Bio

Bio


Dr. Arai has formal training in clinical research with a Masters in Epidemiology from Stanford University. She has a clinical practice seeing all diseases in hematopoietic cell transplantation, with a clinical research focus on the prevention and treatment of post-transplant complications.

Clinical Focus


  • Cancer > Blood and Marrow Transplant
  • Cancer > Hematology
  • Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • Hematology

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • “A phase I/II study of post-transplant autologous CIK cells for high-risk hematologic malignancies”, Cancer Treatment Research Foundation (2005-2009)
  • K23-“Reduce GVHD and Relapse using Ex-Vivo Expanded Allogeneic Cell Therapy”, NIH (2003-2008)

Professional Education


  • Medical Education:Dartmouth Geisel School of Medicine (1991) NH
  • Fellowship:Johns Hopkins Hospital (1999) MD
  • Residency:Strong Memorial Hospital (1995) NY
  • Fellowship:Mount Sinai Medical Center (1998) NY
  • Internship:Strong Memorial Hospital (1993) NY
  • MS, Stanford University, Epidemiology (2006)
  • MD, Dartmouth Medical School

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Research interest in utilizing post-transplant adoptive cellular immunotherapy to reduce GVHD and relapse in patients with high risk hematologic malignancies.

Clinical Trials


  • Gemcitabine and Hodgkin's Disease Chemotherapy Followed by Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Rescue for Hodgkin's Disease Not Recruiting

    Phase II Gemcitabine + HD Chemotherapy Followed by PBSC Rescue for HD

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Protocol For A Research Database For Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Other Cellular Therapies and Marrow Toxic Injuries Recruiting

    The primary purpose of the Research Database is to have a comprehensive source of observational data that can be used to study HSC transplantation. A secondary purpose of the Research Database is to have a comprehensive source of data to study marrow toxic injuries. Objectives: To learn more about what makes stem cell transplants work well, such as determining the following: - how well recipients recover from their transplant - how recovery after a transplant can be improved - how access to transplant for different groups of patients can be improved - how well donors recover from the collection procedures

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  • Transplantation for Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of high dose therapy and autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Targeted Therapy of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome Not Recruiting

    This phase II trial studies how well giving fluticasone propionate, azithromycin, and montelukast sodium (FAM) together works in treating patients with bronchiolitis obliterans who previously underwent stem cell transplant. FAM may be an effective treatment for bronchiolitis obliterans

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Immune Mediated Disorders After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this research study is to better understand the onset and course of graft versus host disease (GVHD)and other immune-mediated disorders after stem cell transplant.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Phase 1 Nilotinib in Steroid Dependent/Refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: Determine the safety and tolerability of nilotinib in steroid dependent / refractory cGVHD. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: Determine the clinical efficacy of nilotinib in steroid dependent / refractory cGVHD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, 650-721-2372.

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  • Prophylactic Use of Maribavir for the Prevention of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Disease in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this research study is to investigate whether or not maribavir is safe and effective for preventing CMV disease when taken by mouth for up to 12 weeks in patients who have had a stem cell transplant.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Janice Brown, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Treatment (BMT CTN 0802) Not Recruiting

    The study is a Phase III, randomized double blind, placebo controlled, and trial evaluating the addition of Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) vs. placebo to systemic corticosteroids as initial therapy for acute Graft Vs Host Disease (GVHD). The primary endpoint will be GVHD free survival at Day 56 post randomization.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Not Recruiting

    This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best way to give nilotinib when given together with imatinib mesylate after donor stem cell transplant in treating patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Nilotinib and imatinib mesylate may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation in Acute Non-Lymphoblastic Leukemia During First or Subsequent Remission Not Recruiting

    Evaluate the role of high dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for AML.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • TLI & ATG for Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation for MDS and MPD Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of TLI/ATG conditioning for allogeneic HCT for elderly patients with advanced stage MDS and MPD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Phase II Poor Risk Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) of Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) and Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) Followed by Matched Allogeneic Hematopoietic Transplantation as Consolidation to Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (AHCT) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to develop an alternative treatment for patients with relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma who are not likely to be cured by the conventional transplantation regimen.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Cyclosporine Eye Drops in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease of the Eye in Patients Who Have Undergone Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer or Bone Marrow Failure Disorder Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Cyclosporine eye drops may prevent graft-versus-host disease of the eye in patients who have undergone donor stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer or bone marrow failure disorder. PURPOSE: This randomized phase I trial is studying how well cyclosporine eye drops work in preventing graft-versus-host disease of the eye in patients who have undergone donor stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer or bone marrow failure disorder.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, (650) 721 - 2372.

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  • A Phase 3 Study of Brentuximab Vedotin (SGN-35) in Patients at High Risk of Residual Hodgkin Lymphoma Following Stem Cell Transplant (The AETHERA Trial) Not Recruiting

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) and best supportive care (BSC) compared to placebo and BSC in treatment of residual Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) following autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sarah Robeson, (650) 725 - 1647.

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  • Post-transplant Autologous Cytokine-induced Killer (CIK) Cells for Treatment of High Risk Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to conduct a phase I study of adoptive immunotherapy with autologous, ex-vivo expanded cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells to reduce the relapse rate in autologous stem cell transplant patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sherry Moore, (650) 725 - 7951.

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  • Allogeneic HCT Using Nonmyeloablative Host Conditioning With TLI & ATG vs SOC in AML Not Recruiting

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the bone marrow that mostly affects older adults. Even with the best chemotherapy, two-year disease-free survival is achieved in a minority of patients. Bone marrow transplantation from a sibling donor may improve cure rates; however, patients over 50 years of age have a high risk of complications and therefore generally are excluded from this treatment option. Recently our group developed a transplantation strategy for older cancer patients that protects against transplant-associated complications, yet does not interfere with the ability of the transplanted donor cells to destroy cancer cells. With this new method, we can now safely evaluate transplantation as a curative therapy for AML patients over the age of 50. We have assembled clinical and scientific researchers throughout the state of California to study and compare bone marrow transplantation using our new approach with the best standard of care chemotherapy in AML patients over the age of 50. The results of this study have the potential to establish a new treatment standard that will improve survival of older AML patients.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, 650-725-1647.

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  • Vaccine Therapy for Multiple Myeloma Utilizing Idiotype-Pulsed Allogeneic Dendritic Cells Not Recruiting

    Patients with Multiple myeloma who have undergone non-myeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplant will receive 6 vaccinations of donor derived dendritic cells combined with specific protein produced by multiple myeloma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Phase I/II MAHCT w/ TCell Depleted Graft w/ Simultaneous Infusion Conventional and Regulatory T Cell Recruiting

    For patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic myeloablative (MA) HCT with a T cell depleted graft, the infusion of naturally occurring regulatory T cells with conventional T cells (T cell addback) in pre-defined doses and ratios will reduce the incidence of acute graft vs host disease while augmenting the graft vs leukemia effect and improving immune reconstitution.

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  • Mixed Chimera Allogeneic Transplantation From Matched Unrelated Donors For The Treatment Of Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to determine the toxicity and feasibility of non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants for multiple myeloma from unrelated donors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil as Graft Versus Host Disease Prophylaxis in Myeloablative Matched Related Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD with sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil GVHD prophylaxis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Phase II Trial of Rituximab and Corticosteroid Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    We hypothesize the addition of rituximab to prednisone for the initial treatment of chronic GVHD will increase the overall response rate, and enable a more rapid and effective steroid taper.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Defibrotide for Patients With Hepatic Veno-occlusive Disease: A Treatment IND Study Not Recruiting

    Single arm, open-label study to provide Defibrotide to patients diagnosed with VOD. Defibrotide is no longer available though the Emergency Use IND mechanism (also known as compassionate use, or single patient named use). This protocol is the only mechanism by which Defibrotide can be made available to patients in the U.S.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Defibrotide for the Treatment of Severe Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Hematopoetic Stem Cell Transplant Patients Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to (1) demonstrate the efficacy and safety (toxicity) of 25 mg/kg/day of Defibrotide in patients with severe veno-occlusive disease (sVOD) and (2) evaluate serum and endothelial markers of VOD through the analysis of blood samples.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Stem Cell Transplant With Lenalidomide Maintenance in Patients With Multiple Myeloma (BMT CTN 0702) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a Phase III, multicenter trial of tandem autologous transplants plus maintenance therapy versus the strategy of single autologous transplant plus consolidation therapy with lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD) followed by maintenance therapy or single autologous transplant plus maintenance therapy as part of upfront treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Lenalidomide will be used as maintenance therapy for three years in all arms.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Phase II Trial of Prophylactic Rituximab Therapy for Prevention of CGVHD Not Recruiting

    To determine if Rituximab administered after allogeneic transplantation decreases the incidence of chronic GvHD

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Autologous Followed by Non-myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this trial is to develop an alternative treatment for patients with poor risk non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This trial uses a combination of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant using the patient's own cells. This is followed with non-myeloablative transplant using stem cells from a related or unrelated donor to try and generate an anti-lymphoma response from the new immune system.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • High Dose Chemotherapy and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of NHL.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Pilot Study of Imatinib Mesylate in Steroid Refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    To determine if subjects with steroid refractory cGVHD can tolerate imatinib mesylate and whether their cGVHD responds to imatinib mesylate.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, (650) 721 - 2372.

