Wagenknecht, L. 2004; 27 (3): 788-793


    To prospectively investigate predictors of the incident metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic adults.This analysis included 714 white, black, and Hispanic participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) who were free of the metabolic syndrome at baseline; 139 of these developed the metabolic syndrome in the subsequent 5 years. We examined measures of glucose (fasting and 2 h), insulin (fasting and 2 h, acute insulin response, insulin sensitivity [Si], and proinsulin), lipids (HDL and triglycerides), blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), waist circumference, and baseline physical activity (total energy expenditure) as predictors of the metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, study site, ethnicity, and impaired glucose tolerance. Signal detection analysis was used to identify the characteristics of the highest risk group.The best predictors of incident metabolic syndrome were waist circumference (odds ratio [OR] 1.7 [1.3-2.0] per 11 cm), HDL cholesterol (0.6 [0.4-0.7] per 15 mg/dl), and proinsulin (1.7 [1.4-2.0] per 3.3 pmol/l). Signal detection analysis identified waist circumference (>89 cm in women, >102 cm in men) as the optimal predictor.These findings suggest that obesity may precede the development of other metabolic syndrome components. Interventions that address obesity and reduce waist circumference may reduce the incidence of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic adults.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189307400025

    View details for PubMedID 14988303

  • Randomized trial of folic acid for prevention of cardiovascular events in end-stage renal disease JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Wrone, E. M., Hornberger, J. M., Zehnder, J. L., McCann, L. M., Coplon, N. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2004; 15 (2): 420-426


    High serum total homocysteine (tHcy) is gaining scrutiny as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in the general population. The relationship between tHcy and mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unsettled. This randomized trial evaluates the efficacy of high-dose folic acid in preventing events in ESRD. A total of 510 patients on chronic dialysis were randomized to 1, 5, or 15 mg of folic acid contained in a renal multivitamin with a median follow-up of 24 mo. Mortality, cardiovascular events, and homocysteine levels were assessed. There were 189 deaths, and 121 patients experienced at least one cardiovascular event. Composite rates of mortality and cardiovascular events among the folic acid groups did not differ (at 24 mo: 43.7% in 1 mg group, 38.6% in 5 mg group, 47.1% in 15 mg group; log-rank P = 0.47). Unexpectedly, high baseline tHcy was associated with lower event rates. From lowest to highest quartile, event rates at 24 mo were 54.5% for Q1, 41.8% for Q2, 41.2% for Q3, and 34.7% for Q4 (log-rank P = 0.033). In contrast to some studies describing tHcy as a risk factor for mortality and cardiovascular events, this study found a reverse relationship between tHcy and events in ESRD patients. Administration of high-dose folic acid did not affect event rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.ASN.0000110181.64655.6C

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188604600020

    View details for PubMedID 14747389

  • Design and statistical issues in the homocysteinemia in kidney and end stage renal disease (HOST) study. Clinical trials Jamison, R. L., Hartigan, P., Gaziano, J. M., Fortmann, S. P., Goldfarb, D. S., Haroldson, J. A., Kaufman, J., Lavori, P., McCully, K. S., Robinson, K. 2004; 1 (5): 451-460


    The Homocysteine Study (HOST) Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program No. 453, is a prospective, randomized, two arm, double blind study of patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) or advanced chronic kidney disease (ACKD, defined as an estimated creatinine clearance of 30 ml/min or less). Its primary objective is to determine whether administration of high doses of three vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12, to lower the high plasma homocysteine levels, will reduce all cause mortality. The secondary objectives are to examine whether the treatment lowers the incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation of a lower extremity, a composite of death and the foregoing three events, the plasma homocysteine level, and, in ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis, thrombosis of the vascular access. A unique feature of this trial is that after initial evaluation at enrollment and one return visit the follow up is exclusively by phone (or, if necessary, by mail). The subject is contacted every three months throughout the duration of the study from a central location. The study drug is shipped to the patient from a central location rather supplied locally. In a two year enrollment period, 2006 patients are to be enrolled. The duration of the observation period is four to six years. Data will be stored and analyzed at a coordinating center. The study design has the power to detect a reduction in all cause mortality rate of 17%. Issues related to the unique features of the design of this study are discussed.

    View details for PubMedID 16279283

  • Risk factors for progression to incident hyperinsulinemia: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 1987-1998 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Carnethon, M. R., Fortmann, S. P., Palaniappan, L., Duncan, B. B., Schmidt, M. I., Chambless, L. E. 2003; 158 (11): 1058-1067


    Hyperinsulinemia is a marker of insulin resistance, a correlate of the metabolic syndrome, and an established precursor of type 2 diabetes. This US study investigated the role of risk factors associated with hyperinsulinemia in cross-sectional studies in progression to incident hyperinsulinemia. Nondiabetic participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (n = 9,020) were followed from 1987 to 1998 for the development of hyperinsulinemia (fasting serum insulin > or = 90th percentile, 19.1 micro U/ml). After adjustment for demographic characteristics, all risk factors simultaneously, and baseline insulin value, the risk of progressing to hyperinsulinemia increased per standard deviation increase in baseline uric acid (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2, 1.4; per 1.4 mg/dl) and waist/hip ratio (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.5; per 0.08) and was inversely associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 0.9; per 0.4 mmol/liter). Starting to smoke (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.0) and becoming obese (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.8, 3.1) during the study were also associated with increased risk. The associations were similar across race and gender groups. These data suggest that, in addition to weight gain, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia, and smoking can be detected prior to development of hyperinsulinemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kwg260

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186896800006

    View details for PubMedID 14630601

  • Case definitions for acute coronary heart disease in epidemiology and clinical research studies - A statement from the AHA council on epidemiology and prevention; AHA Statistics Committee; World Heart Federation Council on epidemiology and prevention; the European Society of Cardiology working group on epidemiology and prevention; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute CIRCULATION Luepker, R. V., Apple, F. S., Christenson, R. H., Crow, R. S., Fortmann, S. P., Goff, D., Goldberg, R. J., Hand, M. M., Jaffe, A. S., Julian, D. G., Levy, D., Manolio, T., Mendis, S., Mensah, G., Pajak, A., Prineas, R. J., Reddy, S., Roger, V. L., Rosamond, W. D., Shahar, E., Sharrett, A. R., Sorlie, P., Tunstall-Pedoe, H. 2003; 108 (20): 2543-2549
  • Association between microalbuminuria and the metabolic syndrome: NHANES III AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION Palaniappan, L., Carnethon, M., Fortmann, S. P. 2003; 16 (11): 952-958


    We investigated whether microalbuminuria was associated with the metabolic syndrome by comparing the strength of the association between microalbuminuria and the syndrome as a whole and its individual components. This investigation included 5659 women and men aged 20 to 80 years from the cross-sectional, nationally representative, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III: 1988-1994). Metabolic syndrome was defined as any three of the following: increased waist circumference, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL cholesterol, increased blood pressure, or high fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin/creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. Microalbuminuria was present in 7.8% of women and 5.0% of men. Log linear analysis revealed a significant association between the metabolic syndrome and microalbuminuria in both genders (women chi(2) = 44.1; men chi(2) = 59.6; P <.0001 for both). Microalbuminuria was more common in both women (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44, 3.34) and men (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 2.45, 6.74) with metabolic syndrome compared to those without it; 34% of women and 42% of men with microalbuminuria also had metabolic syndrome. After adjusting for other components of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension demonstrated the strongest association with microalbuminuria in both women (OR = 3.34; 95% CI 2.45, 4.55) and men (OR = 2.51; 95% CI 1.63, 3.86). Microalbuminuria and metabolic syndrome are associated in a large, nationally representative cohort, possibly due to early renal effects of hypertension, and it may be useful to consider microalbuminuria as a component of the metabolic syndrome.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0895-7061(03)01009-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186098500010

    View details for PubMedID 14573334

  • Symptoms of depression as a risk factor for incident diabetes: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up study, 1971-1992 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Carnethon, M. R., Kinder, L. S., Fair, J. M., Stafford, R. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2003; 158 (5): 416-423


    Symptoms of depression may predict incident diabetes independently or through established risk factors for diabetes. US men and women aged 25-74 years who were free of diabetes at baseline (n = 6,190) were followed from 1971 to 1992 (mean, 15.6 years; standard deviation, 6) for incident diabetes. Depressive symptoms were measured by using the General Well-Being Depression subscale and were categorized to compare persons with high (9%), intermediate (32%), and low (59%) numbers of symptoms. The incidence of diabetes was highest among participants reporting high numbers of depressive symptoms (7.3 per 1,000 person-years) and did not differ between persons reporting intermediate and low numbers of symptoms (3.4 and 3.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively) (p < 0.01 for high vs. low). In the subset of participants with less than a high school education (a marker of low socioeconomic status), the risk of developing diabetes was three times higher (95% confidence interval: 2.0, 4.7) for persons reporting high versus low numbers of depressive symptoms. These results persisted following adjustment for established diabetes risk factors. Depressive symptoms had no impact on diabetes incidence among persons with at least a high school education. Results suggest an independent role for depressive symptoms in the development of diabetes in populations with low educational attainment.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kwg172

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185040800005

    View details for PubMedID 12936896

  • Onset of major depression during treatment for nicotine dependence ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P., Schatzberg, A., Hayward, C., Varady, A. 2003; 28 (3): 461-470


    We monitored the emergence of major depression (MDD) during treatment for nicotine dependence among 224 smokers. MDD was assessed on three occasions during the course of treatment with the mood disorders portion of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (SCID), fourth edition (DSM-IV). Out of 224 participants, 20% had suffered a past episode of MDD, 18% of males and 22% of females. Four percent (n=10) experienced onset of MDD during the course of the study, four males and six females. Only 2 of the 10 cases managed to achieve abstinence at end of treatment. Those who reported large increases in depression symptoms between baseline and end of treatment (Week 10) were less likely to be abstinent at 26-week follow-up. The evidence indicates that those who treat nicotine dependence must be prepared to monitor and respond to the emergence of depression associated with treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00266-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181706200005

    View details for PubMedID 12628619

  • Association of dietary protein intake and microalbuminuria in healthy adults: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Wrone, E. M., Carnethon, M. R., Palaniappan, L., Fortmann, S. P. 2003; 41 (3): 580-587


    The relationship between dietary protein intake (DPI) and microalbuminuria (MA) is unclear. We investigated whether DPI was associated with urinary albumin level in a population sample of persons with normal kidney function.We addressed this question in adults aged 20 to 80 years from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 12,422). DPI was assessed from a 24-hour dietary recall and quantified as percentage of total energy intake. MA is defined as urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 mg/g (3 mg/mmol) or greater.In multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and coronary heart disease risk factors, DPI was not associated with MA in normotensive or nondiabetic persons. In crude models, odds ratios (ORs) for MA were 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.2 to 3.0) in persons with hypertension (n = 3,433) and 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 5.2) in those with diabetes (n = 1,165) in the highest (>19%) versus lowest (<11.7%) quintile of DPI. However, in models adjusted for the concurrent prevalence of diabetes or hypertension, this association attenuated to nonsignificance. Persons in the highest quintile of DPI who had both hypertension and diabetes (n = 634) had a significantly elevated OR for MA (3.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 7.8) compared with those in the lowest quintile.DPI is not associated with MA in healthy persons or those with isolated hypertension or diabetes. However, in persons with both conditions, high DPI is associated with increased prevalence of MA. These findings suggest the need for further research on weight-loss strategies for high-risk persons.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/ajkd.2003.50119

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181324000008

    View details for PubMedID 12612981

  • American Heart Association Guide for improving cardiovascular health at the community level - A statement for public health practitioners, healthcare providers, and health policy makers from the American Heart Association expert panel on population and prevention science CIRCULATION Pearson, T. A., Bazzarre, T. L., Daniels, S. R., Fair, J. M., Fortmann, S. P., Franklin, B. A., Goldstein, L. B., Hong, Y. L., Mensah, G. A., Sallis, J. F., Smith, S., Stone, N. J., Taubert, K. A. 2003; 107 (4): 645-651

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180908500026

    View details for PubMedID 12566381

  • Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease application to clinical and public health practice - A statement for healthcare professionals from the centers for disease control and prevention and the American Heart Association CIRCULATION Pearson, T. A., Mensah, G. A., Alexander, R. W., Anderson, J. L., Cannon, R. O., Criqui, M., Fadl, Y. Y., Fortmann, S. P., Hong, Y., Myers, G. L., Rifai, N., Smith, S. C., Taubert, K., Tracy, R. P., Vinicor, F. 2003; 107 (3): 499-511
  • Young adults' opinions of Philip Morris and its television advertising TOBACCO CONTROL Henriksen, L., Fortmann, S. P. 2002; 11 (3): 236-240


    To determine what young people think about the tobacco company Philip Morris and how it affects their evaluations of the company's new television advertising.Data were gathered in the context of a controlled experiment in which participants saw four Philip Morris ads about youth smoking prevention, four Philip Morris ads about charitable works, or four Anheuser-Busch ads about preventing underage drinking (the control group). Knowledge and opinion of Philip Morris were measured before ad exposure.A California state university in the San Francisco Bay area.A convenience sample of undergraduates (n = 218) aged 18-25 years.Advertising evaluation measured by 12 semantic differential scales.A little more than half of the students knew that Philip Morris is a tobacco company. Neither this knowledge nor students' smoking status was related to their opinion of the company. Philip Morris ads were rated less favourably by students who were aware that the sponsor is a tobacco company than by students who were unaware.Advertisements designed to discredit the tobacco industry typically avoid references to specific companies. This study suggests that such counter-advertising would benefit from teaching audiences about the industry's corporate identities.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177902000021

    View details for PubMedID 12198275

  • Effects on youth of exposure to retail tobacco advertising JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Henriksen, L., Flora, J. A., Feighery, E., Fortmann, S. P. 2002; 32 (9): 1771-1789
  • Heterogeneity in the relationship between ethnicity, BMI, and fasting insulin DIABETES CARE Palaniappan, L. P., Carnethon, M. R., Fortmann, S. P. 2002; 25 (8): 1351-1357


    To determine whether the association of BMI and fasting insulin is modified by ethnicity.Non-Hispanic black (black), non-Hispanic white (white), and Mexican-American men and women aged 20-80 years from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) were included in this study. Linear regression models with an interaction term were used to test whether ethnicity modified the association between BMI and fasting insulin.Fasting insulin was 19, 26, 20, and 19% higher in black women than white women with BMI levels of <22, 22-24, 25-27, and 28-30 kg/m(2), respectively. These differences between black and white women converged at BMI levels >30 kg/m(2). Mexican-American women had fasting insulin levels that were 17, 22, 20, and 16% higher than those of white women at BMI levels of 25-27, 28-30, 31-33, and >34 kg/m(2), respectively, but were not different in individuals with BMI levels <25 kg/m(2). Adjusting for established risk factors did not attenuate these associations in women. Differences in fasting insulin among men were not as apparent.These findings suggest that the effect of obesity on insulin sensitivity is different for Americans in ethnic minorities. In black subjects, fasting insulin is higher at lean weight when compared with white and Mexican-American subjects. In Mexican-American subjects, fasting insulin is higher in overweight individuals when compared with white and black subjects. These findings are more pronounced in women than in men. This result reinforces the importance of designing prevention programs that are tailored to meet the needs of specific populations. Investigation of possible explanations for these differences seems warranted.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185504100015

    View details for PubMedID 12145234

  • Serum insulin, obesity, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in black and white adults - The atherosclerosis risk in communities study: 1987-1998 DIABETES CARE Carnethon, M. R., Palaniappan, L. P., Burchfiel, C. M., Brancati, F. L., Fortmann, S. P. 2002; 25 (8): 1358-1364


    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that fasting serum insulin is higher in nonobese black adults than in white adults and that high fasting insulin predicts type 2 diabetes equally well in both groups.At the baseline examination (1987-1989) of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, fasting insulin and BMI were measured in 13,416 black and white men and women without diabetes. Participants were examined at years 3, 6, and 9 for incident diabetes based on fasting glucose and American Diabetes Association criteria.Fasting insulin was 19.7 pmol/l higher among nonobese (BMI <30 kg/m(2)) black women compared with white women (race and obesity interaction term, P < 0.01). There were no differences among men. Among nonobese women, the relative risk for developing diabetes was similar between racial groups: 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.5) and 1.3 (1.2-1.4) per 60 pmol/l increase in insulin (P < 0.01) for black and white women, respectively (interaction term, P = 0.6). Findings were similar among men. Adjusting for established risk factors did not attenuate this association.Nonobese black women have higher fasting insulin levels than nonobese white women, and fasting insulin is an equally strong predictor of diabetes in both groups. These results suggest one mechanism to explain the excess incidence of diabetes in nonobese black women but do not explain the excess among black men. Future research should evaluate additional factors: genetic, environmental, or the combination of both, which might explain higher fasting insulin among black women when compared with white women.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185504100016

    View details for PubMedID 12145235

  • Do men outperform women in smoking cessation trials? Maybe, but not by much EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P., Varady, A., Kraemer, H. C. 2002; 10 (3): 295-301


    Using data from 4 smoking cessation trials conducted from 1988 to 2000, the authors investigated whether men are more successful than women in quitting smoking. Odds ratios indicated that the abstinence rates were not significantly different for men and women. Thus, there may be little value to diverting research funds from efforts to develop more effective treatments for both men and women to efforts to explain a very small gender effect associated with existing treatments. However, it may be appropriate to make gender comparisons for new therapies for nicotine dependence. The authors recommend against analyses of gender differences in studies that do not account for gender in their research designs.

