Bio

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Masters in Clinical Epidemiology, Stanford University School of Medicine
  • Fellowship, Stanford University School of Medicine, Nephrology
  • Residency, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Internal Medicine (2009)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


ESRD and physical activity
ESRD and vitamin D deficiency
Management of CKD and ESRD in developing regions

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Aging and chronic kidney disease: the impact on physical function and cognition. journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences Anand, S., Johansen, K. L., Kurella Tamura, M. 2014; 69 (3): 315-322

    Abstract

    Evidence has recently been building that the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an independent contributor to decline in physical and cognitive functions in older adults. CKD affects 45% of persons older than 70 years of age and can double the risk for physical impairment, cognitive dysfunction, and frailty. To increase awareness of this relatively new concept of CKD as a risk factor for accelerated aging, we review studies on the association of CKD with physical function, frailty, and cognitive function. We also present a summary of the proposed mechanisms for these associations.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/gerona/glt109

    View details for PubMedID 23913934

  • High prevalence of chronic kidney disease in a community survey of urban Bangladeshis: a cross-sectional study. Globalization and health Anand, S., Khanam, M. A., Saquib, J., Saquib, N., Ahmed, T., Alam, D. S., Cullen, M. R., Barry, M., Chertow, G. M. 2014; 10 (1): 9-?

    Abstract

    The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) will rise in parallel with the growing prevalence of type two diabetes mellitus in South Asia but is understudied. Using a cross-sectional survey of adults living in a middle-income neighborhood of Dhaka, Bangladesh, we tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of CKD in this group would approach that of the U.S. and would be strongly associated with insulin resistance.We enrolled 402 eligible adults (>30 years old) after performing a multi-stage random selection procedure. We administered a questionnaire, and collected fasting serum samples and urine samples. We used the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate, and sex-specific cut offs for albuminuria: > 1.9 mg/mmol (17 mg/g) for men, and >2.8 mg/mmol (25 mg/g) for women. We assessed health-related quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12).A total of 357 (89%) participants with serum samples comprised the analytic cohort. Mean age of was 49.5 (± 12.7) years. Chronic kidney disease was evident in 94 (26%). Of the participants with CKD, 58 (62%) had albuminuria only. A participant with insulin resistance had a 3.6-fold increase in odds of CKD (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 6.4). Participants with stage three or more advanced CKD reported a decrement in the Physical Health Composite score of the SF-12, compared with participants without CKD.We found an alarmingly high prevalence of CKD-particularly CKD associated with insulin resistance-in middle-income, urban Bangladeshis.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1744-8603-10-9

    View details for PubMedID 24555767

  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Mortality in Patients Receiving Dialysis: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study JOURNAL OF RENAL NUTRITION Anand, S., Chertow, G. M., Johansen, K. L., Grimes, B., Dalrymple, L. S., Kaysen, G. A., Tamura, M. K. 2013; 23 (6): 422-427

    Abstract

    Although several studies have shown poorer survival among individuals with 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D deficiency, data on patients receiving dialysis are limited. Using data from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS), we tested the hypothesis that patients new to dialysis with low serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D would experience higher mortality and hospitalizations.The CDS is a prospective cohort study.We recruited participants from 56 dialysis units located throughout the United States.We obtained data on demographics, comorbidites, and laboratory values from the CDS Patient Questionnaire as well as the Medical Evidence Form (CMS form 2728). Participants provided baseline serum samples for 25-OH vitamin D measurements.We ascertained time to death and first hospitalization as well as number of first-year hospitalizations via the U.S. Renal Data System standard analysis files. We used Cox proportional hazards to determine the association between 25-OH vitamin D tertiles and survival and hospitalization. For number of hospitalizations in the first year, we used negative binomial regression.The analytic cohort was composed of 256 patients with Patient Questionnaire data and 25-OH vitamin D concentrations. The mean age of participants was 62 (±14.0) years, and mean follow-up was 3.8 years. Patients with 25-OH vitamin D concentrations in the lowest tertile (<10.6 ng/mL) at the start of dialysis experienced higher mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.97) as well as hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.24-2.49). Patients in the lower 2 tertiles (<15.5 ng/mL) experienced a higher rate of hospitalizations in the first year (incidence rate ratio 1.70 [95% CI 1.06-2.72] for middle tertile, 1.66 [95% CI 1.10-2.51] for lowest tertile).We found a sizeable increase in mortality and hospitalization for patients on dialysis with severe 25-OH vitamin D deficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jrn.2013.05.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327007600007