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  • Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Treatment (BMT CTN 0801) Not Recruiting

    This study is designed as a combined Phase II/III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective comparative study of sirolimus plus prednisone versus sirolimus/calcineurin-inhibitor plus prednisone for the treatment of chronic GVHD. Patients will be stratified by transplant center and will be randomized to an experimental arm of one of the two pre-specified experimental arms (sirolimus + prednisone or the comparator arm of sirolimus + calcineurin inhibitor + prednisone) in a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Trial to Evaluate Palifermin in the Reduction of Acute Graft Versus Host Disease in Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Allogeneic Marrow/Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cell (PBPC) Transplantation Not Recruiting

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of palifermin versus placebo in the reduction of severe acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) and severe oral mucositis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus & Mycophenolate Mofetil as GVHD Prophylaxis in Myeloablative, Matched Related Donor HCT Not Recruiting

    GVHD prophylaxis of sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for patients undergoing matched related allogeneic transplant for acute and chronic leukemia, MDS, high risk NHL and HL

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Ph II of Autologous Followed by Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation Using TLI & ATG Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the toxicity and tolerability of this tandem autologous/allogeneic transplant approach for patients with advanced stage multiple myeloma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Autologous Stem Cell Rescue for Primary Amyloidosis Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of high dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant for amyloidosis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • High -Dose Sequential Therapy and Single Autologous Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    This study uses a sequence of high-dose chemotherapy drugs and a stem cell transplant to treat multiple myeloma. The study is being performed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of treatment. Specifically, the study is designed to reduce the risk of interstitial pneumonitis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant vs Bone Marrow Transplant in Individuals With Hematologic Cancers (BMT CTN 0201) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a Phase III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective, comparative trial of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) versus marrow from unrelated donors for transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies. Recipients will be stratified by transplant center and disease risk and will be randomized to either the PBSC or marrow arm in a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Sirolimus as Treatment of Steroid-Refractory or Steroid-Dependent Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Not Recruiting

    To study the effectiveness of an immunosuppressive drug, sirolimus in the treatment of chronic graft versus host disease in combination with prednisone.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation Using TL1 & ATG for Older Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    To measure how frequently and to what degree a complication of transplant cell acute graft versus host disease (GV/HD) occurs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • CD8+ Memory T-Cells as Consolidative Therapy After Donor Non-myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Leukemia or Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This phase II trial studies how well cluster of differentiation 8 (CD8)+ memory T-cells work as a consolidative therapy following a donor non-myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplant in treating patients with leukemia or lymphoma. Giving total lymphoid irradiation and anti-thymocyte globulin before a donor hematopoietic cell transplant helps stop the growth of cells in the bone marrow, including normal blood-forming cells (stem cells) and cancer cells. When the healthy stem cells from a donor are infused into the patient they may help the patient's bone marrow make stem cells, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Sometimes the transplanted cells from a donor can make an immune response against the body's normal cells (called graft-versus-host disease). Giving cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil after the transplant may stop this from happening. Once the donated stem cells begin working, the patient's immune system may see the remaining cancer cells as not belonging in the patient's body and destroy them. Giving an infusion of the donor's white blood cells, such as CD8+ memory T-cells, may boost this effect and may be an effective treatment to kill any cancer cells that may be left in the body (consolidative therapy).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Leah Galvez, 650-725-7951.

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  • Sirolimus/Tacrolimus Versus Tacrolimus/Methotrexate for Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) (BMT CTN 0402) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a phase III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective, comparative trial of sirolimus and tacrolimus versus tacrolimus and methotrexate as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, related, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in individuals with hematologic cancer. Participants will be stratified by transplant center and will be randomly assigned to the sirolimus/tacrolimus or tacrolimus/methotrexate arms at a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Phase 1 Infused Donor T Regulatory Cells in Steroid Dependent/Refractory Chronic GVHD Recruiting

    Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a common complication of bone marrow or hematopoietic cell transplant from another person (allogeneic transplant). This study will determine if subjects with steroid dependent/refractory cGVHD can tolerate infusion of donor regulatory T cells and whether their cGVHD responds to the infusion.

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  • Bone Marrow Grafting for Leukemia and Lymphoma Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to obtain tissue samples for ongoing studies regarding transplant outcomes and complications.

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  • Novel Approaches for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prevention Compared to Contemporary Controls (BMT CTN 1203) Not Recruiting

    Acute Graft-versus-Host-Disease (GVHD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This study aims to determine if any of three new GVHD prophylaxis approaches improves the rate of GVHD and relapse free survival at one year after transplant compared to the current standard prophylaxis regimen.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Phase 1-2 of a CpG-Activated Whole Cell Vaccine Followed by Autologous Immunotransplant for MCL Not Recruiting

    Mantle Cell Lymphoma is a sub-type of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma which is generally considered incurable with current therapy. Our goal is to accrue 59 patients who receive an autologous vaccine against their individual lymphoma after undergoing stem cell transplantation. Our hope is that vaccination will prolong the time which patients will stay in remission from their disease.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Ami Okada, (650) 725 - 4968.

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  • Chronic GVHD Response Measures Validation Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate endpoint measures that can accurately determine whether patients are responding to treatment for chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD). Hopefully, this will also lead to being better able to predict which patients will respond to what therapies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Study of the Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Subjects With Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and clinical efficacy of ibrutinib in subjects with steroid dependent or refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Janet McDowell, 650-725-1647.

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  • Post T-plant Infusion of Allogeneic Cytokine Induced Killer Cells as Consolidative Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndromes/Myeloproliferative Disorders Not Recruiting

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (transplant of blood cells from another individual) is a treatment option for patients with Myelodysplasia or Myeloproliferative Disorders. During the course of this study, we will attempt to learn whether a particular type of blood cell, called a Cytokine Induced Killer (CIK) cell may add benefit to allogeneic stem cell transplantation. CIK cells are present in small quantities in the bloodstream but their numbers can be expanded after a brief period of nurturing in a laboratory.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Intravenous Administration of RGI-2001 in Patient Undergoing Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (AHSCT) Not Recruiting

    The clinical trial is a Phase 1/2a, open-label, multi-center, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile of RGI-2001 in patients undergoing AHSCT, with radiation or non-radiation myeloablative preparative treatment. The study will be separated into two parts; a dose escalation phase to assess safety, followed by a large expansion phase to further evaluate the pharmacologic effects of either a Maximum Tolerated Dose, Maximum Feasible Dose or optimal pharmacologically active dose of RGI-2001. The initial dose escalation safety portion of the study (Part 1) will include higher risk patients and limit the unrelated donor transplants. After safety is established in part 1 of the study, the second portion of the study will expand the enrollment criteria and allow transplantation by either related or unrelated donors. This study will endeavor to identify the dose range at which RGI-2001 has an acceptable safety profile, at which biologic activity is observed, and to guide possible dose levels to utilize in later phase studies based on biological activity.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Imatinib and Rituximab in Treating Cutaneous Sclerosis in Patients With Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Not Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial is evaluating how well imatinib mesylate works compared to rituximab in treating cutaneous sclerosis in patients with chronic graft- versus-host disease (GVHD). Both imatinib and rituximab have been reported to decrease skin thickening and improve skin and joint flexibility in people with cutaneous sclerosis due to chronic GVHD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals , 650-723-0822.

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  • Double Cord Versus Haploidentical (BMT CTN 1101) Recruiting

    Hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT)are one treatment option for people with leukemia or lymphoma. Family members,unrelated donors or banked umbilical cordblood units with similar tissue type can be used for HCT. This study will compare the effectiveness of two new types of bone marrow transplants in people with leukemia or lymphoma: one that uses bone marrow donated from family members with only partially matched bone marrow; and, one that uses two partially matched cord blood units.

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  • Ph II of Non-myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation Using TLI & ATG In Patients w/ Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma Recruiting

    Non-myeloablative approach for allogeneic transplant is a reasonable option, especially given that the median age at diagnosis is 55-60 years and frequently present compromised skin in these patients, which increases the risk of infection. Therefore, we propose a clinical study with allogeneic HSCT using a unique non-myeloablative preparative regimen, TLI/ATG, to treat advanced MF/SS.

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  • Donor Regulatory T Cells in Treating Patients With Visceral Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease After Stem Cell Transplant Not Recruiting

    This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of donor regulatory T cells in treating patients with graft-versus-host disease affecting the liver or gastrointestinal organs (visceral) within 100 days (acute) after undergoing a stem cell transplant. Graft-versus-host disease occurs when donor immune cells infused in a stem cell transplant attack the gut, skin, liver, or other organ systems of the patient. Regulatory T cells are a type of immune cell that may be able to reduce the attack of the donor's immune cells on the patient's normal cells and help treat graft-vs-host disease.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, 650-721-2372.