    View details for DOI 10.1037//1064-1297.10.3.295

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177711900014

    View details for PubMedID 12233990

  • AHA guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and stroke: 2002 update - Consensus panel guide to comprehensive risk reduction for adult patients without coronary or other atherosclerotic vascular diseases CIRCULATION Pearson, T. A., Blair, S. N., Daniels, S. R., Eckel, R. H., Fair, J. M., Fortmann, S. P., Franklin, B. A., Goldstein, L. B., Greenland, P., Grundy, S. M., Hong, Y. L., Miller, N. H., Lauer, R. M., Ockene, I. S., Sacco, R. L., Sallis, J. F., Smith, S. C., Stone, N. J., Taubert, K. A. 2002; 106 (3): 388-391
  • The homocysteine confusion: Now, more is better? Reply KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Wrone, E. M., Zehnder, J. L., Hornberger, J. M., McCann, L. M., Coplon, N. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2002; 61 (5): 1908-1909
  • Generalizability of findings from a chewing tobacco cessation clinical trial. Nicotine & tobacco research Howard-Pitney, B., Fortmann, S. P., Killen, J. D. 2001; 3 (4): 347-352


    This study examined selection bias by comparing characteristics of a general population sample of tobacco chewers, participants in a chewing tobacco cessation trial, and non-participants in the trial. A population-based sample of chewers (n = 155) was surveyed by telephone to assess demographics, tobacco-use patterns, and quitting history. Six months later, chewers from this same population were recruited for a cessation trial (n = 401 participants and 68 non-participants). Trial participants differed little from general population chewers on demographics, but they used more chew and were more dependent on nicotine. They were more likely to have tried to quit, received advice to quit and experienced tobacco-related health problems. Trial non-participants were virtually identical to participants on demographic and tobacco use measures. The findings suggest that clinically tested treatments are generalizable beyond the research setting, because trial participants are demographically representative of the general population of chewing tobacco users, are not biased toward light users, and are representative of those chewers most likely to seek out community-based cessation services outside the trial context.

    View details for PubMedID 11694202

  • An MTHFR variant, homocysteine, and cardiovascular comorbidity in renal disease Wrone, E. M., Zehnder, J. L., Hornberger, J. M., McCann, L. M., Coplon, N. S., Fortmann, S. P. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2001: 1106-1113


    It is unclear whether total serum homocysteine (tHcy) and the C677T mutation of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).A cross-sectional sample of 459 patients with ESRD on chronic dialysis was assessed to determine whether tHcy and the C677T mutation are associated with CVD prevalence in multiple logistic regression. As CVD mortality is high, we examined the relationship between homozygosity and duration of dialysis.Mean tHcy was higher in patients without a history of CVD (35.2 micromol/L vs. 30.4 micromol/L, P = 0.02). In multivariate models, CVD was negatively associated with tHcy and positively associated with TT genotype, male gender, and body mass index. Mean tHcy levels were higher among those with the TT genotype compared with those with the CC genotype when adjusted for age, folate, creatinine, and albumin (37.9 micromol/L vs. 31.9 micromol/L, P = 0.005). Among whites, the prevalence of the TT genotype was higher in those having undergone less than one year of dialysis (P = 0.002).The C677T genotype of MTHFR is associated with CVD in ESRD and may be a more meaningful marker than tHcy for abnormal homocysteine metabolism in ESRD. Prospective data from ongoing clinical trials are needed to improve our understanding of these findings. Screening for this polymorphism may help guide prevention measures.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170668100029

    View details for PubMedID 11532106

  • Trends in cigarette smoking in 36 populations from the early 1980s to the mid-1990s: Findings from the WHO MONICA Project AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Molarius, A., Parsons, R. W., Dobson, A. J., Evans, A., Fortmann, S. P., Jamrozik, K., Kuulasmaa, K., Moltchanov, V., Sans, S., Tuomilehto, J., Puska, P. 2001; 91 (2): 206-212


    This report analyzes cigarette smoking over 10 years in populations in the World Health Organization (WHO) MONICA Project (to monitor trends and determinants of cardiovascular disease).Over 300,000 randomly selected subjects aged 25 to 64 years participated in surveys conducted in geographically defined populations.For men, smoking prevalence decreased by more than 5% in 16 of the 36 study populations, remained static in most others, but increased in Beijing. Where prevalence decreased, this was largely due to higher proportions of never smokers in the younger age groups rather than to smokers quitting. Among women, smoking prevalence increased by more than 5% in 6 populations and decreased by more than 5% in 9 populations. For women, smoking tended to increase in populations with low prevalence and decrease in populations with higher prevalence; for men, the reverse pattern was observed.These data illustrate the evolution of the smoking epidemic in populations and provide the basis for targeted public health interventions to support the WHO priority for tobacco control.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170344900005

    View details for PubMedID 11211628

  • Trends and disparities in coronary heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases in the United States - Findings of the National Conference on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention CIRCULATION Cooper, R., Cutler, J., Desvigne-Nickens, P., Fortmann, S. P., Friedman, L., Havlik, R., Hogelin, G., Marler, J., McGovern, P., Morosco, G., Mosca, L., Pearson, T., Stamler, J., Stryer, D., Thom, T. 2000; 102 (25): 3137-3147


    A workshop was held September 27 through 29, 1999, to address issues relating to national trends in mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases; the apparent slowing of declines in mortality from cardiovascular diseases; levels and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases; disparities in cardiovascular diseases by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography; trends in cardiovascular disease preventive and treatment services; and strategies for efforts to reduce cardiovascular diseases overall and to reduce disparities among subpopulations. The conference concluded that coronary heart disease mortality is still declining in the United States as a whole, although perhaps at a slower rate than in the 1980s; that stroke mortality rates have declined little, if at all, since 1990; and that there are striking differences in cardiovascular death rates by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and geography. Trends in risk factors are consistent with a slowing of the decline in mortality; there has been little recent progress in risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, and hypertension control. There are increasing levels of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with major differences among subpopulations. There is considerable activity in population-wide prevention, primary prevention for higher risk people, and secondary prevention, but wide disparities exist among groups on the basis of socioeconomic status and geography, pointing to major gaps in efforts to use available, proven approaches to control cardiovascular diseases. Recommendations for strategies to attain the year 2010 health objectives were made.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165930500027

    View details for PubMedID 11120707

  • Associations of HDL, HDL2, and HD3 cholesterol and apolipoproteins A-I and B with lifestyle factors in healthy women and men: The Stanford Five City Project PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Gardner, C. D., Tribble, D. L., Young, D. R., Ahn, D., Fortmann, S. P. 2000; 31 (4): 346-356


    Measures of the two major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions, HDL(2) and HDL(3), and the major apolipoproteins of HDL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), Apo A-I and Apo B, may be etiologically important factors in the development of coronary artery disease. The association of lifestyle factors with these lipoprotein-related variables remains unclear.HDL-C, HDL(2)-C, HDL(3)-C, Apo A-I, and Apo B levels were determined in a population-based sample of 1,027 healthy women and men aged 25-64 years, from four California cities who participated in the 1989/1990 survey of the Stanford Five City Project. In this cross-sectional study we examined the independent associations of these lipoprotein-related variables with body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, daily energy expenditure, alcohol intake, dietary intake, and hormone use (oral contraceptives and estrogen replacement therapy).In general, BMI and alcohol intake were the strongest independent predictors of the lipoprotein-related variables. The negative association of BMI with HDL-C was attributable primarily to the association with the HDL(2)-C subfraction, while for alcohol intake the positive association with HDL-C was attributable primarily to the association with HDL(3)-C, particularly in men. Among men, but not women, energy expenditure was a significant independent predictor of each of the lipoprotein-related variables, with positive associations observed for HDL-C, HDL(2)-C, HDL(2)-C, and Apo A-I and a negative association observed for Apo B (P < 0.005).Data from this population-based sample suggest that specific lifestyle factors are more strongly associated with some lipoprotein-related variables than with others, with notable gender differences.

    View details for DOI 10.1006/pmed.2000.0716

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089566300008

    View details for PubMedID 11006059

  • Population frequency distributions of HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 cholesterol and apolipoproteins A-I and B in healthy men and women and associations with age, gender, hormonal status, and sex hormone use: The Stanford Five City Project PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Gardner, C. D., Tribble, D. L., Young, D. R., Ahn, D., Fortmann, S. P. 2000; 31 (4): 335-345


    The purpose of this study is to present population-based frequency distribution data for several lipoprotein-related variables and to examine their associations with gender, age, menopausal status, and sex hormone use.High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL(2)-C, HDL(3)-C, apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, and Apo B were measured in a population-based sample of 1, 027 healthy adults from four California cities who participated in the 1989-1990 survey of the Stanford Five City Project. These data were examined cross-sectionally with sociodemographic and other related variables.Relative to men, all of the HDL-related parameters-HDL-C, HDL(2)-C, HDL(3)-C, Apo A-I-were significantly higher and Apo B levels were significantly lower among women (P < 0. 001). Menopausal status was not associated with HDL-related parameters, but Apo B levels were higher in post- versus premenopausal women (P < 0.001). Among women, HDL-C and Apo A-I levels were higher in oral contraceptive and estrogen replacement therapy users (P = 0.003). Most of the significant findings remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking, energy expenditure, and alcohol intake.These population-based data indicate that gender, menopausal status, and the use of sex hormones among women are associated with differential levels of one or more of HDL-C, HDL(2)-C, HDL(3)-C, Apo A-I, and Apo B, independent of age and a broad set of lifestyle factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1006/pmed.2000.0715

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089566300007

    View details for PubMedID 11006058

  • Nicotine patch and paroxetine for smoking cessation JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P., Schatzberg, A. F., Hayward, C., Sussman, L., Rothman, M., Strausberg, L., Varady, A. 2000; 68 (5): 883-889


    Smokers (N = 224) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: (a) transdermal system (TNS) + placebo; (b) TNS + paroxetine (20 mg); (c) TNS + paroxetine (40 mg). Assignment to treatment was double-blind. Nicotine patch (TNS) treatment was provided for 8 weeks; paroxetine or placebo was provided for 9 weeks. Abstinence rates at Weeks 4, 10, and 26 were as follows: (a) TNS + placebo: 45%, 36%, and 25%; (b) TNS + paroxetine (20 mg): 48%, 33%, and 21%; (c) TNS + paroxetine (40 mg): 57%, 39%, and 27%. The differences were not statistically significant. The combined treatment was more effective in reducing both craving and depression symptoms associated with smoking cessation. A subgroup analysis comparing compliant participants was also conducted. Abstinence rates at Weeks 4, 10, and 26 were as follows: (a) TNS + placebo: 46%, 35%, and 24%; (b) TNS + paroxetine (20 mg): 64%, 43%, and 33%; (c) TNS + paroxetine (40 mg): 74%, 51%, and 38%. The differences between paroxetine groups and placebo at Week 4 were statistically significant. Although paroxetine may add value to the current standard of care in excess of potential risk, more conclusive evidence is needed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090108300014

    View details for PubMedID 11068974

  • Effects of a community-wide health education program on cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality - The Stanford Five-City Project AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Fortmann, S. P., Varady, A. N. 2000; 152 (4): 316-323


    The authors examined changes in morbidity and mortality from 1979 through 1992 during the Stanford Five-City Project, a comprehensive community health education study conducted in northern California. The intervention (1980-1986), a multiple risk factor strategy delivered through multiple educational methods, targeted all residents in two treatment communities. Potentially fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke events were identified from death certificates and hospital records. Clinical information was abstracted from hospital charts and coroner records; for fatal events, it was collected from attending physicians and next of kin. Standard diagnostic criteria were used to classify all events, without knowledge of the city of origin. All first definite events were analyzed; denominators were estimated from 1980 and 1990 US Census figures. Mixed model regression analyses were used in statistical comparisons. Over the full 14 years of the study, the combined-event rate declined about 3% per year in all five cities. However, during the first 7-year period (1979-1985), no significant trends were found in any of the cities; during the late period (1986-1992), significant downward trends were found in all except one city. The change in trends between periods was slightly but not significantly greater in the treatment cities. It is most likely that some influence affecting all cities, not the intervention, accounted for the observed change.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088829700003

    View details for PubMedID 10968376

  • Population frequency distribution of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES III], 1998-1994) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Gardner, C. D., Winkleby, M. A., Fortmann, S. P. 2000; 86 (3): 299-304


    The objective of this study was to provide population frequency distribution data for non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (total cholesterol minus HDL cholesterol) concentrations and to evaluate whether differences exist by gender, ethnicity, or level of education. Serum levels of non-HDL cholesterol and sociodemographic characteristics were determined for 3,618 black, 3,528 Mexican-American, and 6,043 white women and men, aged >/=25 years, from a national cross-sectional survey of the US population (National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey III, 1988-1994). Age-adjusted non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were lower in women than men (154.1 vs 160.4 mg/dL, p <0.001). In women and men, age was positively associated with non-HDL cholesterol in the 25 to 64-year age range, and the slope of the association was steeper for women. For women and men >/=65 years, age was negatively associated with non-HDL cholesterol, and the slope of the association was steeper for men. Black women and men had lower non-HDL cholesterol levels than either Mexican-American or white women and men (women, p <0.02; men, p <0.001, for both ethnic contrasts). Women with less education had higher levels of non-HDL cholesterol than women with more education (p <0.01). These nationally representative population frequency distribution data provide non-HDL cholesterol reference levels for clinicians and investigators and indicate that there are significant variations in non-HDL cholesterol by gender, age, ethnicity, and level of education.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088423900009

    View details for PubMedID 10922437

  • Estimation of contribution of changes in classic risk factors to trends in coronary-event rates across the WHO MONICA Project populations LANCET Kuulasmaa, K., Tunstall-Pedoe, H., Dobson, A., Fortmann, S., Sans, S., Tolonen, H., Evans, A., Ferrario, M., Tuomilehto, J. 2000; 355 (9205): 675-687


    From the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, the WHO MONICA Project monitored coronary events and classic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in 38 populations from 21 countries. We assessed the extent to which changes in these risk factors explain the variation in the trends in coronary-event rates across the populations.In men and women aged 35-64 years, non-fatal myocardial infarction and coronary deaths were registered continuously to assess trends in rates of coronary events. We carried out population surveys to estimate trends in risk factors. Trends in event rates were regressed on trends in risk score and in individual risk factors.Smoking rates decreased in most male populations but trends were mixed in women; mean blood pressures and cholesterol concentrations decreased, bodymass index increased, and overall risk scores and coronary-event rates decreased. The model of trends in 10-year coronary-event rates against risk scores and single risk factors showed a poor fit, but this was improved with a 4-year time lag for coronary events. The explanatory power of the analyses was limited by imprecision of the estimates and homogeneity of trends in the study populations.Changes in the classic risk factors seem to partly explain the variation in population trends in CHD. Residual variance is attributable to difficulties in measurement and analysis, including time lag, and to factors that were not included, such as medical interventions. The results support prevention policies based on the classic risk factors but suggest potential for prevention beyond these.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085615600009

    View details for PubMedID 10703799

  • Primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease risk factors: Panel summary Stamler, J., Fortmann, S. P., Levy, R. I., Prineas, R. J., Tell, G. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 1999: S130-S135

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084471300023

    View details for PubMedID 10641831

  • Quitting chew: Results from a randomized trial using nicotine patches Howard-Pitney, B., Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P. AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC. 1999: 362-371