  • High prevalence of type 2 diabetes among the urban middle class in Bangladesh BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Saquib, N., Khanam, M. A., Saquib, J., Anand, S., Chertow, G. M., Barry, M., Ahmed, T., Cullen, M. R. 2013; 13

    Abstract

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome are increasing in the developing world; we assessed their prevalence among the urban middle class in Bangladesh.In this cross-sectional survey (n = 402), we randomly selected consenting adults (? 30 years) from a middle-income neighborhood in Dhaka. We assessed demography, lifestyle, and health status, measured physical indices and blood pressure and obtained blood samples. We evaluated two primary outcomes: (1) type-2 diabetes (fasting blood glucose ? 7.0 mmol/L or hemoglobin A1C ? 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or diabetes medication use) and (2) insulin resistance (type-2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome using International Diabetes Federation criteria).Mean age and Quételet's (body mass) index were 49.4 ± 12.6 years and 27.0 ± 5.1 kg/m²; 83% were married, 41% had ?12 years of education, 47% were employed, 47% had a family history of diabetes. Thirty-five percent had type-2 diabetes and 45% had metabolic syndrome. In multivariate models older age and family history of diabetes were significantly associated with type-2 diabetes. Older age, female sex, overweight or obese, high wealth index and positive family history of diabetes were significantly associated with insulin resistance. Participants with type-2 diabetes or insulin resistance had significantly poorer physical health only if they had associated cardiovascular disease.The prevalence of type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome among the middle class in Dhaka is alarmingly high. Screening services should be implemented while researchers focus on strategies to lessen the incidence and morbidity associated with these conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1032

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329293000002

    View details for PubMedID 24172217

  • Longitudinal Measures of Serum Albumin and Prealbumin Concentrations in Incident Dialysis Patients: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study JOURNAL OF RENAL NUTRITION Dalrymple, L. S., Johansen, K. L., Chertow, G. M., Grimes, B., Anand, S., McCulloch, C. E., Kaysen, G. A. 2013; 23 (2): 91-97

    Abstract

    Serum albumin and prealbumin concentrations are strongly associated with the risk of death in dialysis patients. Our study examined the association among demographic characteristics, body composition, comorbidities, dialysis modality and access, inflammation, and longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations in incident dialysis patients. DESIGN, SETTING, SUBJECTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study is a prospective cohort study of incident dialysis patients; in this report, we examined the data from 266 Nutrition substudy participants who donated serum. The independent variables of interest were baseline age, sex, race, Quetélet's (body mass) index, dialysis modality and access, diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerotic vascular disease, serum creatinine level, and longitudinal measures of C-reactive protein. The outcomes of interest (dependent variables) were longitudinal measures of albumin and prealbumin concentrations, recorded at study entry and thereafter every 3 months for 1 year.In multivariable mixed linear models, female sex, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis with a catheter, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower serum albumin concentrations, and serum albumin concentrations increased slightly over the year. In comparison, prealbumin concentrations did not significantly change over time; female sex, lower body mass index, diabetes, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and higher C-reactive protein concentrations were associated with lower prealbumin concentrations. Serum creatinine had a curvilinear relation with serum albumin and prealbumin.Serum albumin level increases early in the course of dialysis, whereas prealbumin level does not, and the predictors of serum concentrations differ at any given time. Further understanding of the mechanisms underlying differences between albumin and prealbumin kinetics in dialysis patients may lead to an improved approach to the management of protein-energy wasting.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jrn.2012.03.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315198700009

    View details for PubMedID 22633987

  • Association of Physical Activity with Survival among Ambulatory Patients on Dialysis: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Johansen, K. L., Kaysen, G. A., Dalrymple, L. S., Grimes, B. A., Glidden, D. V., Anand, S., Chertow, G. M. 2013; 8 (2): 248-253

    Abstract

    Despite high mortality and low levels of physical activity (PA) among patients starting dialysis, the link between low PA and mortality has not been carefully evaluated.The Comprehensive Dialysis Study was a prospective cohort study that enrolled patients who started dialysis between June 2005 and June 2007 in a random sample of dialysis facilities in the United States. The Human Activity Profile (HAP) was administered to estimate PA among 1554 ambulatory enrolled patients in the Comprehensive Dialysis Study. Patients were followed until death or September 30, 2009, and the major outcome was all-cause mortality.The average age was 59.8 (14.2) years; 55% of participants were male, 28% were black, and 56% had diabetes mellitus. The majority (57.3%) had low fitness estimated from the HAP score. The median follow-up was 2.6 (interquartile range, 2.2-3.1) years. The association between PA and mortality was linear across the range of scores (1-94). After multivariable adjustment, lower adjusted activity score on the HAP was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.39 per 10 points). Patients in the lowest level of fitness experienced a 3.5-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.54-4.89) increase in risk of death compared with those with average or above fitness.Low levels of PA are strongly associated with mortality among patients new to dialysis. Interventions aimed to preserve or enhance PA should be prospectively tested.