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  • High Dose Sequential Therapy and Autologous Stem Cell Rescue for Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    To assess the role of autologous hematopoietic cell rescue in the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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Teaching

2016-17 Courses


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

All Publications


  • Clinicopathologic Threshold of Acute Colorectal Graft-versus-Host Disease ARCHIVES OF PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE Gomez, A. J., Arai, S., Higgins, J. P., Kambham, N. 2016; 140 (6): 570-577

    Abstract

    -Colon biopsies are often used to determine the presence and severity of acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplant.-To establish a threshold consensus within our institution on the number of crypt apoptotic bodies (CAB) indicative of grade 1 acute colorectal graft-versus-host disease, we retrospectively reviewed colon biopsies from posttransplant patients and incorporated clinical and endoscopic findings to validate recently proposed minimum criteria for grade 1 graft-versus-host disease as 7 or more CAB per 10 contiguous crypts.-Eighty-one biopsies performed for suspected graft-versus-host disease from 74 individual patients were initially stratified based on their prior (prestudy) diagnoses: no significant abnormality, grade 1 graft-versus-host disease, and descriptive diagnoses mentioning increased apoptosis. A chart review was performed to assess the clinical and endoscopic impression at the time of biopsy and to determine the subsequent management and outcome.-Twenty-six biopsies with an average of 3 CAB were considered true-negative cases, and 32 biopsies with an average of 9.75 CAB were considered true-positive cases (t = 3.95999, P < .001). True-negative cases had an average density of 1.36 CAB per crypt, and true-positive cases had an average density of 2.97 CAB per crypt (t = 3.950178, P < .001).-A threshold of 7 or more CAB per 10 contiguous crypts promotes appropriate treatment of grade 1 acute graft-versus-host disease after other diagnostic entities are excluded. Although this threshold is 100% specific to grade 1 acute colorectal graft-versus-host disease after other histologic mimics are excluded, this threshold has a low sensitivity (59.4%) as patients with less than 7 CAB per 10 contiguous crypts constitute a heterogeneous group.

    View details for DOI 10.5858/arpa.2015-0187-OA

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377101500013

    View details for PubMedID 27232349

  • Clinical activity of ponatinib in a patient with FGFR1-rearranged mixed-phenotype acute leukemia. Leukemia Khodadoust, M. S., Luo, B., Medeiros, B. C., Johnson, R. C., Ewalt, M. D., Schalkwyk, A. S., Bangs, C. D., Cherry, A. M., Arai, S., Arber, D. A., Zehnder, J. L., Gotlib, J. 2016; 30 (4): 947-950

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2015.136

    View details for PubMedID 26055304

  • Oral chronic GVHD outcomes and resource utilization: a subanalysis from the chronic GVHD consortium ORAL DISEASES Yuan, A., Chai, X., Martins, F., Arai, S., Arora, M., Correa, M. E., Pidala, J., Cutler, C. S., Lee, S. J., Treister, N. S. 2016; 22 (3): 235-240

    Abstract

    This study evaluated the extent to which oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) consensus assessments are predictive of management across institutions with and without oral medicine (OM) centers, and whether ancillary care guidelines are followed within clinical practice.Longitudinal oral cGVHD data were abstracted from the cGVHD Consortium, and additional mouth-specific management data were analyzed across five transplant centers.Seventy-nine patients with 656 visits were observed for a median of 7.1 months with one visit per follow-up month. Ancillary therapies for oral cGVHD were prescribed for 67% of patients for a median of 0.46 months (per follow-up month) at OM centers and 0.78 months at non-OM centers. Patients treated with ancillary therapy were more likely to have an National Institutes of Health (NIH) mouth score of ?1 (P < 0.001, odds ratio: 5.1) and mouth pain (P = 0.01, odds ratio: 2.6). The odds ratios of receiving ancillary therapy from OM experts were higher than transplant physicians (53%; P = 0.03).Oral cGVHD consensus assessments corresponding with ancillary therapy use were mouth pain and NIH mouth score, with higher odds ratios of receiving therapy from OM experts. Ancillary care guidelines for oral cGVHD are reflected in academic clinical practice with respect to utilization of recommended prescriptions.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/odi.12429

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372354400012

    View details for PubMedID 26708609

  • Long-awaited news for hepatic veno-occlusive disease. Blood Arai, S. 2016; 127 (13): 1630-1631

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2016-02-694943

    View details for PubMedID 27034420

  • Phase 3 trial of defibrotide for the treatment of severe veno-occlusive disease and multi-organ failure. Blood Richardson, P. G., Riches, M. L., Kernan, N. A., Brochstein, J. A., Mineishi, S., Termuhlen, A. M., Arai, S., Grupp, S. A., Guinan, E. C., Martin, P. L., Steinbach, G., Krishnan, A., Nemecek, E. R., Giralt, S., Rodriguez, T., Duerst, R., Doyle, J., Antin, J. H., Smith, A., Lehmann, L., Champlin, R., Gillio, A., Bajwa, R., D'Agostino, R. B., Massaro, J., Warren, D., Miloslavsky, M., Hume, R. L., Iacobelli, M., Nejadnik, B., Hannah, A. L., Soiffer, R. J. 2016; 127 (13): 1656-1665

    Abstract

    Hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD), also called sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), is a potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Untreated hepatic VOD/SOS with multi-organ failure (MOF) is associated with >80% mortality. Defibrotide has shown promising efficacy treating hepatic VOD/SOS with MOF in phase 2 studies. This phase 3 study investigated safety and efficacy of defibrotide in patients with established hepatic VOD/SOS and advanced MOF. Patients (n = 102) given defibrotide 25 mg/kg per day were compared with 32 historical controls identified out of 6867 medical charts of HSCT patients by blinded independent reviewers. Baseline characteristics between groups were well balanced. The primary endpoint was survival at day +100 post-HSCT; observed rates equaled 38.2% in the defibrotide group and 25% in the controls (23% estimated difference; 95.1% confidence interval [CI], 5.2-40.8;P= .0109, using a propensity-adjusted analysis). Observed day +100 complete response (CR) rates equaled 25.5% for defibrotide and 12.5% for controls (19% difference using similar methodology; 95.1% CI, 3.5-34.6;P= .0160). Defibrotide was generally well tolerated with manageable toxicity. Related adverse events (AEs) included hemorrhage or hypotension; incidence of common hemorrhagic AEs (including pulmonary alveolar [11.8% and 15.6%] and gastrointestinal bleeding [7.8% and 9.4%]) was similar between the defibrotide and control groups, respectively. Defibrotide was associated with significant improvement in day +100 survival and CR rate. The historical-control methodology offers a novel, meaningful approach for phase 3 evaluation of orphan diseases associated with high mortality. This trial was registered atwww.clinicaltrials.govas #NCT00358501.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2015-10-676924

    View details for PubMedID 26825712

  • Late Acute and Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Arora, M., Cutler, C. S., Jagasia, M. H., Pidala, J., Chai, X., Martin, P. J., Flowers, M. E., Inamoto, Y., Chen, G. L., Wood, W. A., Khera, N., Palmer, J., Duong, H., Arai, S., Mayer, S., Pusic, I., Lee, S. J. 2016; 22 (3): 449-455

    Abstract

    Several distinct graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-related syndromes have been defined by the National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference. We enrolled a prospective cohort of 911 hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients at 13 centers between March 2011 and May 2014 to evaluate 4 GVHD syndromes: late acute GVHD (aGVHD), chronic GVHD (cGVHD), bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, and cutaneous sclerosis. The median age at HCT was 53.7 years. The majority of patients received a peripheral blood stem cell transplant (81%) following nonmyeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning (55%). Pediatric age group and use of bone marrow and umbilical cord blood grafts were underrepresented in our cohort (?11%). The cumulative incidence of late aGVHD (late onset and recurrent) was 10% at a median of 5.5 months post-HCT, that of cGVHD was 47% at a median of 7.4 months, that of bronchiolitis obliterans was 3% at a median of 12.2 months, and that of cutaneous sclerosis was 8% at a median onset of 14.0 months. Late aGVHD and bronchiolitis obliterans had particularly high nonrelapse mortality of 23% and 32%, respectively, by 2 years after diagnosis. The probability of late aGVHD- and cGVHD-free, relapse-free survival was 38% at 1 year post-HCT and 26% at 2 years post-HCT. This multicenter prospective study confirms the high rate of late aGVHD and cGVHD syndromes and supports the need for continuous close monitoring and development of more effective GVHD treatment strategies to improve HCT success.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.10.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370910200009

    View details for PubMedID 26541363

  • A Randomized Phase II Crossover Study of Imatinib or Rituximab for Cutaneous Sclerosis after Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Arai, S., Pidala, J., Pusic, I., Chai, X., Jaglowski, S., Khera, N., Palmer, J., Chen, G. L., Jagasia, M. H., Mayer, S. A., Wood, W. A., Green, M., Hyun, T. S., Inamoto, Y., Storer, B. E., Miklos, D. B., Shulman, H. M., Martin, P. J., Sarantopoulos, S., Lee, S. J., Flowers, M. E. 2016; 22 (2): 319-327

    Abstract

    Cutaneous sclerosis occurs in 20% of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and can compromise mobility and quality of life.We conducted a prospective, multicenter, randomized, two-arm phase II crossover trial of imatinib (200 mg daily) or rituximab (375 mg/m(2) i.v. weekly × 4 doses, repeatable after 3 months) for treatment of cutaneous sclerosis diagnosed within 18 months (NCT01309997). The primary endpoint was significant clinical response (SCR) at 6 months, defined as quantitative improvement in skin sclerosis or joint range of motion. Treatment success was defined as SCR at 6 months without crossover, recurrent malignancy or death. Secondary endpoints included changes of B-cell profiles in blood (BAFF levels and cellular subsets), patient-reported outcomes, and histopathology between responders and nonresponders with each therapy.SCR was observed in 9 of 35 [26%; 95% confidence interval (CI); 13%-43%] participants randomized to imatinib and 10 of 37 (27%; 95% CI, 14%-44%) randomized to rituximab. Six (17%; 95% CI, 7%-34%) patients in the imatinib arm and 5 (14%; 95% CI, 5%-29%) in the rituximab arm had treatment success. Higher percentages of activated B cells (CD27(+)) were seen at enrollment in rituximab-treated patients who had treatment success (P = 0.01), but not in imatinib-treated patients.These results support the need for more effective therapies for cutaneous sclerosis and suggest that activated B cells define a subgroup of patients with cutaneous sclerosis who are more likely to respond to rituximab.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-1443