    The authors examined the efficacy of transdermal nicotine replacement for cessation in 410 adult nonsmoking chewing tobacco users. Participants were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of 15-mg nicotine patch plus behavioral treatment or placebo patch plus behavioral treatment. All participants received the same behavioral treatment of 2 pharmacy visits, 2 support calls, and self-help materials. At 6 months after treatment, biochemically confirmed point-prevalence rates (no chewing in the last 7 days) in the active (38%) and placebo (34%) groups were high and not significantly different. The difference in relapse (no chewing for 7 consecutive days) between the active patch group (33%) and placebo group (48%) was significant at 6 months (p = .003). Nicotine dependence and age predicted nonrelapse at 6 months. The results suggest that nicotine replacement may improve chewers' chances of abstinence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084175500007

    View details for PubMedID 10609971

  • Do heavy smokers benefit from higher dose nicotine patch therapy? EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P., Davis, L., Strausberg, L., Varady, A. 1999; 7 (3): 226-233


    Heavy smokers (N = 408, smoking more than 25 cigarettes/day) were randomized to receive high-dose (25 mg) or standard-dose (15 mg) nicotine patch therapy delivered during the daytime only (16 hr) for a period of 6 weeks. Treatment effects of each dose were similar. The percentages of participants not smoking at 2-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups were 26 versus 20, 14 versus 16, and 14 versus 14 for the 15-mg and 25-mg doses, respectively. The higher dose was well tolerated, and adverse event profiles for both treatment doses were very similar. Stepwise Cox proportional hazards analyses indicated that initial postrandomization craving and baseline scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Instrument predicted time-to-relapse during treatment; only initial craving predicted relapse over the entire study interval (12 months). The results of this trial do not support the routine use of higher dose nicotine patch therapy in the treatment of nicotine dependence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000082154900005

    View details for PubMedID 10472510

  • Are higher doses of nicotine replacement more effective for smoking cessation? Nicotine & tobacco research Hughes, J. R., LESMES, G. R., Hatsukami, D. K., Richmond, R. L., Lichtenstein, E., Jorenby, D. E., BROUGHTON, J. O., Fortmann, S. P., Leischow, S. J., McKenna, J. P., Rennard, S. I., Wadland, W. C., Heatley, S. A. 1999; 1 (2): 169-174


    This study determined whether higher dose nicotine patches are more efficacious than lower dose patches among heavy smokers. A randomized double-blind study compared 0, 21, 35, and 42 mg/day of a 24-h patch in 1039 smokers (> or = 30 cigarettes/day) at 12 clinical sites in the USA and one in Australia. Daily patches were used for 6 weeks followed by tapering over the next 10 weeks. Weekly group therapy occurred. Biochemically validated self-reported quit rates at 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks post-cessation were measured. Quit rates were dose-related at all follow-ups (p < 0.01). Continuous, biochemically verified abstinence rates for the 0, 21, 35, and 42 mg doses at the end of treatment (12 weeks) were 16, 24, 30, and 39%. At 6 months, the rates were 13, 20, 20, and 26%. Among the 11 sites with 12 month follow-up (n = 879), the quit rates were 7, 13, 9, and 19%. In post-hoc tests, none of the active doses were significantly different from each other at any follow-up. The rates of dropouts due to adverse events for 0, 21, 35, and 42 mg were 3, 1, 3, and 6% (p = n.s.). Our results are similar to most prior smaller studies; i.e., in heavy smokers higher doses increase quit rates slightly. Longer durations of treatment may be necessary to show greater advantages from higher doses.

    View details for PubMedID 11072398

  • The relationship between tobacco access and use among adolescents: a four community study SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE Altman, D. G., Wheelis, A. Y., McFarlane, M., Lee, H. R., Fortmann, S. P. 1999; 48 (6): 759-775


    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a longitudinal community intervention on the reduction of tobacco sales to minors and subsequent effects on tobacco consumption by youths. The study was conducted in Monterey County, CA. Four rural communities were randomized into treatment and comparison arms of the study and middle and high school students in each of these communities completed surveys assessing knowledge, attitude, and behavior. The main outcome measures were retail tobacco sales to minors as measured through store visits (tobacco purchase surveys) and self-reported consumption of tobacco. Over a three-year period, a diverse array of community interventions were implemented in the intervention communities. These included community education, merchant education, and voluntary policy change. In the treatment communities, the proportion of stores selling tobacco to minors dropped from 75% at baseline to 0% at the final post-test. In the comparison communities, the proportions were 64% and 39%, respectively. Although the availability of tobacco through commercial outlets was reduced substantially in intervention communities, youths reported still being able to obtain tobacco from other sources. Predicted treatment effects on reported use of tobacco among youths were observed cross-sectionally and longitudinally for younger students (7th graders). The intervention did not impact tobacco use among older students (9th and 11th graders) although the trends were in the predicted direction for 9th graders. A significant intervention effect was found for sex--females in the intervention communities were less likely to use tobacco post-intervention than females in the comparison communities. Tobacco sales to minors can be reduced through a broad-based intervention. To prevent or reduce tobacco use by youths, however, multiple supply-and demand-focused strategies are needed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078798700007

    View details for PubMedID 10190639

  • The smoking cessation efficacy of varying doses of nicotine patch delivery systems 4 to 5 years post-quit day PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Daughton, D. M., Fortmann, S. P., Glover, E. D., Hatsukami, D. K., Heatley, S. A., Lichtenstein, E., Repsher, L., Millatmal, T., Killen, J. D., Nowak, R. T., Ullrich, F., Patil, K. D., Rennard, S. I. 1999; 28 (2): 113-118


    This study was undertaken to evaluate the long-term smoking cessation efficacy of varying doses of transdermal nicotine delivery systems 4 to 5 years post-quit day.A follow-up study was conducted 48 to 62 months after quit day among patients who were enrolled in the Transdermal Nicotine Study Group investigation. The latter study included group smoking cessation counseling and randomized assignment to 21, 14, or 7 mg nicotine patches or placebo patches. Seven of nine smoking cessation research centers participated in the long term follow-up investigation.The self-reported continuous quit rate among patients originally assigned 21 mg (20.2%) was significantly higher than rates for patients assigned 14 mg (10.4%), 7 mg (11.8%), or placebo patches (7.4%). Log rank survival analysis found no difference in relapse rates after 1 year postcessation. Smokers under age 30 years were significantly less likely to be abstinent at long term follow-up compared to smokers > or = 30 years of age (3 vs 13%, respectively). Mean weight gain in confirmed continuous quitters was 10.1 kg in men and 8.0 kg in women. Of the 63 continuous abstainers surveyed, 30 respondents (48%) reported that they no longer craved cigarettes, and no individual reported daily craving for cigarettes.Nicotine patch therapy with 21 mg/day patches resulted in a significantly higher long-term continuous abstinence rate compared to lower dose patches and placebo. Relapse rates among the various treatment conditions were similar after 1 year postcessation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078506100002

    View details for PubMedID 10048102

  • The effect of perceived control over eating on the life satisfaction of women and men: Results from a community sample INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Greeno, C. G., Jackson, C., Wiliams, E. L., Fortmann, S. P. 1998; 24 (4): 415-419


    To test whether overweight, or perception of lack of control over eating, or both, contributed to the level of life satisfaction for women and men in a random sample of community-dwelling adults.This study examined the effects of body mass index (BMI) and perceived control over eating on life satisfaction for women and men in a community-based sample of 1,069 women and 963 men.For women, both lack of perceived eating control and higher BMI were associated with less life satisfaction, and lack of control over eating was the more important predictor. For men, only lack of perceived eating control was associated with less life satisfaction. Furthermore, for both women and men, the contribution of eating control to life satisfaction was unaffected by BMI, that is, the life satisfaction of heavier people was not more affected by perceived control over eating than was the life satisfaction of lighter people.These findings suggest that psychological issues related to eating and weight can affect global aspects of well-being.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076770900008

    View details for PubMedID 9813766

  • Determinants of cholesterol screening and treatment patterns - Insights for decision-makers AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Davis, S. K., Ahn, D. K., Fortmann, S. P., Farquhar, J. W. 1998; 15 (3): 178-186


    Adult cholesterol screening and treatment policies by the National Cholesterol Education Program recommend that physicians screen all adults aged > 20 [corrected]. On the other hand, the American College of Physicians recommends that healthy young adult men aged > 35 and premenopausal women aged > 45 not be screened due to concerns about the cost of and health risks associated with overuse of pharmacologic therapy in lieu of lifestyle modification.The objectives of this study were to determine the type of treatment (lifestyle vs. pharmacologic) that physicians actually prescribe for individuals screened for elevated cholesterol.Self-report data were derived from the 1989-1990 cross-sectional survey of the Stanford Five-City Project on 1,883 Latino and Anglo men and women aged 20 to 74 years of age. A four-stage sequential design was conducted using multiple stepwise regression analyses with a significance cutpoint of P < .01.Young adult men and women were significantly less likely to report ever having been screened (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.07-1.09). Individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) were also significantly less likely to report ever being screened (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.08-1.16), as were Latino men and women, regardless of age (OR 1.57; CI, 1.14-2.18). There were no significant differences in the pattern of physician care utilization among low SES or Latino individuals during the previous 12-month period. Among those under physician care to lower cholesterol, young adults were more likely to be prescribed lifestyle modification (OR, 0.95; CI, 0.92-0.98).Our results suggest that although young adults are less likely to be screened, if screened they are more likely to be prescribed lifestyle modification than pharmacologic treatment for elevated cholesterol. The lower prevalence of screening among low SES and Latino individuals suggests the need for policy discussions to reduce these disparities.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076101800003

    View details for PubMedID 9791635

  • The interplay of socioeconomic status and ethnicity on Hispanic and White men's cardiovascular disease risk and health communication patterns HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH Ribisl, K. M., Winkleby, M. A., Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A. 1998; 13 (3): 407-417


    In this article, we seek to confirm past studies that document increased levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among White men with lower educational attainment. Second, we include a population of Hispanic men (89% Mexican American) to examine the separate and interactive effects of ethnicity and education (our measure of socioeconomic status) on CVD risk factors. Third, we examine how education and ethnicity are related to receiving health messages from print media and interpersonal channels, with the hypothesis that less educated, higher CVD risk Hispanic and White men receive fewer messages than more educated men. Finally, we examine other psychosocial variables (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy and motivation) that may help explain observed differences in CVD risk and health communication. The study sample included 2029 men, 25-64 years of age, from three population-based, cross-sectional surveys conducted from 1979 to 1990 as part of the Stanford Five-City Project. Hispanic and White men with lower educational attainment had higher levels of CVD risk factors, and received less health information from print media and interpersonal channels than Hispanic and White men with higher educational attainment. Furthermore, less educated men from both ethnic groups reported less CVD knowledge, lower self-efficacy and lower motivation to reduce CVD risk factors than higher educated men. These results highlight the need for effective intervention programs that target low educated Hispanic and White men to decrease their disproportionate risk of CVD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075974900009

    View details for PubMedID 10186451

  • Changes in cigarette smoking among adults in 35 populations in the mid-1980s TOBACCO CONTROL Dobson, A. J., Kuulasmaa, K., Moltchanov, V., Evans, A., Fortmann, S. P., Jamrozik, K., Sans, S., Tuomilehto, J. 1998; 7 (1): 14-21


    To examine changes in the prevalence of cigarette smoking in 35 study populations of the World Health Organisation's MONICA Project.Data from two independent, community-based surveys conducted, on average, five years apart.Geographically defined populations in 21 countries mainly in eastern and western Europe.Randomly selected men and women aged 25-64 years. Numbers of participants in each study population ranged from 586 to 2817 in each survey.Changes in proportions of current smokers, ex-smokers, and never-smokers by age and sex using data collected by standardised methods.Among men, smoking prevalence decreased in most populations, by three to four percentage points over five years. In Beijing, however, it increased in all age groups--overall by 11 percentage points. Among women there were increases in smoking in about half the populations. The increases were mainly in the age group 35-54 years and often in those populations where smoking prevalence among women has been relatively low.Smoking initiation by middle-aged women in parts of southern and eastern Europe and among men of all ages in Beijing is a matter of concern. The various public health measures that have helped to reduce smoking among men in developed countries should be vigorously extended to these other groups now at growing risk of smoking-related disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078305700012

    View details for PubMedID 9706749

  • The Stanford Nutrition Action Program: A dietary fat intervention for low-literacy adults AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Howard-Pitney, B., Winkleby, M. A., Albright, C. L., Bruce, B., Fortmann, S. P. 1997; 87 (12): 1971-1976


    This study was undertaken to test the effectiveness of the Stanford Nutrition Action Program, an experimental trial to reduce dietary fat intake among low-literacy, low-income adults.Twenty-four paired adult education classes (351 participants, 85% women, mean age = 31 years) were randomly assigned to receive a newly developed dietary fat curriculum (the Stanford Nutrition Action Program) or an existing general nutrition curriculum. Food frequency and nutrition-related data, body mass index, and capillary blood cholesterol were collected at baseline and at two postintervention follow-ups.The Stanford Nutrition Action Program classes showed significantly greater net improvements in nutrition knowledge (+7.7), attitudes (/0.2), and self-efficacy (-0.2) than the general nutrition classes; they also showed significantly greater reductions in the percentage of calories from total (-2.3%) and saturated (-0.9%) fat. There were no significant differences in body mass index or blood cholesterol. All positive intervention effects were maintained for 3 months postintervention.The Stanford Nutrition Action Program curriculum, tailored to the cultural, economic, and learning needs of low-literacy, low-income adults, was significantly more effective in achieving fat-related nutritional changes than the general nutrition curriculum.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071275000013

    View details for PubMedID 9431286

  • Predicting achievement of a low-fat diet: A nutrition intervention for adults with low literacy skills PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Winkleby, M. A., HOWARDPITNEY, B., Albright, C. A., Bruce, B., Kraemer, H. C., Fortmann, S. P. 1997; 26 (6): 874-882


    This paper identifies factors that predict achievement of a low-fat diet among 242 California adults with low literacy skills, following their participation in the Stanford Nutrition Action Program (SNAP), a randomized classroom-based nutrition intervention trial (1993-1994).The intervention classes received a newly developed curriculum that focuses on reducing dietary fat intake (SNAP); the control classes received an existing general nutrition (GN) curriculum. Data were collected at baseline and 3 months postintervention. This hypothesis-generating analysis uses a signal detection method to identify mutually exclusive groups that met the goal of a low fat diet, defined as < 30% of calories from total fat, at 3 months postintervention.Three mutually exclusive groups were identified. Twenty-three percent of Group 1, participants with high baseline dietary fat (> 60 g) who received either the GN or the SNAP curriculum, met the postintervention goal of < 30% of calories from total fat. Thirty-four percent of Group 2, participants with moderate baseline dietary fat (< or = 60 g) who received the GN curriculum, were successful. Sixty percent of Group 3, participants with moderate baseline dietary fat who received the SNAP curriculum, were successful. Members of Group 3 also significantly increased their intake of vegetables, grains, and fiber.Within this population of adults with low literacy skills, a large proportion of those with moderate baseline dietary fat who participated in the SNAP classes met the postintervention criteria for a low-fat diet. A much smaller proportion of those with high baseline dietary fat were successful, suggesting that this group may benefit from different, more intensive, or longer-term interventions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YH61600014

    View details for PubMedID 9388800

  • Synthesis of findings and issues from community prevention trials ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Schooler, C., Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A. 1997; 7 (7): S54-S68
  • Community-based prevention trials: Challenges and directions for public health practice, policy, and research ANNALS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Stone, E. J., Pearson, T. A., Fortmann, S. P., McKinlay, J. B. 1997; 7 (7): S113-S120
  • Nicotine patch and self-help video for cigarette smoking cessation JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P., Davis, L., Varady, A. 1997; 65 (4): 663-672


    A total of 424 smokers were randomized in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment. A pharmacologic factor contained 2 levels: transdermal nicotine path (TNP; 21 mg) and placebo. A self-help behavioral treatment factor contained 2 levels: video-enhanced self-help treatment manual and self-help treatment manual only. At 2 months, TNP produced a higher level of abstinence (36%) than placebo (20%), p < .001. No other comparison was significant. In secondary analyses, (at 2 months) and compliance with patch treatment regimen (at 2, 6, and 12 months) were associated with less relapse. Although nicotine replacement therapy has improved our ability to produce smoking cessation, the production of sustained, longer term abstinence remains an elusive goal.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XM67400016