    View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.08560812

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314488800013

    View details for PubMedID 23124787

  • The Gap between Estimated Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease and Use of Therapy. PloS one Anand, S., Bitton, A., Gaziano, T. 2013; 8 (8)

    Abstract

    Relatively few data exist on the burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and use of renal replacement therapy (RRT)-a life-saving therapy-in developing regions. No study has quantified the proportion of patients who develop ESRD but are unable to access RRT.We performed a comprehensive literature search to estimate use and annual initiation of RRT worldwide, and present these estimates according to World Bank regions. We also present estimates of survival and of etiology of diseases in patients undergoing RRT. Using data on prevalence of diabetes and hypertension, we modeled the incidence of ESRD related to these risk factors in order to quantify the gap between ESRD and use of RRT in developing regions.We find that 1.9 million patients are undergoing RRT worldwide, with continued use and annual initiation at 316 and 73 per million population respectively. RRT use correlates directly (Pearson's r?=?0.94) with regional income. Hemodialysis remains the dominant form of RRT but there is wide regional variation in its use. With the exception of the Latin American and Caribbean region, it appears that initiation of RRT in developing regions is restricted to fewer than a quarter of patients projected to develop ESRD. This results in at least 1.2 million premature deaths each year due to lack of access to RRT as a result of diabetes and elevated blood pressure and as many as 3.2 million premature deaths due to all causes of ESRD.Thus, the majority of patients projected to reach ESRD due to diabetes or hypertension in developing regions are unable to access RRT; this gap will increase with rising prevalence of these risk factors worldwide.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0072860

    View details for PubMedID 24023651

  • Physical activity and self-reported symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and depression: The comprehensive dialysis study HEMODIALYSIS INTERNATIONAL Anand, S., Johansen, K. L., Grimes, B., Kaysen, G. A., Dalrymple, L. S., Kutner, N. G., Chertow, G. M. 2013; 17 (1): 50-58

    Abstract

    Symptoms of sleep and mood disturbances are common among patients on dialysis and are associated with significant decrements in survival and health-related quality of life. We used data from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS) to examine the association of self-reported physical activity with self-reported symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), and depression in patients new to dialysis. The CDS collected data on physical activity, functional status, and health-related quality of life from 1678 patients on either peritoneal (n = 169) or hemodialysis (n = 1509). The Human Activity Profile was used to measure self-reported physical activity. Symptoms were elicited in the following manner: insomnia using three questions designed to capture difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep, RLS using three questions based on the National Institutes of Health workshop, and depression using the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire. We obtained data on symptoms of insomnia and depression for 1636, and on symptoms of RLS for 1622 (>98%) patients. Of these, 863 (53%) reported one of three insomnia symptoms as occurring at a persistent frequency. Symptoms of RLS and depression occurred in 477 (29%) and 451 (28%) of patients, respectively. The Adjusted Activity Score of the Human Activity Profile was inversely correlated with all three conditions in models adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables. Sleep and mood disturbances were commonly reported in our large, diverse cohort of patients new to dialysis. Patients who reported lower levels of physical activity were more likely to report symptoms of insomnia, RLS, and depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1542-4758.2012.00726.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313751100007

    View details for PubMedID 22812496

  • Causal or Casual?-The Association Between Consumption of Artificially Sweetened Carbonated Beverages and Vascular Disease JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE Anand, S., Winkelmayer, W. C. 2012; 27 (9): 1100-1101

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-012-2126-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307511300004

    View details for PubMedID 22692638

  • Obesity and the relationship between pre-hypertension and chronic kidney disease: can we really isolate the effect of pre-hypertension? KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Anand, S., Arce, C. M., Sainani, K. L. 2012; 82 (4): 489-489

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ki.2012.144

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307078000017

    View details for PubMedID 22846814

  • Combining Angiotensin Receptor Blockers With ACE Inhibitors in Elderly Patients AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Anand, S., Tamura, M. K. 2012; 59 (1): 11-14