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369076500008

    View details for PubMedID 26378033

  • Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after failed autologous transplant for lymphoma using TLI and anti-thymocyte globulin conditioning BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Rezvani, A. R., Kanate, A. S., Efron, B., Chhabra, S., Kohrt, H. E., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Miklos, D. B., Benjamin, J. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Arai, S., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2015; 50 (10): 1286-1292

    Abstract

    We describe 47 patients with lymphoma and failed prior autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) who received TLI-ATG (anti-thymocyte globulin) conditioning followed by allogeneic HCT. Thirty-two patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n=19), T-cell NHL (n=6), mantle cell lymphoma (n=4) or other B-cell subtypes (n=3)), and 15 had Hodgkin lymphoma. The median follow-up was 4.9 (range, 2.1-11.9) years. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GvHD at day +100 was 12%, and the cumulative incidence of extensive chronic GvHD at 1 year was 36%. The 3-year cumulative incidences of overall survival (OS), PFS and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 81%, 44% and 7%, respectively. Fifteen patients died (relapse, n=10; NRM, n=5). Among the 25 patients with relapse after allogeneic HCT, 11 (44%) achieved durable (>1 year) CRs following donor lymphocyte infusion or chemoradiotherapy. The majority of surviving patients (75%; n=24) were able to discontinue all immunosuppression. For patients with relapsed lymphoma after autologous HCT, allogeneic HCT using TLI-ATG conditioning is a well-tolerated, predominantly outpatient therapy with low NRM (7% at 3 years), a low incidence of GvHD, durable disease control and excellent OS (81% at 3 years).

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2015.149

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362497400004

  • Cyclophosphamide conditioning in patients with severe aplastic anaemia given unrelated marrow transplantation: a phase 1-2 dose de-escalation study LANCET HAEMATOLOGY Anderlini, P., Wu, J., Gersten, I., Ewell, M., Tolar, J., Antin, J. H., Adams, R., Arai, S., Eames, G., Horwitz, M. E., McCarty, J., Nakamura, R., Pulsipher, M. A., Rowley, S., Leifer, E., Carter, S. L., DiFronzo, N. L., Horowitz, M. M., Confer, D., Deeg, H. J., Eapen, M. 2015; 2 (9): E367-E375
  • Failure-free survival in a prospective cohort of patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease HAEMATOLOGICA Palmer, J., Chai, X., Martin, P. J., Weisdorf, D., Inamoto, Y., Pidala, J., Jagasia, M., Pavletic, S., Cutler, C., Vogelsang, G., Arai, S., Flowers, M. E., Lee, S. J. 2015; 100 (5): 690-695

    Abstract

    Failure-free survival, defined as the absence of relapse, non-relapse mortality or addition of another systemic therapy, has been proposed as a potential endpoint for clinical trials, but its use has only been reported for single-center studies. We measured failure-free survival in a prospective observational cohort of patients (n=575) with both newly diagnosed and existing chronic graft-versus-host disease from nine centers. Failure was observed in 389 (68%) patients during the observation period. The median follow up of all patients was 30.9 months, and the median failure-free survival was 9.8 months (63% at 6 months, 45% at 1 year, and 29% at 2 years). Of the variables measured at enrollment, ten were associated with shorter failure-free survival: higher National Institutes of Health 0-3 skin score, higher National Institutes of Health 0-3 gastrointestinal score, worse range of motion summary score, lower forced vital capacity (%), bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, worse quality of life, moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction, absence of treatment for gastric acid, female donor for male recipient, and prior grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease. Addition of a new systemic treatment, the major cause of failure, was associated with an increased risk of subsequent non-relapse mortality (hazard ratio=2.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.29-3.32; P<0.003) and decreased survival (hazard ratio=1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.04-2.18; P<0.03). These results show that fewer than half of patients on systemic treatment will be failure-free survivors at 1 year, and fewer than a third will reach 2 years without experiencing failure. Better treatments are needed for chronic graft-versus-host disease. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00637689.

    View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2014.117283

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354788000035

  • Outcomes After Heart Transplantation for Amyloid Cardiomyopathy in the Modern Era AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Davis, M. K., Kale, P., Liedtke, M., Schrier, S., Arai, S., Wheeler, M., Lafayette, R., Coakley, T., Witteles, R. M. 2015; 15 (3): 650-658

    Abstract

    We conducted a review of patients undergoing heart transplantation (HT) at our institution for amyloid cardiomyopathy (ACM) between 2008 and 2013. Complete follow-up was available for all patients. Nineteen patients with ACM underwent HT during the study period, accounting for 9.4% of all HT performed at our institution during this period. Amyloid subtype was light chain (AL) in 9 patients and transthyretin (ATTR) in 10 (2 wild-type, 7 familial, 1 unknown). Eight of nine patients with AL amyloidosis began chemotherapy prior to HT, six have resumed chemotherapy since HT, and five have undergone autologous stem cell transplantation. Most recent free light chain levels in AL patients decreased by a median of 85% from peak values. Only one patient developed recurrent graft amyloidosis, occurring at 3.5 years post-HT and asymptomatic. After a median follow-up of 380 days, 17 (89.5%) patients are alive. To our knowledge, this is the largest single-center series reported of ACM patients undergoing HT in the modern era. Our results suggest that acceptable outcomes following HT can be achieved in the short-to-intermediate term and that this is a feasible option for end-stage ACM with careful patient selection and aggressive control of amyloidogenic light chains in AL patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ajt.13025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000349977700013

  • National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: I. The 2014 Diagnosis and Staging Working Group report. Biology of blood and marrow transplantation Jagasia, M. H., Greinix, H. T., Arora, M., Williams, K. M., Wolff, D., Cowen, E. W., Palmer, J., Weisdorf, D., Treister, N. S., Cheng, G., Kerr, H., Stratton, P., Duarte, R. F., McDonald, G. B., Inamoto, Y., Vigorito, A., Arai, S., Datiles, M. B., Jacobsohn, D., Heller, T., Kitko, C. L., Mitchell, S. A., Martin, P. J., Shulman, H., Wu, R. S., Cutler, C. S., Vogelsang, G. B., Lee, S. J., Pavletic, S. Z., Flowers, M. E. 2015; 21 (3): 389-401 e1

    Abstract

    The 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference proposed new criteria for diagnosing and scoring the severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The 2014 NIH consensus maintains the framework of the prior consensus with further refinement based on new evidence. Revisions have been made to address areas of controversy or confusion, such as the overlap chronic GVHD subcategory and the distinction between active disease and past tissue damage. Diagnostic criteria for involvement of mouth, eyes, genitalia, and lungs have been revised. Categories of chronic GVHD should be defined in ways that indicate prognosis, guide treatment, and define eligibility for clinical trials. Revisions have been made to focus attention on the causes of organ-specific abnormalities. Attribution of organ-specific abnormalities to chronic GVHD has been addressed. This paradigm shift provides greater specificity and more accurately measures the global burden of disease attributed to GVHD, and it will facilitate biomarker association studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.12.001

    View details for PubMedID 25529383

  • Increasing Incidence of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in Allogeneic Transplantation: A Report from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Arai, S., Arora, M., Wang, T., Spellman, S. R., He, W., Courie, D. R., Urbano-Ispizua, A., Cutler, C. S., Bacigalupo, A. A., Battiwallaw, M., Flowers, M. E., Juckett, M. B., Lee, S. J., Loren, A. W., Klumpp, T. R., Prockup, S. E., Ringden, O. E., Savani, B. N., Socie, G., Schultz, K. R., Spitzer, T., Teshima, T., Bredeson, C. N., Jacobsohn, D. A., Hayashi, R. J., Drobyski, W. R., Frangoul, H. A., Akpek, G., Ho, V. T., Lewis, V. A., Gale, R. P., Koreth, J., Chao, N. J., AlJurf, M. D., Cooper, B. W., Laughlin, M. J., Hsu, J. W., Hematti, P., Verdonck, L. F., Solh, M. M., Norkin, M., Reddy, V., Perez-Simon, J. A., Khera, N., Lewis, I. D., Atsuta, Y., Olsson, R. F., Saber, W., Waller, E. K., Blaise, D., Pidala, J. A., Martin, P. J., Satwani, P., Bornhauser, M., Inamoto, Y., Weisdorf, D. J., Horowitz, M. M., Pavletic, S. Z. 2015; 21 (2): 266-274

    Abstract

    Although transplant practices have changed over the last decades, no information is available on trends in incidence and outcome of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) over time. This study used the central database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to describe time trends for cGVHD incidence, nonrelapse mortality, and risk factors for cGVHD. The 12-year period was divided into 3 intervals, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2003, and 2004 to 2007, and included 26,563 patients with acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome. Multivariate analysis showed an increased incidence of cGVHD in more recent years (odds ratio = 1.19, P < .0001), and this trend was still seen when adjusting for donor type, graft type, or conditioning intensity. In patients with cGVHD, nonrelapse mortality has decreased over time, but at 5 years there were no significant differences among different time periods. Risk factors for cGVHD were in line with previous studies. This is the first comprehensive characterization of the trends in cGVHD incidence and underscores the mounting need for addressing this major late complication of transplantation in future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.10.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000348632700009