    View details for PubMedID 9256568

  • Development of a curriculum to lower dietary fat intake in a multiethnic population with low literacy skills JOURNAL OF NUTRITION EDUCATION Albright, C. L., Bruce, B., HOWARDPITNEY, B., Winkleby, M. A., Fortmann, S. P. 1997; 29 (4): 215-223
  • Craving is associated with smoking relapse: Findings from three prospective studies EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P. 1997; 5 (2): 137-142


    In a combined sample of more than 2600 smokers, immediate postcessation craving is shown to be prospectively associated with smokers' ability to maintain abstinence. Relapse is strikingly rapid among those reporting high levels of craving following cessation. More than 32% of those with high craving scores relapsed within 1 week of cessation. In contrast, fewer than 15% of those with low craving relapsed in the first week (p < .001). Our findings provide a warrant for an increased research effort designed to provide a better understanding of the factors that control following smoking cessation and the processes by which craving influences smoking relapse.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WY83800007

    View details for PubMedID 9234050

  • A prospective case-control study of lipoprotein(a) levels and apo(a) size and risk of coronary heart disease in stanford five-city project participants ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY Wild, S. H., Fortmann, S. P., Marcovina, S. M. 1997; 17 (2): 239-245


    Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is formed by the assembly of LDL particles and a carbohydrate-rich protein, apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)], which has a high degree of structural homology with plasminogen. While the majority of retrospective studies have found an association between Lp(a) level and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the few prospective studies to date have reported contradictory results. We conducted a nested case-control study using the participants in the Stanford Five-City Project, a long-term CVD prevention trial. Participants with an incident possible or definite myocardial infarction or coronary death were matched to a single control subject for age, sex, ethnicity, residence in a treatment or control city, and time of survey. This process yielded 134 case-control pairs, 90 male and 44 female, for whom plasma was available for analysis of Lp(a). Lp(a) values in nanomoles per liter were determined by an enzyme-linked immunoassay that measures Lp(a) independently of apo(a) size polymorphism. Apo(a) size isoforms were determined by SDS-agarose gel electrophoresis. Median Lp(a) level in male cases was almost double that in control subjects (41.8 versus 21.2 nmol/L; P < .01); in female cases, median Lp(a) was 34% higher than in control subjects (32.5 versus 21.2 nmol/L), but this difference was not statistically significant. Among the male cases, there was an increased frequency of small apo(a) isoforms, while no significant difference was found in apo(a) size between female cases and control subjects. The association between Lp(a) level and case-control status in men was independent of total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol levels, as well as apo(a) size isoform, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, and obesity. In men, the most efficient threshold value of Lp(a) concentration for separating cases and control subjects was 35 nmol/L; the odds ratio for being a case above this level compared with below was 2.84 (95% confidence interval: 1.53-5.27, P < .001). This study provides strong evidence that Lp(a) level is a prospective, independent risk factor for developing coronary artery disease in men and indicates that the size of apo(a) may also play a role. The lack of a significant association in women deserves further evaluation in larger studies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WK39400002

    View details for PubMedID 9081676

  • Lipoprotein(a), a clinically elusive lipoprotein particle CIRCULATION Fortmann, S. P., Marcovina, S. M. 1997; 95 (2): 295-296

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WC72500001

    View details for PubMedID 9008434

  • The long-term effects of a cardiovascular disease prevention trial: The Stanford Five-City Project AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Winkleby, M. A., Taylor, C. B., Jatulis, D., Fortmann, S. P. 1996; 86 (12): 1773-1779


    This study examined long-term effects of a health-education intervention trial to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.Surveys were conducted in California in two treatment and two control cities at baseline (1979/1980), after the 6-year intervention (1985/1986), and 3 years later at follow-up (1989/1990). Net treatment/control differences in risk-factor change were assessed for women and men 25 to 74 years of age.Blood pressure improvements observed in all cities from baseline to the end of the intervention were maintained during the follow-up in treatment but not control cities. Cholesterol levels continued to decline in all cities during follow-up. Smoking rates leveled out or increased slightly in treatment cities and continued to decline in control cities but did not yield significant net differences. Both coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality risk scores were maintained or continued to improve in treatment cities while leveling out or rebounding in control cities.These findings suggest that community-based cardiovascular disease prevention trials can have sustained effects. However, the modest net differences in risk factors suggest the need for new designs and interventions that will accelerate positive risk-factor change.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996WC83500018

    View details for PubMedID 9003136

  • Differences in treatment of acute myocardial infarction by sex, age, and other factors (The Stanford Five-City project) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Oka, R. K., Fortmann, S. P., Varady, A. N. 1996; 78 (8): 861-865


    This study examines the temporal trends in the use of angiography followed by revascularization procedures for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 2,021 hospitalized men and 995 women aged 30 to 74 years who participated in the Stanford Five-City Project during the years 1986 to 1992. Our sample included hospitalized patients who received a discharge diagnosis code of 410 through 414 and met study criteria for either a definite or possible AMI. Incident and recurrent infarctions occurring in the years 1986 through 1992 were included, but only the first event in this period for each patient. We performed stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the probability of: (1) receiving coronary angiography, (2) revascularization by either coronary bypass surgery or angioplasty among those with angiogram, and (3) thrombolytic therapy. Age, year of procedure, disease severity, and time between symptom onset and medical treatment were included as covariates. After adjustment of these factors, women were less likely than men to undergo angiography but were equally likely to undergo revascularization and thrombolysis. Hispanics and whites were equally likely to receive angiography and thrombolysis, but Hispanics were less likely than whites to undergo revascularization. Age and disease severity were inverse predictors of coronary angiography but not of revascularization. Age, severity, and delay time between onset of symptoms and medical therapy were inverse predictors of thrombolysis; delay time was significantly greater in women than in men and averaged > 6 hours in both sexes. The likelihood of receiving angiography, revascularization, and thrombolysis increased sharply over the study period.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VN75700001

    View details for PubMedID 8888655

  • Interactive effects of depression symptoms, nicotine dependence, and weight change on late smoking relapse JOURNAL OF CONSULTING AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Killen, J. D., Fortmann, S. P., Kraemer, H. C., Varady, A. N., Davis, L., Newman, B. 1996; 64 (5): 1060-1067


    Signal detection methods were used to develop an algorithm useful in distinguishing those at risk for late relapse from those likely to maintain abstinence. Four subgroups with 24-month survival (nonrelapse) rates ranging from 79% to 33% were identified. Among participants whose depression symptoms decreased from baseline to the end of treatment, lower levels of nicotine dependence were associated with less relapse at the 24-month follow-up (odds ratio = 2.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.36-5.62). Among participants whose depression symptoms increased from baseline to the end of treatment, greater weight gain was associated with less relapse at follow-up (odds ratio = 2.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.41-5.96). This study suggested that it may become possible to use both baseline and treatment information to "titrate" interventions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VM70000029

    View details for PubMedID 8916636

  • Association of small low-density lipoprotein particles with the incidence of coronary artery disease in men and women JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Gardner, C. D., Fortmann, S. P., Krauss, R. M. 1996; 276 (11): 875-881


    To investigate the prospective association of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle diameter with the incidence of fatal and nonfatal coronary artery disease (CAD).A nested case-control study.Cases and controls were identified from a population-based sample of men and women combining all of the 5 cross-sectional surveys conducted from 1979 to 1990 of the Stanford Five-City Project (FCP).Incident CAD cases were identified through FCP surveillance between 1979 and 1992. Controls were matched by sex, 5-year age groups, survey time point, ethnicity, and FCP treatment condition. The sample included 124 matched pairs: 90 pairs of men and 34 pairs of women.LDL peak particle diameter (LDL size) was determined by gradient gel electrophoresis on plasma samples collected during the cross-sectional surveys (stored at 70 degrees C for 5-15 years). Established CAD risk-factor data were available from FCP baseline measurements.LDL size was smaller among CAD cases than controls (mean +/- SD) (26.17 +/- 1.00 nm vs 26.68 +/- 0.90 nm; P<.001). The association was graded across control quintiles of LDL size. The significant case-control difference in LDL size was independent of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C), triglyceride, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body mass index, but was not significant after adjusting for the ratio of total cholesterol (TC) to HDL-C (TC:HDL-C). Among all the physiological risk factors, LDL size was the best differentiator of CAD status in conditional logistic regression. However, when added to the physiological parameters above, the TC:HDL-C ratio was found to be a stronger independent predictor of CAD status.LDL size was significantly smaller in CAD cases than in controls in a prospective, population-based study. These findings support other evidence of a role for small, dense LDL particles in the etiology of atherosclerosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VF78700030

    View details for PubMedID 8782636

  • Effect of community health education on physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and behavior - The Stanford Five-City Project AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Young, D. R., Haskell, W. L., Taylor, C. B., Fortmann, S. P. 1996; 144 (3): 264-274


    The authors studied the effectiveness of community-wide health education on physical activity knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior. Random samples of residents aged 18-74 years who lived in four central California cities (baseline, n = 1,056 men and 1,183 women) were evaluated in 1979-1980 and approximately every 2 years thereafter to obtain four independent samples. Moreover, every subject in the initial independent samples was asked to return for follow-up every 2 years thereafter; subjects who completed all four examinations constituted the cohort sample (n = 408 men and 499 women). Two medium-sized cities received health education and two similarly sized cities served as controls. Results indicated little consistent evidence of a treatment effect on physical activity knowledge, attitudes, or self-efficacy in either men or women. Among physical activity measures, there was an indication of a positive treatment effect for men in the independent samples for estimated daily energy expenditure and percent participation in vigorous activities (p < 0.01), and for women in the independent (p = 0.014) and cohort (p < 0.01) samples for engagement in the number of moderate activities. These results underscore the need for development of more effective interventions to change physical activity than is provided by a broad-based, community-wide health education program and for more sensitive and reliable measures of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior with regard to physical activity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UZ75400007

    View details for PubMedID 8686695

  • Sociodemographic influences on Hispanic White differences in blood pressure PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS Winkleby, M. A., Kraemer, H., Lin, J., Jatulis, D., Fortmann, S. P. 1996; 111: 30-32


    DATA ARE PRESENTED for 933 Hispanic and 7087 white men and women, ages 25 to 74, who participated in biennial cross-sectional surveys in California from 1979 to 1990. Using an unadjusted analysis, white women and men had significantly higher mean systolic blood pressures (123.4 mmHg versus 119.6 mmHg) and higher levels of hypertension (29.0% versus 22.9%) than Hispanic women and men (P values greater than 0.001). To reduce bias from confounding, a subset of 702 Hispanics were matched to 702 whites on age, gender, education, city of residence, and time of survey. All ethnic differences in blood pressure became nonsignificant in this analysis. The mean systolic blood pressure for whites was 120.0 mmHg; for Hispanics, 120.7 mmHg (24.4% hypertension for both groups, P values greater than 0.10). These findings show the importance of taking sociodemographic factors into account when examining ethnic differences in blood pressure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VW30700010

    View details for PubMedID 8898768

  • Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke for six ethnic groups in California, 1985 to 1990. Annals of epidemiology Wild, S. H., Laws, A., Fortmann, S. P., Varady, A. N., Byrne, C. D. 1995; 5 (6): 432-439


    Coronary heart disease and stroke death rates were compared for six ethnic groups (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, African-American, Chinese, Japanese, and Asian Indian) by sex and age (25 to 44, 45 to 64, 65 to 84, and 25 to 84 years old) using California census and 1985 to 1990 death data. African-American men and women in all age groups had the highest rates of death from coronary heart disease, stroke, and all causes (except for coronary heart disease in the oldest men). Hispanics, Chinese, and Japanese in all age-sex groups had comparatively low death rates for coronary heart disease and stroke, although stroke was proportionally an important cause of death for Chinese and Japanese groups. Coronary heart disease was an important cause of death for Asian Indians although death rates were generally not higher than those for other ethnic groups. Ethnic differences were most marked for women and younger age groups.

    View details for PubMedID 8680605

  • COMMUNITY INTERVENTION TRIALS - REFLECTIONS ON THE STANFORD 5-CITY PROJECT EXPERIENCE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J. A., Winkleby, M. A., Schooler, C., Taylor, C. B., Farquhar, J. W. 1995; 142 (6): 576-586


    In the past two decades several community intervention studies designed to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease in populations have been completed. These trials shared the rationale that the community approach was the best way to address the large population attributable risk of mild elevations of multiple risk factors, the interrelation of several health behaviors, and the potential efficiency of large-scale interventions not limited to the medical care system. These trials also shared several threats to internal validity, especially the small number of intervention units (usually cities) that could be studied. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the lessons learned in one of the studies, the Stanford Five-City Project, which began in 1978. The anticipated advantages were observed, including the generalizability of the intervention components, the potential for amplification of interventions through diffusion in the community, and the efficiency of the mass media and other community programs for reaching the entire population. Numerous components of the intervention proved effective when evaluated individually, as was true in other community studies. However, the design limitations proved difficult to overcome, especially in the face of unexpectedly large, favorable risk factor changes in control sites. As a result, definitive conclusions about the overall effectiveness of the communitywide efforts were not always possible. Nevertheless, in aggregate, these studies support the effectiveness of communitywide health promotion, and investigators in the field should turn to different questions. The authors have learned how little they know of the determinants of population-level change and the characteristics that separate communities that change quickly in response to general health information from those that do not. Future studies in communities must elucidate these characteristics, while improving the effectiveness of educational interventions and expanding the role of environmental and health policy components of health promotion.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RT89700003

    View details for PubMedID 7653465

  • HISPANIC VERSUS WHITE SMOKING PATTERNS BY SEX AND LEVEL OF EDUCATION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Winkleby, M. A., Schooler, C., Kraemer, H. C., Lin, J., Fortmann, S. P. 1995; 142 (4): 410-418


    Although past studies have compared cigarette smoking patterns in Hispanics and whites, few have examined differences within sex and educational subgroups. Data are presented for 1,088 Hispanic women and men (89% Mexican-American origin) and pairwise matched white women and men (544 pairs), aged 25-74 years, who participated in population-based cross-sectional surveys in California in 1979-1990. Each pair was matched on age, sex, educational level, city of residence, and survey time period. There were large differences in smoking prevalence rates between Hispanic and white pairs with low educational attainment. White women and men with less than a high school education were approximately twice as likely to be current daily cigarette smokers as were similarly educated Hispanic women and men (46.1 vs. 20.6% for women and 52.7 vs. 30.1% for men). As the level of education increased, these ethnic differences in smoking decreased and became negligible among those who completed college. Virtually all low-educated white men (92.5%) and most low-educated white women (73.1%) were either current or former daily smokers. There were large ethnic differences in rates of smoking cessation advice from a physician; only 8.3% of low-educated Hispanic men who were current daily smokers had ever been advised by a physician to stop smoking, compared with 59.6% of low-educated white men. These data confirm ethnic differences in smoking behavior and identify the high smoking rates of white men and women with low educational attainment, thus delineating an often unrecognized group toward whom tobacco prevention and cessation activities should be directed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RN51400006

    View details for PubMedID 7625406



    Smokers aged 18 to 65 years (N = 1,044) who were able to quit for 24 hr were randomized using a 2 x 2 factorial design to compare nicotine gum to no gum use and self-help materials to no use of materials. All participants were offered a $100 incentive to quit and stay quit for 6 months. Six-month abstinence was 27% in the gum groups, compared with 19% in the no-gum group (p = .002). Compared with the no-gum group, relapse occurred at a significantly lower rate in the gum group for the entire 12 months of follow-up (odds of relapse in the gum group was 0.72, 95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.83). There was no significant main effect for the self-help materials, no interaction between gum and materials, and no evidence that the effectiveness of gum differed between the sexes or between heavy and light smokers. Nicotine gum is an effective adjunct to minimal-contact smoking cessation materials plus monetary incentive in a population-based sample of smokers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RA10700017

    View details for PubMedID 7608359



    For determination of the effects of weight variability on cardiovascular risk factors, a random community sample of 269 men and 361 women aged 25-74 years, drawn from the Stanford Five-City Project, was followed for up to 10 years (1979-1989). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and pulse were measured. Body mass index slope (BMI-slope) was determined by regressing five BMI values on time for each individual. BMI variability was defined as the root mean square error (BMI-RMSE) of a regression line fitted to each individual's BMI values over time. The slopes of the five cardiovascular risk factors were most strongly related to the baseline value of each risk factor and BMI-slope in both men and women. Neither BMI-RMSE nor the interaction of BMI-RMSE with BMI-slope was related to risk factor slopes. In this population, BMI variability had little impact on cardiovascular risk factors compared with BMI-slope and baseline BMI.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QL09600010