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.09.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298153600006

    View details for PubMedID 21995968

  • Vitamin D deficiency, self-reported physical activity and health-related quality of life: the Comprehensive Dialysis Study NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Anand, S., Kaysen, G. A., Chertow, G. M., Johansen, K. L., Grimes, B., Dalrymple, L. S., Tamura, M. K. 2011; 26 (11): 3683-3688

    Abstract

    As research has identified a wide array of biological functions of vitamin D, the consequences of vitamin D deficiency in persons with chronic kidney disease has attracted increased attention. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) deficiency and its associations with self-reported physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among participants of the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS).The nutrition substudy of the CDS enrolled patients new to dialysis from 68 dialysis units throughout the USA. Baseline 25-OH vitamin D concentration was measured using the Direct Enzyme Immunoassay (Immunodiagnostic Systems Inc.). Physical activity was measured with the Human Activity Profile (HAP); the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12) was employed to measure HRQoL.Mean age of the participants (n = 192) was 62 years. There were 124 participants (65%) with 25-OH vitamin D concentrations < 15 ng/mL, indicating deficiency, and 64 (33%) with 25-OH vitamin D ? 15 to <30 ng/mL, indicating insufficiency. After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, season and center, lower 25-OH vitamin D concentrations were independently associated with lower scores on the HAP and on the Mental Component Summary of the SF-12 (P < 0.05 for both), but not with the Physical Component Summary of the SF-12.In a well-characterized cohort of incident dialysis patients, lower 25-OH vitamin D concentrations were associated with lower self-reported physical activity and poorer self-reported mental health.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfr098

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296350400041

    View details for PubMedID 21430182

  • Association of Self-reported Physical Activity With Laboratory Markers of Nutrition and Inflammation: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study JOURNAL OF RENAL NUTRITION Anand, S., Chertow, G. M., Johansen, K. L., Grimes, B., Tamura, M. K., Dalrymple, L. S., Kaysen, G. A. 2011; 21 (6): 429-437

    Abstract

    Patients on dialysis maintain extremely low levels of physical activity. Prior studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between nutrition and physical activity but provide conflicting data on the link between inflammation and physical activity. Using a cohort of patients new to dialysis from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS), we examined associations of self-reported physical activity with laboratory markers of nutrition and inflammation.Between June 2005 and June 2007, CDS collected data on self-reported physical activity, nutrition, and health-related quality of life from patients starting dialysis in 296 facilities located throughout the United States. Baseline serum samples were collected from participants in a nutrition sub-study of CDS.Serum albumin and prealbumin were measured as markers of nutrition, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and ?-1-acid glycoprotein as markers of inflammation. Self-reported physical activity was characterized by the maximum activity score (MAS) and adjusted activity score (AAS) of the Human Activity Profile.The mean age of participants in the analytic cohort (n = 201) was 61 years. The MAS and AAS were below the 10th and first percentile, respectively, in comparison with healthy 60 year-old norms. Both activity scores were directly correlated with albumin (r(2) = 0.3, P < .0001) and prealbumin (r(2) = 0.3, P < .0001), and inversely correlated with CRP (AAS: r(2) = -0.2, P = .01; MAS: r(2) = -0.1, P = .08). In multivariate analyses adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, diabetes status, and center, both activity scores were directly correlated with prealbumin and inversely correlated with CRP.Patients new to dialysis with laboratory-based evidence of malnutrition and/or inflammation are likely to report lower levels of physical activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jrn.2010.09.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296533100001

    View details for PubMedID 21239185

  • Comparison of CKD awareness in a screening population using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study and CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. American journal of kidney diseases Kurella Tamura, M., Anand, S., Li, S., Chen, S., Whaley-Connell, A. T., Stevens, L. A., Norris, K. C. 2011; 57 (3): S17-23