  • Association of severity of organ involvement with mortality and recurrent malignancy in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease HAEMATOLOGICA Inamoto, Y., Martin, P. J., Storer, B. E., Palmer, J., Weisdorf, D. J., Pidala, J., Flowers, M. E., Arora, M., Jagasia, M., Arai, S., Chai, X., Pavletic, S. Z., Vogelsang, G. B., Lee, S. J. 2014; 99 (10): 1618-1623
  • Association of severity of organ involvement with mortality and recurrent malignancy in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Haematologica Inamoto, Y., Martin, P. J., Storer, B. E., Palmer, J., Weisdorf, D. J., Pidala, J., Flowers, M. E., Arora, M., Jagasia, M., Arai, S., Chai, X., Pavletic, S. Z., Vogelsang, G. B., Lee, S. J. 2014; 99 (10): 1618-1623

    Abstract

    The National Institutes of Health global score for chronic graft-versus-host disease was devised by experts but was not based on empirical data. We hypothesized that analysis of prospectively collected data would enable derivation of a more accurate model for estimating mortality risk. We analyzed 574 adult patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease enrolled in a multicenter, observational study, using multivariate time-varying analysis accounting for serial changes in severity of involvement of eight individual organ sites over time. In the training set, severity of skin, mouth, gastrointestinal tract, liver and lung involvement were independently associated with the risk of non-relapse mortality. Weighted mortality points were assigned to individual organs based on the hazard ratios and were summed. The population was divided into three risk groups based on the total mortality points. The three new risk groups were validated in an independent validation set, but did not show better discriminative performance than the National Institutes of Health global score. As compared to a moderate or mild global score, a severe global score was associated with increased risks of non-relapse and overall mortality across time but not with a decreased risk of recurrent malignancy. The National Institutes of Health global score predicts patients' mortality risk throughout the course of their chronic graft-versus-host disease. Further research is required in order to improve outcomes in patients with severe chronic graft-versus-host disease, since their risk of mortality remains elevated.

    View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2014.109611

    View details for PubMedID 24997150

  • Total Lymphoid Irradiation-Antithymocyte Globulin Conditioning and Allogeneic Transplantation for Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Myeloproliferative Neoplasms BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Benjamin, J., Chhabra, S., Kohrt, H. E., Lavori, P., Laport, G. G., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Miklos, D. B., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. 2014; 20 (6): 837-843

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo HCT) is the only curative therapy for the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), but treatment toxicity has been a barrier to its more widespread use. The nonmyeloablative regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) permits the establishment of donor hematopoiesis necessary for the graft-versus-malignancy effect and is protective against acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), but it has minimal direct cytotoxicity against myeloid diseases. We explored the use of TLI-ATG conditioning to treat 61 patients with allo HCT for MDS (n = 32), therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (n = 15), MPN (n = 9), and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (n = 5). The median age of all patients was 63 years (range, 50 to 73). The cumulative incidence of aGVHD grades II to IV was 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4% to 23%) and for grades III to IV, 4% (95% CI, 0 to 9%), and it did not differ between patients who received allografts from related or unrelated donors. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days, 12 months, and 36 months was 0%, 7%, and 11%. Overall survival and progression-free survival were 41% (95% CI, 29% to 53%) and 35% (95% CI, 23% to 48%), respectively. The safety and tolerability of TLI-ATG, as exemplified by its low NRM, provides a foundation for further risk-adapted or prophylactic interventions to prevent disease progression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.02.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336418400016

    View details for PubMedID 24607552

  • Assessment of Joint and Fascia Manifestations in Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATOLOGY Inamoto, Y., Pidala, J., Chai, X., Kurland, B. F., Weisdorf, D., Flowers, M. E., Palmer, J., Arai, S., Jacobsohn, D., Cutler, C., Jagasia, M., Goldberg, J. D., Martin, P. J., Pavletic, S. Z., Vogelsang, G. B., Lee, S. J., Carpenter, P. A. 2014; 66 (4): 1044-1052

    View details for DOI 10.1002/art.38293

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337361000031

  • Pulmonary Symptoms Measured by the National Institutes of Health Lung Score Predict Overall Survival, Nonrelapse Mortality, and Patient-Reported Outcomes In Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Palmer, J., Williams, K., Inamoto, Y., Chai, X., Martin, P. J., Tomas, L. S., Cutler, C., Weisdorf, D., Kurland, B. F., Carpenter, P. A., Pidala, J., Pavletic, S. Z., Wood, W., Jacobsohn, D., Arai, S., Arora, M., Jagasia, M., Vogelsang, G. B., Lee, S. J. 2014; 20 (3): 337-344

    Abstract

    The 2005 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference recommended assessment of lung function in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by both pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and assessment of pulmonary symptoms. We tested whether pulmonary measures were associated with nonrelapse mortality (NRM), overall survival (OS), and patient-reported outcomes (PRO). Clinician and patient-reported data were collected serially in a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Available PFT data were abstracted. Cox regression models were fit for outcomes using a time-varying covariate model for lung function measures and adjusting for patient and transplantation characteristics and nonlung chronic GVHD severity. A total of 1591 visits (496 patients) were used in this analysis. The NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with NRM (P = .02), OS (P = .02), patient-reported symptoms (P < .001) and functional status (P < .001). Worsening of NIH symptom-based lung score over time was associated with higher NRM and lower survival. All other measures were not associated with OS or NRM; although, some were associated with patient-reported lung symptoms. In conclusion, the NIH symptom-based lung symptom score of 0 to 3 is associated with NRM, OS, and PRO measures in patients with chronic GVHD. Worsening of the NIH symptom-based lung score was associated with increased mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.11.025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332816700008

    View details for PubMedID 24315845

  • Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement in patients with cardiac amyloidosis HEART RHYTHM Varr, B. C., Zarafshar, S., Coakley, T., Liedtke, M., Lafayette, R. A., Arai, S., Schrier, S. L., Witteles, R. M. 2014; 11 (1): 158-162
  • Minimal residual disease monitoring with high-throughput sequencing of T cell receptors in cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Science translational medicine Weng, W., Armstrong, R., Arai, S., Desmarais, C., Hoppe, R., Kim, Y. H. 2013; 5 (214): 214ra171-?

    Abstract

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) and the leukemic presentation Sézary syndrome (SS) are clonal T cell lymphomas arising from the skin and are considered noncurable with standard therapies. To develop a specific and sensitive monitoring tool, we tested the ability of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of T cell receptors (TCRB) to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or skin samples. The rearranged TCR? loci were amplified using V?- and J?-specific primers, followed by HTS, to generate up to 1,000,000 reads spanning the CDR3 region of individual cells. Malignant clones were identified in diagnostic samples in all cases by a dominant CDR3 sequence. Before transplant, four patients had circulating Sézary cells by the routine flow cytometry, which was confirmed by TCRB HTS. Although the flow cytometry found no detectable Sézary cells, malignant clones were detected by TCRB HTS in all other six cases. Five patients achieved "molecular remission" in blood between +30 and +540 days after transplant. Four of these patients also achieved molecular clearance in skin after transplant. Experiments using blood samples spiked with purified Sézary cells demonstrated that TCRB HTS can detect Sézary cells at the level of 1 in 50,000 PBMCs, which is more sensitive than standard diagnostics. We have thus demonstrated the utility of TCRB HTS to assess MRD with increased sensitivity and specificity compared to other current methodologies, and to monitor response to therapy in this MF/SS patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3007420

    View details for PubMedID 24307695

  • Minimal Residual Disease Monitoring with High-Throughput Sequencing of T Cell Receptors in Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Weng, W., Armstrong, R., Arai, S., Desmarais, C., Hoppe, R., Kim, Y. H. 2013; 5 (214)
  • Comorbidity burden in patients with chronic GVHD BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Wood, W. A., Chai, X., Weisdorf, D., Martin, P. J., Cutler, C., INAMOTO, Y., WOLFF, D., Pavletic, S. Z., Pidala, J., Palmer, J. M., Arora, M., Arai, S., Jagasia, M., Storer, B., Lee, S. J., Mitchell, S. 2013; 48 (11): 1429-1436

    Abstract

    Chronic GVHD (cGVHD) is associated with mortality, disability and impaired quality of life. Understanding the role of comorbidity in patients with cGVHD is important both for prognostication and potentially for tailoring treatments based on mortality risks. In a prospective cohort study of patients with cGVHD (n=239), we examined the performance of two comorbidity scales, the Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI) and the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI). Both scales detected a higher number of comorbidities at cGVHD cohort enrollment than pre-hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) (P<0.001). Higher HCT-CI scores at the time of cGVHD cohort enrollment were associated with higher non-relapse mortality (HR: 1.21:1.04-1.42, P=0.01). For overall mortality, we detected an interaction with platelet count. Higher HCT-CI scores at enrollment were associated with an increased risk of overall mortality when the platelet count was ? 100,000/?L (HR: 2.01:1.20-3.35, P=0.01), but not when it was >100,000/?L (HR: 1.05:0.90-1.22, P=0.53). Comorbidity scoring may help better to predict survival outcomes in patients with cGVHD. Further studies to understand vulnerability unrelated to cGVHD activity in this patient population are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2013.70