    View details for PubMedID 7879790



    Increasingly, agencies supporting community health promotion interventions require participating communities and evaluators to specify how the intervention will be maintained once agency funding ends. The Stanford Five-City Project (FCP) implemented two different strategies to maintain its heart disease education program, with the second strategy designed to overcome the barriers to implementation that were encountered by the first. This paper provides a practice-oriented description of the initial 'community network' maintenance strategy of the FCP, the barriers that were encountered as this network strategy was implemented, the alternative 'capacity-building' strategy directed at local health educators and the successful implementation of this alternative. Also discussed are the community organization issues underlying the shift in intervention maintenance strategies and the specific components of the capacity-building strategy, including its focus on health educators, and its application of a training of trainers model and cooperative learning methods to provide professional development, technical assistance and other resources to a target group of community health educators. Our experience indicates that capacity-building is a viable method for intervention maintenance and that it may also facilitate efforts to disseminate model health promotion programs to communities lacking experience in community health promotion intervention.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PG49100012

    View details for PubMedID 10150455



    This comparative study tests for ethnic differences in dietary fat consumption in a community-based sample of Hispanic and white adults with low educational attainment (< 12 years of schooling) and a separate sample of their children.Data are presented for adults (age 20-64, n = 886) and youths (age 12-19, n = 170) from four California cities who participated in one of four sequential cross-sectional surveys (1981-1990).After adjustment for age, sex, city of residence, and time of survey, white adults were significantly (P < 0.03) more likely than Hispanic adults to have eaten high-fat foods in the last 24 hr, such as red meat (75.7% vs 68.4%), cured meats, (39.1% vs 25.8%), and cheese (41.4% vs 32.7%). Furthermore, white adults consumed significantly (P < 0.001) more fat, as measured by percentage of calories from total fat (37.7% vs 33.3%) and saturated fat (13.7% vs 11.8%), and consumed significantly less dietary carbohydrate (45.5% vs 49.7%) and fiber (17.1 g vs 26.0 g) than Hispanic adults. Ethnic differences were similar for the youth sample (except for carbohydrates), but were generally not significant. A graded relationship was found between acculturation and dietary measures, where more acculturated Hispanics (English-speaking) were intermediate between less acculturated Hispanics (Spanish-speaking) and whites in their dietary intake.This study illustrates the high dietary fat consumption of whites with low educational attainment, the increasing fat consumption of Hispanics at higher levels of acculturation, and the need for effective dietary interventions for low educated whites and Hispanics.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PB84300009

    View details for PubMedID 7971874



    To better understand the generalizability of experimental smoking studies, the authors compare volunteer and population-based recruitment in two randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation methods, one that used a volunteer sample and one that used a random, population-based sample. Participants are compared with nonparticipants within each study, to the participants in the other study, and to the general population. Smokers aged 18-65 years without contraindications to using nicotine polacrilex who were able to quit unassisted were eligible for the two studies. In the first study (1984-1989), advertising recruited 3,758 eligible smokers (75% of all inquiries) who were willing to give a baseline telephone interview. Of these 3,758 eligible smokers, 2,592 attempted to quit and 1,226 succeeded for 48 hours and were randomized. In the second study (1988-1993), 7,135 smokers were identified through a random household telephone survey, and of these 7,135 smokers, 5,124 (72%) agreed to the telephone interview, 2,209 made a quit attempt, and 1,170 succeeded for 24 hours and entered the study. Compared with nonparticipants who provided an interview, subjects in both studies were more likely to be male, married, and employed, and were older and better educated. Compared with population-based recruitment, volunteer recruitment produced subjects who were less likely to be male and married, and were older, more educated, only slightly less representative of all ethnic subgroups, and heavier, more addicted smokers. Women were less likely than men to quit in the first 24-48 hours. The authors conclude that volunteer recruitment to smoking cessation studies appears to produce a reasonable sample of smokers, especially of heavy smokers, and that, compared with men, women may have more difficulty with the initial stages of smoking cessation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NT91000005

    View details for PubMedID 8017402

  • NICOTINE REPLACEMENT THERAPY FOR PATIENTS WITH CORONARY-ARTERY DISEASE ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Rennard, S., Daughton, D., Cheney, R., Thompson, A., Miles, R., Windle, J., Repsher, L., Clifford, D. P., SCHONES, W., Fortmann, S. P., Killen, J. D., PETTY, T. L., Snyder, J., HAMILTON, R., Williamson, J. W., NETT, L. M., Prochazka, A. V., Silvers, W., Causey, D., Prather, D., Pardo, B., Knowles, M., Gupta, S., Rolf, C. 1994; 154 (9): 989-995
  • CHOLESTEROL CHANGES IN SMOKING CESSATION USING THE TRANSDERMAL NICOTINE SYSTEM PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Allen, S. S., Hatsukami, D., Gorsline, J., Christen, A., Rennard, S., Heatley, S., Fortmann, S., Hughes, J., Glover, E., Repsher, L., Lichtenstein, E., Rolf, C. N. 1994; 23 (2): 190-196


    Results of a prospective examination of factors influencing smoking relapse are reported for a sample of smokers (N = 522) obtained through population-based recruitment. All subjects were given a modified Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (modified FTQ), which is a 5-item self-report instrument characterizing smokers according to their degree of nicotine dependence. At 30 days post-cessation, those placing in the lowest quartile of the modified FTQ at baseline had the highest survival rate (79%) and those placing in the highest quartile at baseline had the lowest survival (non-relapse) rate (43%). The difference in survival among the groups was statistically significant (p < .001). At 12 months, those placing in the lowest quartile of baseline cigarette consumption had the highest survival rate (34%) and those placing in the highest quartile had the lowest survival rate (14%; p < .001). It seems increasingly clear that level of dependence, even as indexed by comparatively crude self-report measures such as amount smoked is associated with the rate and pattern of smoking relapse.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994QG47600003

    View details for PubMedID 16250793



    Oxidants in cigarette smoke accelerate metabolic turnover of ascorbic acid (AA), and thereby deplete body stores of this potent antioxidant and putative anticarcinogen in active smokers. We examined plasma AA concentrations and vitamin C intakes in nonsmokers regularly exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ie, passive smokers; n = 44), as compared with active smokers (n = 47) and nonexposed nonsmokers (n = 50), to determine whether passive smokers also exhibit altered AA nutriture suggestive of oxidant exposure. Plasma AA concentrations in passive smokers were intermediate between those of active smokers (P = 0.0001) and nonexposed nonsmokers (P = 0.01) despite similar dietary vitamin C intakes. Hypovitaminosis C (< 23 mumol/L) was observed in 24% of active smokers and 12% of passive smokers but not in nonexposed nonsmokers. Reduced plasma AA concentrations were associated with low vitamin C intakes within smoke-exposed populations only. We conclude that chronic smoke exposure, particularly in association with low vitamin C intake, may reduce AA pools in both active and passive smokers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MK46600013

    View details for PubMedID 8249873



    Aerobic exercise training studies involving volunteers generally result in an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile. Little is known, however, about associations between physical activity change and risk factor change in a more representative sample, such as a community. This investigation evaluated correlations between a composite physical activity change score and change in cardiovascular risk factors from 1979 to 1985 in the cohort sample of the Stanford Five-City Project. Men (n = 380) and women (n = 427) between the ages of 18 and 74 years were evaluated for change in self-reported physical activity and change in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol), systolic blood pressure, resting pulse rate, and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2). For men, improvement in the composite physical activity score significantly correlated with an increase in HDL cholesterol (r = 0.14, p = 0.005) and decreases in body mass index (r = -0.16, p = 0.001) and estimated 10-year coronary heart disease risk score (r = -0.10, p = 0.056). For women, improvement in the physical activity score was associated with changes in HDL cholesterol (r = 0.11, p = 0.028) and resting pulse rate (r = -0.15, p = 0.001). These data demonstrate that an increase in physical activity over 5 years is favorably associated with changes in major cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women and support the public health efficacy of community-wide promotion of physical activity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LZ15600001

    View details for PubMedID 8356962

  • THE FAVORITE CIGARETTE OF THE DAY JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Jarvik, M., Killen, J. D., Varady, A., Fortmann, S. P. 1993; 16 (4): 413-422


    The choice of a favorite cigarette smoked during a given day varies considerably. Preferences are related to nicotine dependence and the lifestyles of smokers. In a sample of 5124 smokers, the "after-dinner cigarette" was chosen as the cigarette which they would miss most, while the next largest proportion of smokers (33%) said that they would miss the "first cigarette of the morning" most. The latter group scored highest on tests of nicotine dependence. In contrast, infrequent smokers ("chippers") chose the after-dinner cigarette.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LV62800006

    View details for PubMedID 8411146



    Although past studies have compared health-related risk factors in Hispanics and whites, few studies have controlled for potential confounding from sociodemographic variables. Using data on men and women aged 25-74 years who responded to biennial cross-sectional surveys conducted in four diverse California cities from 1979 to 1990, the authors employed a matched-pairs design in which 756 Hispanic respondents were matched to 756 white respondents according to age, sex, educational level, city of residence, and time of survey. No significant differences between Hispanics and whites were found for any of the blood pressure indicators (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension, and use of antihypertensive medication), caloric intake, total cholesterol, alcohol intake, or physical activity. The only variables for which Hispanics had higher levels of risk factors than whites were body mass index (weight (kg)/weight (m)2; 27.5 vs. 25.6, p < 0.001) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (48.6 mg/dl vs. 50.1 mg/dl, p < 0.03). Whites, on the other hand, were significantly more likely to be current smokers than Hispanics (34.2% vs. 24.0%, p < 0.001) and, among smokers, to smoke a greater number of cigarettes per day (19.7 vs. 11.4 cigarettes/day, p < 0.001). Whites were also significantly more likely to have higher-fat diets, as measured by percentages of calories derived from total fat (37.6% vs. 35.1%, p < 0.04) and saturated fat (13.6% vs. 12.3%, p < 0.03). Examination of interactions indicated further risk factor differences by ethnicity across several sex, age, and educational subgroups.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LP66000008

    View details for PubMedID 8333418



    The Stanford Five-City Project was initiated in 1978 to evaluate the effects of community-wide health education on coronary heart disease risk factors in two control (San Luis Obispo and Modesto) and two treatment (Monterey and Salinas) cities. This paper examines sex differences in the prevalence of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension from the baseline survey in 1979-1980 through the conclusion of the intervention in 1985-1986. Four independent cross-sectional surveys (n = 1,713, 1,709, 1,848, and 1,768) and four repeated surveys of a cohort (n = 817) were conducted. This analysis presents findings separately for a younger age group (25-49 years) and an older age group (50-74 years). Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension were more prevalent among younger men than younger women in both treatment and control cities. In general, this excess risk among younger men disappeared or reversed in the older age group. Over the 7-year study, the prevalence of hypertension and smoking decreased for both men and women in all surveys, the prevalence of hyper-cholesterolemia displayed no definite change, and male/female ratios of risk factor prevalence showed either no change or a slight decrease. This study confirms a higher prevalence of the three major risk factors for coronary heart disease among younger men, with the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and, to a lesser extent, the prevalence of smoking becoming greater among women than men in the older age group and the prevalence of hypertension becoming equivalent.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LK52500002

    View details for PubMedID 8317435



    This paper examines the effects of community-wide health education on diet-related knowledge and behavior and on plasma cholesterol levels during an experimental field study in medium-sized cities in northern California. Samples of the population aged 12-74 years were drawn at baseline and every 2 years thereafter to obtain four cross-sectional surveys; participants aged 25-74 years are included in this paper (n = 6,814 or about 425 per city per survey). The baseline sample was asked to return to three follow-up surveys, also 2 years apart, constituting the cohort survey sample (n = 777). Diet was assessed by 24-hour recalls. In the serial cross-sectional survey samples, nutritional knowledge increased over time in both men and women in all cities; among women, this increase was significantly greater in the treatment cities. Plasma cholesterol declined significantly only in men and in neither sex was there evidence of a larger decline in treatment than in control cities. Dietary saturated fat intake tended to decline, but not significantly in either sex, and there was no evidence of treatment impact. Dietary cholesterol intake declined in both sexes. Results in the cohort samples were similar, except plasma cholesterol levels were unchanged over time in men and increased in women, and dietary saturated fat intake declined significantly among women. Secular improvements in knowledge of nutrition and in dietary cholesterol intake occurred during the early 1980s in both men and women in these four cities, while there was less consistent improvement in dietary saturated fat intake. Only nutritional knowledge among women achieved greater improvement in treatment cities than in control cities. Continued and greater change in nutrition probably requires more sustained effort and broader methods, including changes in the food supply.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LK52500001

    View details for PubMedID 8317434



    This article examines cholesterol-related knowledge, cholesterol-related behaviors, and plasma cholesterol levels in 12-24-year-olds, using data collected from four community-based cross-sectional surveys conducted 1979-1980, 1981-1982, 1985-1986, and 1989-1990. Participants included 1,552 individuals from randomly sampled households in two control cities (San Luis Obispo and Modesto, California) of the Stanford Five-City Project. Over the eleven-year study period, cholesterol-related knowledge improved in both control cities (P < .0002). Cholesterol-related behavior (P < .0003) and plasma cholesterol levels (P < .002) significantly improved only in San Luis Obispo (a college city with more 19-24-year-olds and a better-educated population than Modesto). In general, knowledge and behavior scores and plasma cholesterol levels were lower in these 12-24-year-olds than in 25-74-year-olds, although trends at all ages were similar over time and by demographic variables. Although the cholesterol-related interventions that began in the mid-1980s primarily targeted adults, these 12-24-year-olds' cholesterol-related knowledge improved (as did, to a lesser extent, their cholesterol-related behavior and plasma cholesterol levels). These findings have implications for upcoming youth-related cholesterol interventions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LJ66400006

    View details for PubMedID 8347368

  • Cigarette smoking trends in adolescents and young adults: the Stanford Five-City Project. Preventive medicine Winkleby, M. A., Fortmanm, S. P., Rockhill, B. 1993; 22 (3): 325-334


    Data on smoking prevalence from four cross-sectional community-based surveys (1979-1990) are presented for 2,605 adolescents and young adults 12-24 years of age.The surveys were conducted in two treatment and two control cities in Northern California as part of the Stanford Five-City Project, a multifactor cardiovascular disease prevention study.Over the 12-year study period, prevalence of daily smoking declined in all cities by approximately 50% among 16- to 19- and 20- to 24-year-olds but showed little change among those 12-15 years old. Although the declines were especially large in the two treatment cities and in one control city, the declines in treatment cities were not significantly different from those in control cities. During each period, smoking prevalence escalated most sharply between the ages of 12-15 and 16-19, the period of development when students advanced from junior high to high school.Despite impressive secular declines, it appears that the Five-City Project community intervention, which targeted smoking in adults, did not have a diffusion effect on the tobacco use habits of adolescents.

    View details for PubMedID 8327416



    This study surveyed 4158 adults residing in two control cities of the Stanford Five-City Project. Analysis of five cross-sectional surveys (conducted in 1979 through 1990) demonstrated improvements in respondents' general cardiovascular disease risk factor knowledge and behaviors. Cholesterol-related knowledge and behavior showed particularly marked improvements.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KX08600027

    View details for PubMedID 8460744



    To determine the effects of 5 years of community-wide cardiovascular health education on smoking prevalence and cessation, the authors analyzed data from the Stanford Five-City Project, an experimental field study with two treatment cities and two control cities. Representative samples of the population aged 12-74 years were drawn at baseline and every 2 years thereafter to obtain four independent cross-sectional surveys; participants aged 25-74 years are included in this paper (n approximately 440 per city per survey; total n = 6,981). The baseline sample was asked to return to three follow-up surveys, also 2 years apart, and those that did (n = 805) constitute the cohort survey sample. Self-reported cigarette smoking was confirmed by plasma thiocyanate and expired-air carbon monoxide levels. Smoking prevalence decreased over time in all cities, but in the cohort the decrease tended to be greater in treatment than in control cities (p = 0.10, two-tailed); the treatment-control difference was consistent over time (-1.51 percentage points/year in treatment vs. -0.78 percentage points/year in control, p = 0.007, two-tailed). In contrast, smoking prevalence in the independent samples declined similarly in treatment and control cities, changes were not linear, and rates varied within cities between times. Baseline smokers in both the cohort and the follow-up independent surveys were significantly more likely to quit in the treatment cities than in the control cities.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KP91600010

    View details for PubMedID 8434576

  • Policy alternatives for reducing tobacco sales to minors: results from a national survey of retail chain and franchise stores. Journal of public health policy Altman, D. G., Linzer, J., Kropp, R., Descheemaeker, N., Feighery, E., Fortmann, S. P. 1992; 13 (3): 318-331


    Minors' access to tobacco has become an important public health issue. Little is known, however, about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward access among executives from businesses that sell tobacco. This study examined access from the perspective of corporate and regional headquarters of retail chains and franchises that sell tobacco. A total of 148 U.S. companies with the largest overall retail sales volume that sold tobacco were asked to participate; 91 agreed. The sample included grocery stores, convenience stores, gas station mini-marts, liquor stores, and drug stores. Data revealed at least moderate support for policies limiting youth tobacco access. Although most companies reported having in place policies to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco, these policies did not seem intensive. In addition, executives underestimated the extent of youth access. We conclude that the time is right for passage of bold policies to protect young people from tobacco.