    Abstract

    Low awareness of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may reflect uncertainty about the accuracy or significance of a CKD diagnosis in individuals otherwise perceived to be low risk. Whether reclassification of CKD severity using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) modifies estimates of CKD awareness is unknown.In this cross-sectional study, we used data collected from 2000-2009 for 26,213 participants in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), a community-based screening program, with CKD based on GFR estimated using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation and measurement of albuminuria. We assessed CKD awareness after CKD stage was reclassified using the CKD-EPI equation.Of 26,213 participants with CKD based on GFR estimated using the MRDR equation (eGFR(MDRD)), 23,572 (90%) also were classified with CKD based on eGFR(CKD-EPI). Based on eGFR(MDRD), 9.5% of participants overall were aware of CKD, as were 4.9%, 6.3%, 9.2%, 41.9%, and 59.2% with stages 1-5, respectively. Based on eGFR(CKD-EPI), 10.0% of participants overall were aware of CKD, as were 5.1%, 6.6%, 10.0%, 39.3%, and 59.4% with stages 1-5, respectively. Reclassification to a less advanced CKD stage using eGFR(CKD-EPI) was associated with lower odds for awareness (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67); reclassification to a more advanced stage was associated with higher odds for awareness (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.05-2.13) after adjustment for confounding factors. Of participants unaware of CKD, 10.6% were reclassified as not having CKD using eGFR(CKD-EPI).Using eGFR(CKD-EPI) led to a modest increase in overall awareness rates, primarily due to reclassification of low-risk unaware participants.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.11.008

    View details for PubMedID 21338846

  • Comparison of CKD Awareness in a Screening Population Using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) Equations AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Tamura, M. K., Anand, S., Li, S., Chen, S., Whaley-Connell, A. T., Stevens, L. A., Norris, K. C. 2011; 57 (3): S17-S23
  • The elderly patients on hemodialysis MINERVA UROLOGICA E NEFROLOGICA Anand, S., Tamura, M. K., Chertow, G. M. 2010; 62 (1): 87-101

    Abstract

    Nephrologists care for an increasing number of elderly patients on hemodialysis. As such, an understanding of the overlap among complications of hemodialysis and geriatric syndromes is crucial. This article reviews hemodialysis management issues including vascular access, hypertension, anemia and bone and mineral disorders with an attention towards the distinct medical needs of the elderly. Key concepts of geriatrics frailty, dementia and palliative care are also discussed, as nephrologists frequently participate in decision-making directed toward balancing longevity, functional status and the burden of therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000208661300008

  • Growing Epidemic of Coronary Heart Disease in Low- and Middle-Income Countries CURRENT PROBLEMS IN CARDIOLOGY Gaziano, T. A., Bitton, A., Anand, S., Abrahams-Gessel, S., Murphy, A. 2010; 35 (2): 72-115

    Abstract

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the single largest cause of death in the developed countries and is one of the leading causes of disease burden in developing countries. In 2001, there were 7.3 million deaths due to CHD worldwide. Three-fourths of global deaths due to CHD occurred in the low- and middle-income countries. The rapid rise in CHD burden in most of the low- and middle-income countries is due to socio-economic changes, increase in lifespan, and acquisition of lifestyle-related risk factors. The CHD death rate, however, varies dramatically across the developing countries. The varying incidence, prevalence, and mortality rates reflect the different levels of risk factors, other competing causes of death, availability of resources to combat cardiovascular disease, and the stage of epidemiologic transition that each country or region finds itself. The economic burden of CHD is equally large but solutions exist to manage this growing burden.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cpcardio1.2009.10.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277951000002

    View details for PubMedID 20109979

  • The global cost of nonoptimal blood pressure JOURNAL OF HYPERTENSION Gaziano, T. A., Bitton, A., Anand, S., Weinstein, M. C. 2009; 27 (7): 1472-1477

    Abstract

    Suboptimal blood pressure including established nonoptimal blood pressure has been shown to have significant economic consequences in developed countries. However, no exhaustive study has been done to evaluate its potential costs, globally. We, therefore, set out to estimate the global economic cost of nonoptimal blood pressure.Estimates for healthcare costs attributed to suboptimal blood pressure for those over the age of 30 were made for all the World Bank regions. Annual and 10-year estimates using Markov models were made for the cost of treating nonoptimal blood pressure and its main sequelae: stroke and myocardial infarction.Suboptimal blood pressure cost US$370,000,000,000 globally in 2001. This represents about 10% of the world's overall healthcare expenditures. In the Eastern Europe and Central Asia region, high blood pressure consumed 25% of all health expenditures. Over a 10-year period, elevated blood pressure may cost nearly $1,000,000,000,000 globally in health spending, if current blood pressure levels persist. Indirect costs could be as high as $3,600,000,000,000 annually.Suboptimal blood pressure is responsible for a large and an increasing economic and health burden in developing countries. Although the majority of the current absolute expenditure occurs in the high-income countries, an ever-increasing proportion of the cost is going to be carried by developing countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32832a9ba3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267783800022

    View details for PubMedID 19474763

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