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326887900010

    View details for PubMedID 23665819

  • Lenalidomide, melphalan and dexamethasone in a population of patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis with high rates of advanced cardiac involvement HAEMATOLOGICA Dinner, S., Witteles, W., Afghahi, A., Witteles, R., Arai, S., Lafayette, R., Schrier, S. L., Liedtke, M. 2013; 98 (10): 1593-1599

    Abstract

    Immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis remains incurable despite recent therapeutic advances, and is particularly difficult to treat in patients with amyloid cardiomyopathy. Based on evidence of activity in multiple myeloma, we designed a pilot study of an oral regimen of lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone and low dose melphalan in order to evaluate its safety and efficacy in patients with amyloidosis, including those with advanced cardiac involvement. Twenty-five patients were enrolled. Ninety-two percent of patients had cardiac involvement by amyloidosis, and 36% of patients met criteria for Mayo Clinic cardiac stage III disease. Patients received up to 9 cycles of treatment, consisting of lenalidomide 10 mg/day orally on days 1 - 21 (28 day cycle); melphalan 0.18mg/kg orally on days 1-4; and dexamethasone 40 mg orally on days 1, 8, 15, 22. High rates (33%) of cardiac arrhythmias and low rates of treatment completion (12.5%) were observed. Ten patients died during the study, all within the first several months of treatment due to acute cardiac events. The overall hematologic response rate was 58%, however organ responses were seen in only 8% of patients. Overall survival at one year was 58%. While we confirmed the hematologic response rates observed with similar regimens, front line treatment with melphalan, lenalidomide and dexamethasone was toxic, ineffective, and did not alter survival outcomes for patients with high risk cardiac disease. Our data highlight the importance of developing novel treatment approaches for amyloid cardiomyopathy. The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00890552).

    View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2013.084574

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328543400020

    View details for PubMedID 23716538

  • Measurement of oral chronic GVHD: results from the Chronic GVHD Consortium BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Treister, N., Chai, X., Kurland, B., Pavletic, S., Weisdorf, D., Pidala, J., Palmer, J., Martin, P., INAMOTO, Y., Arora, M., Flowers, M., Jacobsohn, D., Jagasia, M., Arai, S., Lee, S. J., Cutler, C. 2013; 48 (8): 1123-1128

    Abstract

    Oral chronic GVHD (cGVHD) is a serious complication of alloSCT. Scales and instruments to measure oral cGVHD activity and severity have not been prospectively validated. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of oral cGVHD and determine the measures most sensitive to change. Patients enrolled in the cGVHD Consortium with oral involvement were included. Clinicians scored oral changes according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria, and patients completed symptom and quality-of-life measures at each visit. Both rated change on an eight-point scale. Of the 458 participants, 72% (n=331) had objective oral involvement at enrollment. Lichenoid change was the most common feature (n=293; 89%). At visits where oral change could be assessed, 50% of clinicians and 56% of patients reported improvement, with worsening reported in 4-5% for both the groups (weighted kappa=0.41). Multivariable regression modeling suggested that the measurement changes most predictive of perceived change by clinicians and patients were erythema and lichenoid, NIH severity and symptom scores. Oral cGVHD is common and associated with a range of signs and symptoms. Measurement of erythema and lichenoid changes and symptoms may adequately capture the activity of oral cGVHD in clinical trials but require prospective validation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2012.285

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322819900018

    View details for PubMedID 23353804

  • The prognostic value of diagnosing concurrent multiple myeloma in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Dinner, S., Witteles, W., Witteles, R., Lam, A., Arai, S., Lafayette, R., George, T. I., Schrier, S. L., Liedtke, M. 2013; 161 (3): 367-372

    Abstract

    The prevalence and prognostic value of a concomitant diagnosis of symptomatic or asymptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), as defined by the current International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria, in patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL), are unknown. We studied 46 consecutive patients with AL who underwent quantification of serum M-protein and clonal bone marrow plasma cells, as well as a comprehensive evaluation for end organ damage by MM. Using standard morphology and CD138 immunohistochemical staining, 57% and 80% of patients were found to have concomitant MM, respectively. Nine patients exhibited end organ damage consistent with a diagnosis of symptomatic MM. While overall survival was similar between AL patients with or without concurrent myeloma (1-year overall survival 68% vs. 87%; P = 0.27), a diagnosis of symptomatic myeloma was associated with inferior outcome (1-year overall survival 39% vs. 81%; P = 0.005). Quantification of bone marrow plasma cells by both standard morphology and CD138 immunohistochemistry identified a much higher prevalence of concurrent MM in patients with AL than previously reported. Evaluation of bone marrow plasma cell infiltration and presence of myeloma associated end organ damage could be clinically useful for prognostication of patients with AL.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/bjh.12269

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317602300009

  • H-Y antigen-binding B cells develop in male recipients of female hematopoietic cells and associate with chronic graft vs. host disease PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sahaf, B., Yang, Y., Arai, S., Herzenberg, L. A., Herzenberg, L. A., Miklos, D. B. 2013; 110 (8): 3005-3010

    Abstract

    B cells are known to play an important role in pathogenesis of human chronic graft vs. host disease (cGVHD). Our group has previously shown that IgG allo-antibodies recognize Y chromosome-encoded proteins (H-Y) and a dominant H-Y epitope, DEAD box protein (DBY-2) detectable 6-12 mo after transplant in male patients who receive grafts from female donors (F?M) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Here we present FACS studies of peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected 6 mo after transplant showing that 16 of 28 (57%) F?M HCT patients have circulating donor B cells that express B-cell receptor (mainly IgM and Ig?) specific for DBY-2. The detection of these DBY-2 B cells 6 mo after HCT are associated with cGVHD development (P = 0.004). Specifically, 15 of 16 F?M with DBY-2 B cells developed cGVHD. In contrast, cGVHD developed in only 5 of the 12 who did not have DBY-2 B cells detected. This demonstrates circulating human B cells binding an alloantigen (DBY-2) and that these DBY-2-specific B cells appear before development of cGVHD in roughly half of the F?M patients. Our study suggests that detection of anti-DBY-2 B cells may predict cGVHD and that this prediction may have clinical utility. Validation of this hypothesis will require larger prospective studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1222900110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315954400081

    View details for PubMedID 23382226

  • Successful Surgical and Medical Treatment of Rhizopus Osteomyelitis Following Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation ORTHOPEDICS Vashi, N., Avedian, R., Brown, J., Arai, S. 2012; 35 (10): E1556-E1561

    Abstract

    Mucormycosis has been reported in otherwise healthy individuals; however, it is primarily seen in immunocompromised patients, such as those with diabetes mellitus, malignancy, or chronic graft-versus-host disease, and has a high mortality rate. Because most cases of mucormycosis are associated with contiguous rhinocerebral infection, only 5 cases of isolated musculoskeletal Rhizopus infection have been reported in the literature. One patient underwent hematopoietic cell transplant, which resulted in a fatal outcome.This article describes the successful treatment of isolated Rhizopus osteomyelitis in a patient who underwent hematopoietic cell transplant using a combined surgical and medical approach. A 33-year-old woman with pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia underwent hematopoietic cell transplant with few complications but developed chronic graft-versus-host disease 8 months posttransplant. She was treated with high-dose steroids for 6 weeks before she was admitted for severe right tibial pain in the absence of trauma. Early detection, aggressive therapies, and a multidisciplinary surgical and medical team allowed for the microbiologically confirmed resolution of the infection. Treatment included multiagent antimicrobial therapy with amphotericin B, daptomycin, and ertapenem. Several surgical irrigation and debridement procedures were also performed, with the eventual placement of amphotericin-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate cement beads and small fragment titanium screws. The patient continued taking postoperative antifungal treatment for 7 months after discharge. Six months following the discontinuation of antifungal therapy, the team's multidisciplinary approach achieved a continued resolution of the patient's infection and a return to a fully ambulatory and radiographically proven recovery without limb loss.