    View details for PubMedID 1401050

  • THE MEDICAL ORIGINS OF HOMELESSNESS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Winkleby, M. A., Rockhill, B., Jatulis, D., Fortmann, S. P. 1992; 82 (10): 1395-1398


    Results of a prospective examination (N = 618) of factors associated with smoking relapse are reported. At 1-year follow-up, a modified version of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (Dependence Index; DI) and a measure of craving entered the logistic model (odds ratio of 2.7 [p less than .001]). At Year 2, only the DI entered the model (odds ratio of 2.2 [p less than .001]). The ability of signal detection analysis (SDA) to produce clinically useful decision rules was also examined. At Year 1, SDA produced 1 subgroup with a 25% nonrelapse rate and another with a 9% nonrelapse rate (odds ratio of 3.4 [p less than .001]). At Year 2, SDA produced 1 subgroup with a nonrelapse rate of 19% and another with a nonrelapse rate of 7% (odds ratio of 3.0 [p less than .001]). The use of signal detection methods may help clinicians to identify those at greater or lesser risk of relapse.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JP91800019

    View details for PubMedID 1401396

  • The medical origins of homelessness. American journal of public health Winkleby, M. A., Rockhill, B., Jatulis, D., Fortmann, S. P. 1992; 82 (10): 1394-1398


    In 1989 through 1990, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1437 homeless adults in northern California (98% response rate). Prevalences of alcohol abuse, illegal drug use, and psychiatric hospitalization when adults first became homeless were 15% to 33% lower than prevalences following homelessness. The largest differences between the homeless and a comparison group of 3122 nonhomeless adults were for psychiatric hospitalization (odds ratios [ORs] of 4.6 for men and 5.9 for women) and alcohol abuse (ORs of 2.3 for men and 4.0 for women). However, when prehomeless prevalences of addictive and psychiatric disorders were compared with prevalences among the nonhomeless, absolute differences were no greater than 12%.

    View details for PubMedID 1415869



    To determine whether cholesterol-related knowledge and behavior and plasma cholesterol levels were stable until the inception of large-scale national interventions in the middle to late 1980s, whether they subsequently improved, and whether these levels varied by subgroups.Data were collected from 4173 adults aged 25 through 74 years in the two control cities (San Luis Obispo and Modesto, Calif) of the Stanford Five-City Project. Five separate, community-based surveys were conducted in 1979-1980, 1981-1982, 1983-1984, 1985-1986, and 1989-1990.Cholesterol-related knowledge and behavior and plasma cholesterol levels improved (P = .0001) in both cities after the early 1980s. Those who were more educated, female, older, or nonsmokers had significantly higher knowledge and behavior scores, and those who were younger, more educated, or normotensive had significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels.Improvements in this population's cholesterol-related knowledge and behavior and plasma cholesterol levels began in 1985-1986, suggesting that the extensive cholesterol interventions that began in the middle 1980s in the United States created positive cholesterol-related changes at the community level.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JN25600027

    View details for PubMedID 1518111



    Trends in blood pressure, smoking, and cholesterol were examined from 1979-1980 through 1985-1986 in four cities in California by level of education (< high school, high school graduate, some college, college or postgraduate).Four biennial cross-sectional surveys (n = 6,580) were conducted in two treatment and two control cities to evaluate a 6-year community health education intervention, conducted as part of the Stanford Five-City Project.Over the 8-year study period, men and women ages 25-74 from each educational group in the treatment cities showed significant declines in smoking prevalence and levels of blood pressure and cholesterol (with the exception of cholesterol in women). In general, declines in the least educated group (< high school) were stronger than declines in the most educated group (college or postgraduate). Similar declines occurred in each educational group in control cities.These results illustrate that persons from all educational levels can modify their risk for CVD and are of particular importance because of the higher prevalence of CVD risk factors among those with less education. The similarity of time trends in treatment as well as control cities suggests that the broad-based, multisource health education efforts in the United States are succeeding across the educational spectrum.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JR36000004

    View details for PubMedID 1438109

  • IMPACT OF A CLINICAL PREVENTIVE MEDICINE CURRICULUM FOR PRIMARY CARE FACULTY - RESULTS OF A DISSEMINATION MODEL PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Albright, C. L., Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., Sachs, D. P., Owens, D. K., Gottlieb, L., Stratos, G. A., Bergen, M. R., Skeff, K. M. 1992; 21 (4): 419-435


    This study was designed to test a dissemination model for providing clinical preventive medicine (CPM) training to general internal medicine faculty across the United States.The model incorporated direct instruction of a few faculty as seminar facilitators who, in turn, taught a CPM curriculum to their faculty colleagues, who then could teach it to housestaff and students. The CPM curriculum consisted of six seminars that focused primarily on the risk factors for chronic diseases and on behavior change methods for modifying smoking, diet, and exercise.Faculty who participated in the seminars had significant pre- to post-test increase in knowledge and reported self-efficacy to implement CPM strategies with patients, as well as changes in CPM clinical practices. These faculty, in turn, successfully disseminated CPM information to their housestaff, who also had increases in self-efficacy and changed clinical practices regarding CPM topics.The successful implementation of the dissemination model attests to its viability as a mechanism for disseminating CPM curricula and increasing the emphasis on CMP issues in both clinical teaching and clinical encounters with patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JH41200003

    View details for PubMedID 1409485

  • CHOLESTEROL TREATMENT PRACTICES OF PRIMARY CARE PHYSICIANS PUBLIC HEALTH REPORTS Hyman, D. J., Maibach, E. W., Flora, J. A., Fortmann, S. P. 1992; 107 (4): 441-448


    The active involvement of primary care physicians is necessary in the diagnosis and treatment of elevated blood cholesterol. Empirical evidence suggests that primary care physicians generally initiate dietary and pharmacological treatment at threshold values higher than is currently recommended. To determine current treatment thresholds and establish factors that distinguish physicians who are more likely to initiate therapy at lower cholesterol values, 119 primary care physicians in four northern California communities were surveyed. Data collection included their demographic factors, treatment of hypothetical patients, self-efficacy regarding counseling patients about cholesterol reduction and personal health behaviors, outcome expectations, and cholesterol knowledge and attitudes. Results indicated that 59 percent of respondents would not start dietary treatment on a middle-aged female patient with a cholesterol of 215 milligrams per deciliter (mg per dl). Only 44 percent of respondents indicated that they would initiate pharmacological therapy for a middle-aged man with a cholesterol of 276 mg per dl. Logistic regression models were used to determine characteristics that influenced dietary and pharmacological treatment practices. Younger physicians, those who had had their own cholesterol checked, and those who personally ate a low-fat diet, were more likely to recommend diet therapy to patients with modest elevations of cholesterol. Willingness to use lipid lowering medications at more marked elevations was associated only with increased self-efficacy regarding use of drugs to lower cholesterol. These results indicate that physicians' personal health behaviors and self-efficacy should be addressed in interventions to modify cholesterol-related practice behavior.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JH96600010

    View details for PubMedID 1641441



    Socioeconomic status (SES) is usually measured by determining education, income, occupation, or a composite of these dimensions. Although education is the most commonly used measure of SES in epidemiological studies, no investigators in the United States have conducted an empirical analysis quantifying the relative impact of each separate dimension of SES on risk factors for disease.Using data on 2380 participants from the Stanford Five-City Project (85% White, non-Hispanic), we examined the independent contribution of education, income, and occupation to a set of cardiovascular disease risk factors (cigarette smoking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol).The relationship between these SES measures and risk factors was strongest and most consistent for education, showing higher risk associated with lower levels of education. Using a forward selection model that allowed for inclusion of all three SES measures after adjustment for age and time of survey, education was the only measure that was significantly associated with the risk factors (P less than .05).If economics or time dictate that a single parameter of SES be chosen and if the research hypothesis does not dictate otherwise, higher education may be the best SES predictor of good health.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HW16500008

    View details for PubMedID 1585961



    To ascertain the impact of minor illness on total plasma cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), we analyzed data collected on 6,880 persons examined for the Stanford Five-City Project. Overall, 8.4% of the population reported having a minor illness on the day of examination, although there were substantial variations in minor illness rates with season, city, and year of data collection. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, season, and city of residence, we found that those who reported minor illness at the time of examination had a lower mean TC than those who were well (195.9 mg/dL versus 201.2 mg/dL, P less than .005). HDL-C was 51.2 mg/dL in persons with minor illness, and 52.3 mg/dL in persons without (P = .13). Dietary recall data covering the 24-hour period before the examination was available on a subset of the patients. No dietary differences appeared between individuals who reported minor illness and those who did not. In a subset of 162 persons with a minor illness who were followed longitudinally for up to six years, TC adjusted for age was 191.8 mg/dL with minor illness and 196.1 mg/dL without, a difference that was not statistically significant. The results of this study imply that minor illness may contribute to some of the biological variability of TC and HDL-C. Although small, a differential rate of minor illness may sometimes significantly affect interpretation of TC epidemiological and intervention studies or the timing of measurements in clinical practice.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HQ52400006

    View details for PubMedID 1599716



    Nearly all state health departments collect Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (BRFS) data, and many report using these data in public health planning. Although the BRFS is widely used, little is known about its measurement properties. This study compares the cardiovascular risk behavior estimates of the BRFS with estimates derived from the physiological and interview data of the Stanford Five-City Project Survey (FCPS).The BRFS is a random telephone sample of 1588 adults aged 25 to 64; the FCPS is a random household sample of 1512 adults aged 25 to 64. Both samples were drawn from the same four California communities.The surveys produced comparable estimates for measures of current smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day, rate of ever being told one has high blood pressure, rate of prescription of blood pressure medications, compliance in taking medications, and mean total cholesterol. Significant differences were found for mean body mass index, rates of obesity, and, in particular, rate of controlled hypertension.These differences indicate that, for some risk variables, the BRFS has limited utility in assessing public health needs and setting public health objectives. A formal validation study is needed to test all the risk behavior estimates measured by this widely used instrument.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HL80200015

    View details for PubMedID 1536358

  • PREDICTORS OF PHYSICIANS SMOKING CESSATION ADVICE JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Frank, E., Winkleby, M. A., Altman, D. G., Rockhill, B., Fortmann, S. P. 1991; 266 (22): 3139-3144


    To determine the percentage of smokers reporting that a physician had ever advised them to smoke less or to stop smoking, and the effect of time, demographics, medical history, and cigarette dependence on the likelihood that respondents would state that a physician had ever advised them to stop smoking.Data were collected from the Stanford Five-City Project, a communitywide health education intervention program. The two treatment and three control cities were located in northern and central California. As there was no significant difference between treatment and control cities regarding cessation advice, data were pooled for these analyses.There were five cross-sectional, population-based Five-City Project surveys (conducted in 1979-1980, 1981-1982, 1983-1984, 1985-1986, and 1989-1990); these surveys randomly sampled households and included all residents aged 12 to 74 years.Improved smoking advice rates over time in all towns was an a priori hypothesis.Of the 2710 current smokers, 48.8% stated that their physicians had ever advised them to smoke less or stop smoking. Respondents were more likely to have been so advised if they smoked more cigarettes per day, were surveyed later in the decade, had more office visits in the last year, or were older. In 1979-1980, 44.1% of smokers stated that they had ever been advised to smoke less or to quit by a physician, vs 49.8% of smokers in 1989-1990 (P less than .07). Only 3.6% of 1672 ex-smokers stated that their physicians had helped them to quit.These findings suggest that physicians still need to increase smoking cessation counseling to all patients, particularly adolescents and other young smokers, minorities, and those without cigarette-related disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GT65400021

    View details for PubMedID 1956100

  • TRANSDERMAL NICOTINE FOR SMOKING CESSATION - 6-MONTH RESULTS FROM 2 MULTICENTER CONTROLLED CLINICAL-TRIALS JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Rennard, S., Christen, A., Beiswanger, B., Mau, M., Walker, C., Hatsukami, D., Allen, S., Huber, M., Jensen, J., Daughton, D., Cheney, R., HATLELID, K., Thompson, A., Lichtenstein, E., Biglan, A., Ochs, L., Heatley, S., Repsher, L., SCHONES, W., Stillman, D., Casey, C., Poole, B., Leitch, J., Fortmann, S., Killen, J., Hansen, M., DOUSS, L. R., Hughes, J., VALLIERE, W., Solomon, L., Wadland, W., Glover, E., Glover, P., Causey, D., Knowles, M., VOSSROBERTS, K., Prather, D., TRUNNELL, N., Moos, D., Rolf, C., Nowak, R., Ackerman, P., Malone, N., Knowles, M. 1991; 266 (22): 3133-3138

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GP58500028

    View details for PubMedID 1953238

  • EFFECT OF LONG-TERM COMMUNITY-HEALTH EDUCATION ON BODY-MASS INDEX - THE STANFORD 5-CITY PROJECT AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Taylor, C. B., Fortmann, S. P., Flora, J., Kayman, S., Barrett, D. C., Jatulis, D., Farquhar, J. W. 1991; 134 (3): 235-249


    Being overweight is a risk factor for cardiovascular heart disease and other medical problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a community-wide cardiovascular risk reduction trial (the Stanford Five-City Project) on body mass index. In the Stanford Five-City Project, two treatment cities (n = 122,800) received a 6-year mass media and community organization cardiovascular risk reduction intervention. Changes in the treatment cities were compared with two control cities (n = 197,500) for changes in knowledge of risk factors, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol level, smoking rate, body mass index, and resting pulse rate after 5-1/3 years of the education program. Both cohort and cross-sectional (independent) samples were used in the study. In the independent surveys, subjects in the treatment communities gained significantly less weight than subjects in the control communities (0.57 kg compared with 1.25 kg) over 6 years. In the cohort, there were no significant overall differences. The study provides some evidence that a community health education program may help reduce weight gain over time, but more effective methods must be developed if this important risk factor is to be favorably affected in broad populations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GB74600001

    View details for PubMedID 1877583



    To investigate the extent to which individuals use health education resources for cardiovascular risk reduction, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 2,234 adults 18-74 years of age in four northern California cities. The purposes of the study were to (1) assess the use of 10 cardiovascular disease (CVD) intervention materials and programs, (2) compare use rates between the treatment and control communities of the Stanford Five-City Project, and (3) examine variation in use by type of intervention, risk factor, and sociodemographic status. The community level analyses indicate that up to one-third of adults had used interventions to modify CVD risk factors during a one-year period, and that communities with comprehensive risk reduction programs had higher rates of use, particularly for printed education materials. The subgroup analyses indicate substantial variability in use depending on sociodemographic status, with those at highest risk (men, older adults, and low socioeconomic groups) reporting the lowest use of CVD intervention materials and programs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GC66400003

    View details for PubMedID 1910892



    There have been few prospective studies of craving following smoking cessation. This paper presents findings from a prospective examination of factors associated with craving over an 8-week treatment period. Two findings merit attention: (1) dependence, as measured by the Dependence Index (DI), was associated with craving at 48 h, 4 and 8 weeks post-cessation. The magnitude of the association between the DI and short-term craving was, at the least, comparable to that previously reported among several biochemical measures of smoke intake; (2) a measure of craving obtained 48 h after smoking cessation was associated with treatment outcome. Forty-three per cent of participants with low initial craving scores were abstinent at a 2-month follow-up compared to only 26% of those with high craving scores. The DI was also associated with participants' status at follow-up. This result is interesting because evidence that craving or other abstinence effects are prospectively associated with outcome has been lacking.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GG35300009