    View details for DOI 10.3928/01477447-20120919-30

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309814600019

    View details for PubMedID 23027498

  • Correlation between NIH composite skin score, patient-reported skin score, and outcome: results from the Chronic GVHD Consortium BLOOD Jacobsohn, D. A., Kurland, B. F., Pidala, J., Inamoto, Y., Chai, X., Palmer, J. M., Arai, S., Arora, M., Jagasia, M., Cutler, C., Weisdorf, D., Martin, P. J., Pavletic, S. Z., Vogelsang, G., Lee, S. J., Flowers, M. E. 2012; 120 (13): 2545-2552

    Abstract

    There are no validated criteria to measure skin response in chronic GVHD. In a prospectively assembled, multicenter cohort of patients with chronic GVHD (N = 458), we looked for correlation of change in several different scales recommended by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus with clinician and patient perception of change and overall survival. Of the clinician scales, the NIH composite 0-3 skin score was the only one that correlated with both clinician and patient perception of improvement or worsening. Of the patient-reported scales, the skin subscale of the Lee Symptom Scale was the only one that correlated with both clinician and patient perception of improvement or worsening. At study entry, NIH skin score 3 and Lee skin symptom score > 15 were both associated with worse overall survival. Worsening of NIH skin score at 6 months was associated with worse overall survival. Improvement in the Lee skin symptom score at 6 months was associated with improved overall survival. Our findings support the use of the NIH composite 0-3 skin score and the Lee skin symptom score as simple and sensitive measures to evaluate skin involvement in clinical trials as well as in the clinical monitoring of patients with cutaneous chronic GVHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2012-04-424135

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311615800008

    View details for PubMedID 22773386

  • Fludarabine-Based Conditioning for Marrow Transplantation from Unrelated Donors in Severe Aplastic Anemia: Early Results of a Cyclophosphamide Dose Deescalation Study Show Life-Threatening Adverse Events at Predefined Cyclophosphamide Dose Levels BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Tolar, J., Deeg, H. J., Arai, S., Horwitz, M., Antin, J. H., McCarty, J. M., Adams, R. H., Ewell, M., Leifer, E. S., Gersten, I. D., Carter, S. L., Horowitz, M. M., Nakamura, R., Pulsipher, M. A., DiFronzo, N. L., Confer, D. L., Eapen, M., Anderlini, P. 2012; 18 (7): 1007-1011

    Abstract

    Excessive adverse events were encountered in a Phase I/II study of cyclophosphamide (CY) dose deescalation in a fludarabine-based conditioning regimen for bone marrow transplantation from unrelated donors in patients with severe aplastic anemia. All patients received fixed doses of antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, and low-dose total body irradiation. The starting CY dose was 150 mg/kg, with deescalation to 100 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, or 0 mg/kg. CY dose level 0 mg/kg was closed due to graft failure in 3 of 3 patients. CY dose level 150 mg/kg was closed due to excessive organ toxicity (n = 6) or viral pneumonia (n = 1), resulting in the death of 7 of 14 patients. CY dose levels 50 and 100 mg/kg remain open. Thus, CY at doses of 150 mg/kg in combination with total body irradiation (2 Gy), fludarabine (120 mg/m(2)), and antithymocyte globulin was associated with excessive organ toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.04.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305667900005

    View details for PubMedID 22546497

  • Prophylactic rituximab after allogeneic transplantation decreases B-cell alloimmunity with low chronic GVHD incidence BLOOD Arai, S., Sahaf, B., Narasimhan, B., Chen, G. L., Jones, C. D., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J. A., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Weng, W., Benjamin, J. E., Schaenman, J., Brown, J., Ramirez, J., Zehnder, J. L., Negrin, R. S., Miklos, D. B. 2012; 119 (25): 6145-6154

    Abstract

    B cells are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD (cGVHD). We hypothesized that prophylactic anti-B-cell therapy delivered 2 months after transplantation would decrease allogeneic donor B-cell immunity and possibly the incidence of cGVHD. Therefore, in the present study, patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 22) and mantle-cell lymphoma (n = 13) received a total lymphoid irradiation of 80 cGy for 10 days and antithymocyte globulin 1.5 mg/kg/d for 5 days. Rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) was infused weekly on days 56, 63, 70, and 77 after transplantation. The incidence of acute GVHD was 6%. The cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality was 3%. Rituximab treatment after allogeneic transplantation significantly reduced B-cell allogeneic immunity, with complete prevention of alloreactive H-Y Ab development in male patients with female donors (P = .01). Overall survival and freedom from progression at 4 years for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were 73% and 47%, respectively; for mantle-cell lymphoma patients, they were 69% and 53%, respectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-12-395970

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307398700030

    View details for PubMedID 22563089

  • More Than a Frog in the Throat A Case Series and Review of Localized Laryngeal Amyloidosis ARCHIVES OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY Stevenson, R., Witteles, R., Damrose, E., Arai, S., Lafayette, R. A., Schrier, S., Afghahi, A., Liedtke, M. 2012; 138 (5): 509-511

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305415100012

    View details for PubMedID 22652951

  • Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil as GVHD prophylaxis in myeloablative, matched-related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Johnston, L., Florek, M., Armstrong, R., McCune, J. S., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Sheehan, K., Lavori, P., Negrin, R. 2012; 47 (4): 581-588

    Abstract

    We investigated sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as GVHD prophylaxis in patients with advanced hematological malignancies receiving myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-identical sibling donors. On the basis of pre-study stopping rules, the trial was closed to accrual after enrollment of 11 adult patients. In all, 7 of the 11 patients received BU-containing preparative regimens. Sirolimus was discontinued in three patients because of the toxicity-related events of severe sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, portal vein thrombosis, altered mental status and in one patient because of the risk of poor wound healing. In all, 6 of the 11 patients developed grade II-IV acute GVHD (AGVHD) a median of 15.5 days post HCT. Two of three patients with grade IV AGVHD had sirolimus discontinued by 9 days post HCT. All patients responded to AGVHD therapy without GVHD-related deaths. There were two non-relapse- and two relapse-related deaths. At a median follow-up of 38 months (2-47 months), 7 of 11 patients were alive without disease. MMF and sirolimus GVHD prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of AGVHD, however, there were no GVHD-related deaths. The severe toxicities in the patients receiving the BU-containing preparative regimens limited the continued use of sirolimus and MMF for the prevention of AGVHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2011.104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302576700018

    View details for PubMedID 21552302

  • Tandem chemo-mobilization followed by high-dose melphalan and carmustine with single autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Chen, A. I., Negrin, R. S., McMillan, A., Shizuru, J. A., JOHNSTON, L. J., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D. B., Arai, S., Weng, W., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. 2012; 47 (4): 516-521

    Abstract

    Single autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) with high-dose melphalan prolongs survival in patients with multiple myeloma but is not curative. We conducted a study of intensive single AHCT using tandem chemo-mobilization with CY and etoposide followed by high-dose conditioning with melphalan 200 mg/m(2) plus carmustine 15 mg/kg. One hundred and eighteen patients in first consolidation (CON1) and 58 patients in relapse (REL) were transplanted using this intensified approach. Disease response improved from 32% very good PR (VGPR)+CR pre-mobilization to 76% VGPR+CR post transplant in CON1. With a median follow-up of 4.7 years, the median EFS was 2.8 years, and the median OS was 5.1 years in CON1. OS from time of transplant was significantly shorter for REL (3.4 years) compared with CON1 (5.1 years; P=0.02). However, OS from time of diagnosis was similar in REL (6.1 years) and CON1 (6.0 years; P=0.80). The 100-day non-relapse mortality in the CON1 and REL groups was 0% and 7%, respectively. In summary, intensified single AHCT with tandem chemo-mobilization and augmented high-dose therapy is feasible in multiple myeloma and leads to high-quality response rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2011.106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302576700008

    View details for PubMedID 21602899

  • Heart transplantation and cardiac amyloidosis: Approach to screening and novel management strategies JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Varr, B. C., Liedtke, M., Arai, S., Lafayette, R. A., Schrier, S. L., Witteles, R. M. 2012; 31 (3): 325-331

    Abstract

    Limited data exist regarding screening methods and outcomes for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) in cardiac amyloidosis. As a result, uncertainty exists over the best approach to OHT for cardiac amyloidosis and for the timing of critical post-transplant therapies. This article reviews 6 patients who underwent OHT for cardiac amyloidosis at the Stanford University Amyloid Center from 2008 to present. All patients with light-chain amyloidosis received chemotherapy in the interval between OHT and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Five patients remain alive up to 25 months after OHT, without evidence of recurrent cardiac amyloid deposition. A novel strategy of OHT, followed by light-chain suppressive chemotherapy before autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant, is feasible for patients with light-chain amyloidosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2011.09.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300806500015

    View details for PubMedID 22051505

  • Overlap subtype of chronic graft-versus-host disease is associated with an adverse prognosis, functional impairment, and inferior patient-reported outcomes: a Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Consortium study HAEMATOLOGICA-THE HEMATOLOGY JOURNAL Pidala, J., Vogelsang, G., Martin, P., Chai, X., Storer, B., Pavletic, S., Weisdorf, D. J., Jagasia, M., Cutler, C., Palmer, J., Jacobsohn, D., Arai, S., Lee, S. J. 2012; 97 (3): 451-458

    Abstract

    The National Institutes of Health Consensus Conference proposed the term "overlap" graft-versus-host disease to describe the situation when both acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease are present.We examined whether the overlap subtype of graft-versus-host disease was associated with a different prognosis, functional limitations, or patient-reported outcomes compared to "classic" chronic graft-versus-host disease without any acute features.Prospective data were collected from 427 patients from nine centers. Patients were classified as having overlap (n=352) or classic chronic (n=75) graft-versus-host disease based on reported organ involvement. Overlap cases had a significantly shorter median time from transplantation to cohort enrollment (P=0.01), were more likely to be incident cases (P<0.001), and had a lower platelet count at onset of the graft-versus-host disease (P<0.001). Patients with overlap graft-versus-host disease had significantly greater functional impairment measured by a 2-minute walk test, higher symptom burden and lower Human Activity Profile scores. Quality of life was similar, except patients with overlap graft-versus-host disease had worse social functioning, assessed by the Short Form-36. Multivariable analysis utilizing time-varying covariates demonstrated that the overlap subtype of graft-versus-host disease was associated with worse overall survival (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.7; P=0.03) and higher non-relapse mortality (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-8.3; P=0.02) than classic chronic graft-versus-host disease.These findings suggest that the presence of acute features in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease is a marker of adverse prognosis, greater functional impairment, and higher symptom burden.