    View details for PubMedID 1796127



    The Stanford Five-City Project was initiated in 1978 to evaluate the effects of a community-wide health education program on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure. Two treatment cities received an education program, which used the mass media, various community-based programs, and health professionals, designed to encourage individuals to learn their blood pressure levels, stay in the care of a physician if hypertensive, achieve ideal weight, exercise regularly, and reduce dietary sodium. Physicians were encouraged to follow national hypertension treatment guidelines and were provided with a range of patient education materials. To evaluate the effect of the intervention on cardiovascular risk factors, four independent cross-sectional surveys of randomly selected households and four repeated surveys of a cohort were conducted in both treatment cities and in two of the three control cities. After 5-1/3 years of intervention, blood pressure in the treatment cities exhibited an overall decline of 7.4 and 5.5 mmHg systolic and 5.0 and 3.7 mmHg diastolic in the cohort and independent surveys, respectively. These declines produced net changes between the treatment and control cities ranging from -1.1 to -3.8 mmHg. While the magnitude of these changes is not large, the results are significant from a public health perspective because they reflect changes in the overall community.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EB31400004

    View details for PubMedID 2403104



    To test whether communitywide health education can reduce stroke and coronary heart disease, we compared two treatment cities (N = 122,800) and two control cities (N = 197,500) for changes in knowledge of risk factors, blood pressure, plasma cholesterol level, smoking rate, body weight, and resting pulse rate. Treatment cities received a 5-year, low-cost, comprehensive program using social learning theory, a communication-behavior change model, community organization principles, and social marketing methods that resulted in about 26 hours of exposure to multichannel and multifactor education. Risk factors were assessed in representative cohort and cross-sectional surveys at baseline and in three later surveys. After 30 to 64 months of education, significant net reductions in community averages favoring treatment occurred in plasma cholesterol level (2%), blood pressure (4%), resting pulse rate (3%), and smoking rate (13%) of the cohort sample. These risk factor changes resulted in important decreases in composite total mortality risk scores (15%) and coronary heart disease risk scores (16%). Thus, such low-cost programs can have an impact on risk factors in broad population groups.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DN16400032

    View details for PubMedID 2362332



    This study examined changes in sales of low fat/low cholesterol foods targeted in a restaurant menu labeling program. Sales of labeled items were tracked before and after the program was introduced, and a subsample of patrons were surveyed for information on visibility and comprehension of the menu labels. Two of the four restaurants had significant increases in the sales of targeted foods following labeling. Comparisons between patrons dining in restaurants which had an increase in sales (I--increase restaurants) to those dining in restaurants which had no overall shift in sales (NI--no increase restaurants) revealed no differences in patron awareness or comprehension of the menu labels. There were age and gender differences between I and NI restaurants, with I restaurants having proportionally more males, and a younger clientele. Taste was the primary reason given by patrons for their entree choice, regardless of whether or not it was labeled. In all four restaurants women and older patrons were more aware of the program and more responsive to its recommendations. These findings suggest that environmental strategies may be an effective method of encouraging dietary changes in the general population, but patron characteristics such as age and gender may influence receptivity to this type of intervention. Future studies aimed at developing effective point of purchase education programs should evaluate these patron characteristics and include more powerful behavior change strategies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DD32500003

    View details for PubMedID 2347693


    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DC72000036

    View details for PubMedID 2331193



    1,218 smokers able to quit smoking for 48 hr were randomly assigned to one of 12 cells in a 4 x 3 fully crossed factorial experiment. A pharmacologic factor contained four levels: nicotine polacrilex (gum) delivered ad lib or on a fixed regimen, placebo gum, and no gum. A self-guided behavioral treatment factor contained three levels: self-selected relapse prevention modules, randomly administered modules, and no modules. Those receiving nicotine gum were more likely to be abstinent at the 2- and 6-month follow-ups. The fixed regimen accounted for most of the effect for gum. There was no effect for the relapse prevention module factor. Men and women showed a differential treatment response. Men who received nicotine gum were more likely to be abstinent at each follow-up (2, 6, and 12 months). No treatment was significantly better among women. We conclude that research on different gum chewing regimens is warranted and that further examination of possible gender differences in response to replacement therapy is needed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CR17600011

    View details for PubMedID 2319049



    Weight at baseline and posttreatment was measured for 1096 participants in a smoking relapse prevention trial: 42.1% maintained their weight, 42.5% gained more than 1 kg and 15.4% lost more than 1 kg during the eight-week treatment program. Abstainers (n = 383) gained more than four times the weight gained by relapsers (n = 713) (Abstainers: 1.6 kg, Relapsers: 0.4 kg, p less than .0001). In order to examine the anorexic properties of nicotine gum. Abstainers were classified into nicotine gum user and non-user categories. Users gained significantly less weight than non-users although the difference was small (Users: 1.1 kg, Non-users: 1.8 kg, p less than .004). A dose-response relationship was observed between number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline and weight gain. Higher cigarette consumption was associated with increased weight gain in both gum user (p less than .004), and non-user groups (p less than .02). There was no significant difference in weight gain between Abstainers who later relapsed at 6 months and those who maintained abstinence (p less than .29). Although the impact of nicotine gum on weight gain was small, this apparent property of the substance may be useful in encouraging cessation among smokers who perceive weight gain as a potential stumbling block to success.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DV56900003

    View details for PubMedID 2248106



    This article examines the associations between education, a primary indicator of social class, and six risk factors for disease. Data are presented on a sample of 3,349 individuals ages 25-74 years who participated in one of four cross-sectional surveys conducted by the Stanford Five-City Project between 1979 and 1986. The six risk factors examined are knowledge about health, cigarette smoking, hypertension, serum cholesterol, body mass index, and height. A highly significant pattern of associations was found between education level and the six risk factors, in the direction of higher risk among those with lower education (all P values less than 0.01). These associations persisted for both sexes and in the younger as well as the older age groups, with the exception of cholesterol values for males and for those in the 50 to 74-year-old age group. Furthermore, all associations remained highly significant after controlling for income and occupation, two other indicators of social class. When a summary-adjusted risk score was plotted against year of survey for the five education levels, a gradient of effect was observed where each progressive education level showed a decrease in total risk score. This gradient was replicated in all four cross-sectional surveys, providing evidence for the consistency of the findings over time.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CX66800001

    View details for PubMedID 2320553

  • CHANGES IN LIPOPROTEINS DURING WEIGHT-LOSS - REPLY NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Wood, P. D., Stefanick, M. L., Dreon, D. M., FREYHEWITT, B., GARAY, S. C., Williams, P. T., Superko, H. R., Fortmann, S. P., Albers, J. J., Vranizan, K. M., ELLSWORTH, N. M., Terry, R. B., Haskell, W. L. 1989; 320 (10): 668-669
  • CHANGES IN PLASMA-LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS IN OVERWEIGHT MEN DURING WEIGHT-LOSS THROUGH DIETING AS COMPARED WITH EXERCISE NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Wood, P. D., Stefanick, M. L., Dreon, D. M., FREYHEWITT, B., GARAY, S. C., Williams, P. T., Superko, H. R., Fortmann, S. P., Albers, J. J., Vranizan, K. M., ELLSWORTH, N. M., Terry, R. B., Haskell, W. L. 1988; 319 (18): 1173-1179


    We studied separately the influence of two methods for losing fat weight on the levels of plasma lipids and lipoproteins in overweight sedentary men--decreasing energy intake without increasing exercise (diet), and increasing energy expenditure without altering energy intake (exercise, primarily running)--in a one-year randomized controlled trial. As compared with controls (n = 42), dieters (n = 42) had significant loss of total body weight (-7.8 +/- 0.9 kg [mean +/- SE]), fat weight (-5.6 +/- 0.8 kg), and lean (non-fat) weight (-2.1 +/- 0.5 kg) (P less than 0.001 for each variable), and exercisers (n = 47) had significant loss of total body weight (-4.6 +/- 0.8 kg) and fat weight (-3.8 +/- 0.7 kg) (P less than 0.001 for both variables) but not lean weight (-0.7 +/- 0.4 kg). Fat-weight loss did not differ significantly between dieters and exercisers. All subjects were discouraged from altering their diet composition; however, dieters and exercisers had slight reductions in the percentage of kilojoules derived from fat. As compared with the control group, both weight-loss groups had significant increases (P less than 0.01) in plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (diet vs. exercise, 0.13 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.12 +/- 0.03 mmol per liter), HDL2 cholesterol (0.07 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.07 +/- 0.02 mmol per liter), and HDL3 cholesterol (0.07 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.06 +/- 0.02 mmol per liter) and significant decreases (P less than 0.05) in triglyceride levels (diet vs. exercise, -0.35 +/- 0.14 vs. -0.24 +/- 0.12 mmol per liter). Levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not significantly changed, relative to values in controls. None of these changes were significantly different between dieters and exercisers. Thus, we conclude that fat loss through dieting or exercising produces comparable and favorable changes in plasma lipoprotein concentrations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q697500001

    View details for PubMedID 3173455



    To determine the effectiveness of nicotine polacrilex combined with self-administered relapse prevention materials in maintaining smoking cessation, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Volunteers aged 18 to 65 years responding to media announcements were required to quit smoking for 48 hours without assistance. Of 1844 potential participants, 136 were medically excluded, 535 declined to make a quit attempt, and 573 were unable to quit, leaving 600 participants (35%) who were randomized. Eight self-help relapse prevention modules were mailed weekly. Gum was used either ad lib for smoking urges or on a fixed, hourly schedule (12 pieces per day). Only 15% of the subjects in each gum group stopped using the gum altogether because of side effects, but only 20% of the ad lib groups and 40% of the fixed-dosage group used at least eight pieces of gum per day during the first week. The abstinence rates (for at least seven days) at the six-month follow-up were 31% in both active gum groups and 22% in the placebo and no gum groups. Relapse rates in the two active gum groups were about half those in the placebo and no gum groups. Nicotine polacrilex may be a useful adjunct to minimal contact smoking cessation formats, which have broad appeal. Also, minimal contact relapse prevention programs may assist physicians in helping patients to maintain smoking cessation using nicotine polacrilex.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P965000026

    View details for PubMedID 3045351



    Correlates of heavy smoking (greater than or equal to 25 cigarettes per day) were examined in a group of 380 smokers participating in a minimal-contact smoking relapse prevention trial. The results indicate that heavy smokers are more dependent on cigarettes. Compared with smokers consuming 15 or fewer cigarettes per day, heavy smokers reported greater difficulty quitting, were more troubled by withdrawal symptoms, experienced stronger urges and cravings, and had higher scores on a modified version of the Fagerstrom tolerance questionnaire. Heavy smokers weighed more and were more obese as measured by body mass index. Eighty percent of heavy smokers were classified correctly using discriminant function analysis with two dependence-related measures entering as the most important discriminator variables. Logistic regression analyses yielded similar results. The findings underscore the importance of addressing potential physical dependence factors when developing smoking-cessation treatments for heavy smokers.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P965000027

    View details for PubMedID 3411738



    Obesity and physical inactivity are associated with both elevated cardiovascular risk and blood pressure (BP), but the interrelation of exercise, weight loss and BP is poorly understood. This study examines the independent effects of exercise and weight loss on both standard clinic and automated, ambulatory BP in 115 overweight, sedentary, normotensive men (aged 30 to 59 years) who were randomly assigned to control status or to lose weight over 1 year by moderate caloric restriction (dieting) or by increased caloric expenditure (exercise). Median daytime and evening BP were determined from measurements made every 20 minutes while the subjects were awake. After 1 year, the control group gained (mean +/- standard deviation) 0.5 +/- 3.8 kg while the diet group lost 6.9 +/- 4.4 kg and the exercise group lost 4.6 +/- 3.5 kg. Clinic BP decreased similarly in all 3 groups, but daytime and evening ambulatory BP decreased in both intervention groups and increased in the control group. Relative to the 1-year change in control subjects, net change in daytime ambulatory BP averaged -2 to -3 mm Hg in both dieters and exercisers, while net change in evening ambulatory BP averaged -3 to -4 mm Hg. These changes were all statistically significant (p less than 0.05) when compared with control subjects except for daytime systolic BP in both intervention groups and evening diastolic BP in dieters. Weight loss achieved through caloric restriction or expenditure may cause important decreases in BP in normotensive men; exercise appears to confer no unique benefit. If confirmed, these results have important public health implications for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P035300015

    View details for PubMedID 3381757



    To confirm reports of increased absenteeism after worksite hypertension screening, we performed a three-stage blood pressure screening among 5888 self-selected heterogeneous workers at 11 electronics plants using standardized screening and labeling procedures. A total of 296 subjects with mean systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or greater or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or greater on all three occasions were considered to have sustained hypertension. From the untreated normotensive subjects matched for eight sociodemographic and occupational variables, we prospectively selected one to three controls for each sustained hypertensive subject. Uncorrected absenteeism rates for sustained hypertensive subjects increased 22% from baseline in the postscreening year. Correction by logarithmic transformation for skewed distributions and by rates for matched controls for temporal trends reduced these changes to statistical insignificance with high statistical power. Several subgroups exhibited trends to increased absenteeism. At 12-month follow-up, the blood pressure of the sustained hypertensive subjects showed mean decreases of 12.6/6.7 mm Hg (p less than 0.0001) after the majority had received pharmacological antihypertensive treatment. These results suggest that worksite hypertension screening and labeling produce insignificant absenteeism change overall among self-selected heterogeneous work force populations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987M462700008

    View details for PubMedID 3653971



    The present study examined the effectiveness of a community-based smoking contest in helping 500 smokers maintain three months postcontest and one year postcontest abstinence. The majority were chronic smokers with a limited number of previous quit attempts. The three- and 12-month postcontest quit rates were 19 per cent and 15 per cent, respectively, rates exceeding naturally occurring community cessation rates. The contest was found to be more cost-effective than quit smoking classes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K075400019

    View details for PubMedID 3631371

  • ASSOCIATIONS OF DIETARY-FAT, REGIONAL ADIPOSITY, AND BLOOD-PRESSURE IN MEN JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Williams, P. T., Fortmann, S. P., Terry, R. B., GARAY, S. C., Vranizan, K. M., Ellsworth, N., Wood, P. D. 1987; 257 (23): 3251-3256


    Mediterranean populations have low incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and hypertension that may be due, in part, to dietary factors, particularly a relatively high intake of monounsaturated fat as olive oil. In this study, nutritional components (as grams per 4200 kJ) (1 kcal = 4.2 kJ) from three-day food records were examined in association with resting blood pressure in a cross-sectional survey of 76 sedentary middle-aged American men, aged 30 to 55 years, with resting blood pressures below 160/100 mm Hg. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures correlated significantly and inversely with monounsaturated fat consumption. Polyunsaturated fat consumption also correlated inversely with diastolic blood pressure; however, this relationship became nonsignificant when adjusted for an index of regional adiposity that characterizes the male-type obesity pattern. Detailed analyses of specific fatty acids showed that the correlations with monounsaturates were specific to oleic acid, and the correlation with polyunsaturates was specific to linoleic acid. Multiple regression analysis suggested that 18.2% of the variance in systolic blood pressure and 23.2% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure were related to monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat consumption and regional adiposity. Thus, increased consumption of monounsaturated fat is related inversely to resting blood pressure, although causality remains to be determined.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H734600023

    View details for PubMedID 3586249



    We examined the relationship of machine-estimated nicotine yield by cigarette brand with the level of cigarette consumption and two biochemical measures of smoke exposure (expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate) in a large, population-based sample of smokers (N = 713). The lower the nicotine yield of the cigarette, the greater the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Prior to adjusting for number of cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine yield was not related to the actual measures of smoke exposure. Smokers of ultralow-yield cigarettes had laboratory tests of smoke exposure which were not significantly different from those of smokers of higher-yield brands. Only after adjustment for number of cigarettes smoked per day did nicotine yield become significantly related to expired-air carbon monoxide and to plasma thiocyanate. In multivariate analysis, the number of cigarettes smoked per day accounted for 28 per cent and 22 per cent of the variance in observed expired-air carbon monoxide and plasma thiocyanate levels, respectively, whereas nicotine yield accounted for only 1 per cent and 2 per cent of the variance, respectively. The relative lack of an effect of nicotine yield on the biochemical measure appears to be due to the fact that smokers of lower nicotine brands smoked more cigarettes per day, thereby compensating for reduced delivery of smoke products. Our data do not support the concept that ultralow-yield cigarettes are less hazardous than others. Machine estimates suggesting low nicotine yield underrepresent actual human consumption of harmful cigarette constituents.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H063400003

    View details for PubMedID 3565645

  • THE COST-EFFECTIVENESS OF 3 SMOKING CESSATION PROGRAMS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Altman, D. G., Flora, J. A., Fortmann, S. P., Farquhar, J. W. 1987; 77 (2): 162-165


    This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and distribution of costs by program stage of three smoking cessation programs: a smoking cessation class; an incentive-based quit smoking contest; and a self-help quit smoking kit. The self-help program had the lowest total cost, lowest per cent quit rate, lowest time requirement for participants, and was the most cost-effective. The most effective program, the smoking cessation class, required the most time from participants, had the highest total cost, and was the least cost-effective. The smoking contest was in-between the other two programs in total costs, per cent quit rate, and cost-effectiveness; it required the same time commitment from participants as the self-help program. These findings are interpreted within the context of community-based intervention in which the argument is made that cost-effectiveness is only one of several factors that should determine the selection of smoking cessation programs.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987F631000006

    View details for PubMedID 3099586



    There is evidence that low to moderate levels of physical activity can reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, even though they do not produce substantial changes in cardiorespiratory function. In this study of a representative population sample of 5,930 adult men and women, participants in moderate-intensity activities, such as walking and climbing stairs, were compared with nonparticipants. Men and women who reported more moderate activities were less overweight than sedentary peers. Moderate activity was associated with more risk factor benefits in men than in women. The apparent health benefits of moderate-intensity physical activity have implications for public health education.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E957000001

    View details for PubMedID 3797388


    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E059800019

    View details for PubMedID 3752064

  • PREDICTORS OF ADOPTION AND MAINTENANCE OF PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY IN A COMMUNITY SAMPLE PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Sallis, J. F., Haskell, W. L., Fortmann, S. P., Vranizan, K. M., Taylor, C. B., Solomon, D. S. 1986; 15 (4): 331-341


    Predictors of changes in three measures of physical activity over 1 year were examined in a community sample of 1,411 California adults. Five percent of women and 11% of men adopted vigorous activities (e.g., running), and 26% of men and 34% of women adopted regular moderate activity (e.g., walking). About 50% of vigorous exercisers and 25-35% of moderate exercisers dropped out in 1 year. About 9% reported large 1-year increases in globally rated activity level, while about 7% reported decreases in global activity. In multivariate analyses, adoption of vigorous activity was predicted by young age, male gender, and self-efficacy. Maintenance of vigorous activity was predicted by attitudes toward physical activity. Adoption of moderate activity was predicted by health knowledge, and maintenance was predicted by specific exercise knowledge, female gender, and self-efficacy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D470200001

    View details for PubMedID 3763558



    To evaluate reports of psychosocial dysfunction after worksite screening, a three-stage blood pressure screening was performed using standardized screening and labeling procedures. Of a heterogeneous group of 5,888 workers, 296 with sustained hypertension were identified and randomly assigned to traditional arousal or reassurance debriefings, matching each hypertensive subject with one to three normotensive control subjects on eight sociodemographic and occupational variables. Subjects exhibiting absenteeism increases or persistent hypertension six months after screening were randomly assigned to worksite health education programs or no intervention. After adjustment for values among matched control subjects, previously unaware hypertensive subjects had significant post-screening decreases in anxiety that were significantly associated with specific worksites and with reassurance rather than traditional debriefing (p less than 0.05). The health education program did not significantly affect anxiety, blood pressure, or absenteeism. Increased absenteeism was associated with higher baseline anxiety levels (p less than 0.05). It is concluded that worksite hypertension screening produces minimal adverse psychosocial changes, reassurance debriefing may be beneficial, and unspecified worksite characteristics may determine consequences of similar preventive medicine efforts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C309100027

    View details for PubMedID 3706373



    The Stanford Five-City Project is a long-term field evaluation of the effects of community health education on cardiovascular disease risk factors and event rates. One major end point of the project is the difference between treatment and control group trends in morbidity and mortality rates ascertained through community-wide surveillance of deaths and hospital discharges. This surveillance system includes continuous review of death certificates and hospital discharge records, interviews with the families and physicians of decedents who died outside the hospital, abstraction of the hospital records of possible myocardial infarction and stroke cases (fatal and nonfatal), and systematic validation of diagnosis by the use of standard criteria. Initial experience with information access, availability of diagnostic information, costs, and reliability are described. This standardized approach to community surveillance of cardiovascular disease events rates, both fatal and nonfatal, is a feasible method for evaluating large-scale intervention programs and may be applicable to monitoring secular trends in the absence of intervention.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A509900010

    View details for PubMedID 3953544



    There are conflicting data regarding the effects of vigorous physical activity (PA) and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Representative samples of adults aged 20-35 from four northern California cities were studied both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in order to examine the relationships between vigorous PA and selected physiological risk factors. A self-report measure of habitual vigorous PA was validated by pulse rate. There were relationships, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses between self-reported vigorous PA and HDL/LDL ratio, especially for women. Relationships in cross-sectional analyses only were found between PA and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and alveolar carbon monoxide. The results of the present study generally tend to confirm investigations of other samples.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A204100006

    View details for PubMedID 3484748



    We evaluated the efficacy of the Stanford Quit Kit, an eight-page self-administered smoking cessation program. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive the Quit Kit (n = 142) or a delayed intervention (n = 65). Confirmed abstinence (p less than .05) and reduced smoking among continuing smokers (p less than .002) were greater in the Quit Kit group than in the control group at the two-month follow-up. At the six-month follow-up 10.6 percent of the Quit Kit subjects were confirmed as abstinent. From these results we conclude that well-designed, self-administered behavior change materials can assist chronic smokers in quitting.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986F352900006

    View details for PubMedID 3453200


    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C482900005

    View details for PubMedID 3517827



    Two mediated smoking cessation programs were subjected to a field evaluation. The Quit Kit is a printed self-help package, and "Calling It Quits" consists of five segments which were aired on the local television news. A sample of 239 persons requested the Quit Kit and were followed. At the 2-month and 12-month follow-ups, respectively, 13.6% and 17.9% of those surveyed reported abstinence. Results indicate the potential of mediated interventions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AXB5400015

    View details for PubMedID 4091078

  • THE STANFORD 5-CITY PROJECT - DESIGN AND METHODS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Farquhar, J. W., Fortmann, S. P., MACCOBY, N., Haskell, W. L., Williams, P. T., Flora, J. A., Taylor, C. B., Brown, B. W., Solomon, D. S., Hulley, S. B. 1985; 122 (2): 323-334


    The Stanford Five-City Project is a large experimental field study of community health education for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. It will provide data on fundamental questions in cardiovascular disease epidemiology, communication, health education, behavior change, and community organization, and will also test the ability of a potentially cost-effective program to prevent cardiovascular disease at the community level. This paper describes the purposes, hypotheses, design, and methods of the Five-City Project as a reference for future papers describing results. It is hypothesized that a 20% decrease in cardiovascular disease risk will lead to a significant decline in cardiovascular disease event rates in two treatment communities compared with three reference communities as a result of a six-year intervention program of community-wide health education and organization. Risk factor change will be assessed through four surveys of independent samples and in a repeatedly surveyed cohort. Cardiovascular disease event rates will be assessed through continuous community surveillance of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AME9500015

    View details for PubMedID 4014215


    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AAQ8300003

    View details for PubMedID 3977813



    A survey was sent to 318 physicians in Monterey County, California, to assess their attitudes and practices regarding hypertension and cigarette smoking. After three mailings, 62% returned completed questionnaires. Eight percent of the respondents were smokers, 5% were women, and 34% were in primary care specialties. Older physicians and primary care specialists were less aggressive in their treatment of high blood pressure, but none of the assessed attitudes was significantly associated with treatment practice. Only half of the sample advised all patients to quit smoking. Physicians who doubted the effectiveness of their anti-smoking advice or who did not know what to say to smoking patients were less likely to provide advice. Most physicians felt that their smoking patients lacked sufficient motivation to quit. Programs to encourage physicians to increase smoking cessation activities should address these attitudes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AME1500007

    View details for PubMedID 4034516

  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY IN THE 5-CITY PROJECT AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Sallis, J. F., Haskell, W. L., Wood, P. D., Fortmann, S. P., Rogers, T., Blair, S. N., Paffenbarger, R. S. 1985; 121 (1): 91-106


    Previous measures of physical activity for epidemiologic studies were considered inadequate to meet the needs of a community-based health education trial. Therefore, new methods of quantifying the physical activity habits of communities were developed which are practical for large health surveys, provide information on the distribution of activity habits in the population, can detect changes in activity over time, and can be compared with other epidemiologic studies of physical activity. Independent self-reports of vigorous activity (at least 6 metabolic equivalents (METs) ), moderate activity (3-5 METs), and total energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) are described, and the physical activity practices of samples of California cities are presented. Relationships between physical activity measures and age, education, occupation, ethnicity, marital status, and body mass index are analyzed, and the reliabilities of the three activity indices are reported. The new assessment procedure is contrasted with nine other measures of physical activity used in community surveys.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985TX93500011

    View details for PubMedID 3964995

  • INCREASING RETURNS OF PHYSICIAN SURVEYS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Sallis, J. F., Fortmann, S. P., Solomon, D. S., Farquhar, J. W. 1984; 74 (9): 1043-1043

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TF59400021

    View details for PubMedID 6465406


    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SZ53700023

    View details for PubMedID 6731265

  • INDIRECT MEASURES OF CIGARETTE USE - EXPIRED-AIR CARBON-MONOXIDE VERSUS PLASMA THIOCYANATE PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Fortmann, S. P., Rogers, T., Vranizan, K., Haskell, W. L., Solomon, D. S., Farquhar, J. W. 1984; 13 (1): 127-135


    Indirect, biochemical measures of cigarette use are valuable in confirming smoking status in both cross-sectional and cessation studies. This study compares two such biochemical markers, expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) and plasma thiocyanate (SCN), in a representative population sample of 2,237 adults (ages 18-74) from the baseline survey of the Stanford Five City Project. CO and SCN are both significantly higher in self-reported smokers than in nonsmokers and correlate well with number of cigarettes smoked per day. CO appears to be more sensitive and specific than SCN in comparison to self-report, and CO misclassifies a significantly smaller number of nonsmokers, regular smokers, and light smokers (less than 9 cigarettes per day) than does SCN. Together, CO and SCN better classify smokers and nonsmokers than do either alone. Neither biochemical is a reliable indicator in irregular smokers (no cigarettes in past 48 hr). Despite its much shorter metabolic half-life, CO is a better indicator of cigarette use than is SCN in this cross-sectional study. CO is generally simpler and less expensive to measure than is SCN, and CO may be a preferable indirect measure of smoking status in some studies of smoking cessation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SN96700010

    View details for PubMedID 6609353



    This paper presents the results of an analysis of dietary alcohol use and blood pressure in representative population samples from four northern California cities surveyed in 1979-1980 as part of the Stanford Five City Project. The pooled samples included 883 men and 959 women aged 20-74 who were not taking blood pressure medications. Blood pressure was obtained while seated using a standard manometer. Alcohol was assessed by self-report of usual intake. In men, age-specific analysis revealed a positive association between dietary alcohol and both systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). The association was linear in men aged 20-34 and 50-74 and was stronger in the oldest men. Both linear and quadratic terms were significant for men aged 35-49. This association remained significant in a linear regression model that included age, relative weight, income, education, physical activity, cigarette use, and untimed urinary sodium/creatinine; for alcohol in ml/day in men aged 50-74, beta = 0.21, p = 0.0001, R2 = 0.32 for SBP; beta = 0.09, p = 0.0002, R2 = 0.18 for DBP. In women, alcohol use was significantly associated with blood pressure only in those above age 49 and was more striking in those not taking estrogens; this association was also independent of the same variables listed above for men (beta = 0.43, p = 0.0001, R2 = 0.23 for SBP; beta = 0.17, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.13 for DBP). Multiple logistic analyses with hypertension as a dichotomous dependent variable and including all subjects showed similar results. These results could be due to any one or more of the following hypotheses: 1) a biologic response to alcohol in older men and in older women that is different from the response in younger persons; 2) a delayed effect of alcohol use on blood pressure; 3) effects of a different pattern of alcohol use in the different age groups; or 4) the presence of some unmeasured confounding factor in the older age groups.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983RL60900006

    View details for PubMedID 6637977

  • ESSENTIAL-HYPERTENSION PSYCHOSOMATICS Taylor, C. B., Fortmann, S. P. 1983; 24 (5): 433-?

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QQ76600002

    View details for PubMedID 6878599



    The relationship of selected social factors to diet, weight and plasma cholesterol was studied in one control and two treatment towns before and after a 3-year, bilingual, mass-media health education program. Spanish-speaking persons reported higher dietary cholesterol and saturated fat than English-speaking participants at baseline, and this remained true after adjusting for the confounding influence of socioeconomic status (SES). Obesity was also more prevalent in Spanish-language and low-SES groups, but plasma cholesterol was not related to these sociodemographic factors. Over the 3 years of the education program, all groups reported 20-40% decreases in dietary cholesterol and saturated fat. These decreases were as large in low-SES groups as in high-SES groups; Spanish-speaking participants reported significantly greater decreases in dietary saturated fat (p = 0.02). Weight change was not related to either SES or language group, but change in plasma cholesterol was marginally more favorable in Spanish-speaking subjects (p = 0.06).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NU21200012

    View details for PubMedID 7083524

  • EFFECT OF HEALTH-EDUCATION ON DIETARY BEHAVIOR - THE STANFORD 3 COMMUNITY STUDY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NUTRITION Fortmann, S. P., Williams, P. T., Hulley, S. B., Haskell, W. L., Farquhar, J. W. 1981; 34 (10): 2030-2038


    A 2-yr mass media cardiovascular health education program in two communities was followed by a 3rd, maintenance yr of reduced effort. In each community, a representative cohort reported its dietary behavior annually to an interviewer using a questionnaire which estimated daily consumption of cholesterol and fat. Relative weight and plasma cholesterol were also measured annually. Both men and women in the treatment towns reported reductions in dietary cholesterol (23 to 34%) and saturated fat (25 to 30%) which were significantly larger than those reported in a 3rd, control community. Relative weight was increased in the control community when compared to the treatment towns, perhaps as a result of the aging of the cohorts. Similar patterns were observed for plasma cholesterol changes. The 2-yr changes were maintained or increased during the 3rd, maintenance yr. The changes in individual values for plasma cholesterol showed low level correlations with dietary cholesterol and saturated fat, but the association with weight change was more important. These results suggest that mass media health education can achieve lasting changes in diet, obesity, and plasma cholesterol on a community level.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981ML04600007

    View details for PubMedID 7293934



    The Sphygmetrics SR-2 Automatic Blood Pressure Recorder uses an infrasonic technique for detecting artery wall motion to estimate systemic arterial pressure and produces a permanent record of the results. It therefore is potentially useful in reducing observer bias in epidemiologic studies of blood pressure (BP). Two blood pressures were recorded in 21 men and 50 women using the SR-2 simultaneously with two auscultators using a biaural stethoscope and mercury syhgmomanometer. The SR-2 measured slightly higher systolic nd slightly lower diastolic pressures on average, but the differences were not significant. The two auscultators were highly correlated with one another (r = 0.99 systolic/0.97 diastolic) and with the SR-2 (0.93 and 0.92 for systolic, 0.84 and 0.85 for diastolic). The correlations were unrelated to sex, age, or antihypertensive medication status, but the correlations between th SR-2 and either auscultator for diastolic BP were quite low (0.36, 0.55) in subjects whose relative weight was below 1.0. Interpretation of the SR-2 disc was very reliable, with inter- and intra-reader correlations being 0.99 for systolic and 0.84 to 0.94 for diastolic. The SR-2 was found to be comparable to auscultation in estimating systolic BP in a heterogeneous population which has the advantages of reducing observer bias and producing a permanent record. Its use in estimating diastolic pressure in thin individuals and children needs further evaluation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MU22700008

    View details for PubMedID 7315832


    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MR06600007

    View details for PubMedID 7287861

  • Abortion and medicine. The Pharos of Alpha Omega Alpha-Honor Medical Society. Alpha Omega Alpha Fortmann, S. P. 1975; 38 (1): 25-29

    View details for PubMedID 11663542

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