    View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2011.055186

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301975700024

    View details for PubMedID 22058206

  • Adoptive Immunotherapy with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for Patients with Relapsed Hematologic Malignancies after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G., Sheehan, K., Baker, J., Armstrong, R., Wong, R. M., Lowsky, R., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D., Arai, S., Benjamin, J. E., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S. 2011; 17 (11): 1679-1687

    Abstract

    Donor leukocyte infusions induce remissions in some patients with hematologic malignancies who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT); however, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the major complication of this strategy. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a unique population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express the CD3(+)CD56(+) phenotype and show marked up-regulation of the natural killer cell receptor NKG2D (CD314). CIK cells are non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted and NKG2D-dependent in target recognition and cytotoxicity. We explored the feasibility of ex vivo expansion of allogeneic CIK cells in patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic HCT. Eighteen patients (median age, 53 years; range, 20-69 years) received CIK cell infusions at escalating doses of 1 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 4), 5 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 6), and 1 × 10(8) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 8). The median expansion of CD3(+) cells was 12-fold (range, 4- to 91-fold). CD3(+)CD56(+) cells represented a median of 11% (range, 4%-44%) of the harvested cells, with a median 31-fold (range, 7- to 515-fold) expansion. Median CD3(+)CD314(+) cell expression was 53% (range, 32%-78%) of harvested cells. Significant cytotoxicity was demonstrated in vitro against a panel of human tumor cell lines. Acute GVHD grade I-II was seen in 2 patients, and 1 patient had limited chronic GVHD. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 1-69 months) from CIK infusion, the median overall survival was 28 months, and the median event-free survival was 4 months. All deaths were due to relapsed disease; however, 5 patients had longer remissions after infusion of CIK cells than from allogeneic HCT to relapse. Our findings indicate that this form of adoptive immunotherapy is well tolerated and induces a low incidence of GVHD, supporting further investigation as an upfront modality to enhance graft-versus-tumor responses in high-risk patient populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.05.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296829000016

    View details for PubMedID 21664472

  • A phase 1 study of imatinib for corticosteroid-dependent/refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease: response does not correlate with anti-PDGFRA antibodies BLOOD Chen, G. L., Arai, S., Flowers, M. E., Otani, J. M., Qiu, J., Cheng, E. C., McMillan, A., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D. B. 2011; 118 (15): 4070-4078

    Abstract

    Stimulatory antiplatelet derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA) antibodies have been associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed a phase 1 dose escalation trial of imatinib in corticosteroid-dependent/refractory cGVHD to assess the safety of imatinib and test the hypothesis that abrogation of PDGFRA signaling can ameliorate the manifestations of cGVHD. Fifteen patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 56.6 weeks (range, 18-82.4 weeks). Imatinib 400 mg daily was associated with more frequent moderate to life-threatening adverse events than 200 mg daily. The main adverse events were nausea, edema, confusion, diarrhea, liver function test elevation, fatigue, and myalgia. The overall response rate was 40% (6 of 15). The treatment failure rate was 40% (6 of 15). Twenty percent (3 of 15) of subjects had stable disease. Of 4 subjects with phospho-PDGFRA and phospho-PDGFRB immunohistochemistry studies before and after treatment, inhibition of phosphorylation was observed in 3 but correlated with response in one. Anti-PDGFRA antibodies were observed in 7 of 11 evaluable subjects but correlated with clinical activity in 4. We conclude that cGVHD responds to imatinib through multiple pathways that may include PDGFRA signal transduction. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00760981.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-03-341693

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296282200013

    View details for PubMedID 21828142

  • Global and organ-specific chronic graft-versus-host disease severity according to the 2005 NIH Consensus Criteria BLOOD Arai, S., Jagasia, M., Storer, B., Chai, X., Pidala, J., Cutler, C., Arora, M., Weisdorf, D. J., Flowers, M. E., Martin, P. J., Palmer, J., Jacobsohn, D., Pavletic, S. Z., Vogelsang, G. B., Lee, S. J. 2011; 118 (15): 4242-4249

    Abstract

    In 2005, the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Project on Criteria for Clinical Trials in Chronic GVHD proposed a new scoring system for individual organs and an algorithm for calculating global severity (mild, moderate, severe). The Chronic GVHD Consortium was established to test these new criteria. This report includes the first 298 adult patients enrolled at 5 centers of the Consortium. Patients were assessed every 3-6 months using standardized forms recommended by the Consensus Conference. At the time of study enrollment, global chronic GVHD severity was mild in 10% (n = 32), moderate in 59% (n = 175), and severe in 31% (n = 91). Skin, lung, or eye scores determined the global severity score in the majority of cases, with the other 5 organs determining 16% of the global severity scores. Conventional risk factors predictive for onset of chronic GVHD and nonrelapse mortality in people with chronic GVHD were not associated with NIH global severity scores. Global severity scores at enrollment were associated with nonrelapse mortality (P < .0001) and survival (P < .0001); 2-year overall survival was 62% (severe), 86% (moderate), and 97% (mild). Patients with mild chronic GVHD have a good prognosis, while patients with severe chronic GVHD have a poor prognosis. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as no. NCT00637689.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-03-344390

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296282200035

    View details for PubMedID 21791424

  • Short tandem repeat and human leukocyte antigen mutations or losses confound engraftment and typing analysis in hematopoietic stem cell transplants HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY Pereira, S., Vayntrub, T., Hiraki, D. D., Cherry, A. M., Arai, S., Dvorak, C. C., Grumet, F. C. 2011; 72 (6): 503-509

    Abstract

    Clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often found in the tumor cells of patients with malignancies. These abnormalities can cause downregulation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and instability of short tandem repeat (STR) DNA sequences, confounding HLA typing and/or engraftment analysis in hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). We describe here the abnormalities observed during testing of 600 HSCT patients. HLA molecular typing was performed by reference strand conformational analyses and/or sequence-based typing. STR testing was performed with 10 to 16 STR primer sets, following 1 to 4 informative loci in each patient. Eight patients exhibited either loss of heterozygosity (4 STR, 3 HLA) or STR length mutation (n = 1), and 5 of the 8 exhibited correlative cytogenetic abnormalities. Diagnoses were acute myelogenous leukemia (AML; n = 7) or myelofibrosis (MFIB: n = 1), yielding an 11% incidence of these chromosomal abnormalities among the subset of 72 AML/MFIB HSCT patients. These results highlight some of the problems encountered and the possibility for interpretive errors that can arise when analyzing molecular typing and engraftment data, particularly among AML/MFIB patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.humimm.2011.03.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291138900007

    View details for PubMedID 21463659

  • Early CMV Viremia Is Associated with Impaired Viral Control following Nonmyeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with a Total Lymphoid Irradiation and Antithymocyte Globulin Preparative Regimen BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Schaenman, J. M., Shashidhar, S., Rhee, C., Wong, J., Navato, S., Wong, R. M., Ho, D. Y., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Brown, J. M. 2011; 17 (5): 693-702

    Abstract

    The reconstitution of immune function after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) plays an important role in the control of viral infections. Both donor and recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus has been shown to contribute to effective immune function; however, the influence of a nonmyeloablative preparative (NMA) regimen using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) on antiviral immune reconstitution has not yet been described. In 117 recipients of NMA HCT patients following ATG and TLI, not unexpectedly, CMV viremia was seen in approximately 60% of the seropositive patients regardless of donor serostatus, and recipient seropositivity significantly increased the odds of CMV viremia after transplant in a multivariate analysis. The administration of ATG and TLI resulted in a strikingly earlier viremia in the posttransplant period when compared to the previously reported timing of viremia following myeloablative preparative regimens, especially for transplant recipients who were seropositive for CMV with seronegative donors. Furthermore, early viremia in the setting of a CMV naïve donor was associated with a delay in functional antiviral control. These observations demonstrate the dynamic nature of immunity in relation to CMV antigen exposure in the complex environment resulting from NMA conditions where both donor and residual recipient immune response affect viral control.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.08.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290061500012

    View details for PubMedID 20736077

  • Patient-reported quality of life is associated with severity of chronic graft-versus-host disease as measured by NIH criteria: report on baseline data from the Chronic GVHD Consortium BLOOD Pidala, J., Kurland, B., Chai, X., Majhail, N., Weisdorf, D. J., Pavletic, S., Cutler, C., Jacobsohn, D., Palmer, J., Arai, S., Jagasia, M., Lee, S. J. 2011; 117 (17): 4651-4657

    Abstract

    Quality of life (QOL) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is compromised by chronic GVHD. In a prospectively assembled multicenter cohort of adults with chronic GVHD (n = 298), we examined the relationship between chronic GVHD severity defined by National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria and QOL as measured by the SF-36 and FACT-BMT instruments at time of enrollment. Chronic GVHD severity was independently associated with QOL, adjusting for age. Compared with population normative data, SF-36 scores were more than a SD (10 points) lower on average for the summary physical component score (PCS) and role-physical subscale, and significantly lower (with magnitude 4-10 points) for several other subscales. Patients with moderate and severe cGVHD had PCS scores comparable with scores reported for systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis, and greater impairment compared with common chronic conditions including diabetes, hypertension, and chronic lung disease. Moderate to severe cGVHD as defined by NIH criteria is associated with significant compromise in multiple QOL domains, with PCS scores in the range of other systemic autoimmune diseases. Compromised QOL provides a functional assessment of the effects of chronic GVHD, and may be measured in cGVHD clinical studies using either the SF-36 or the FACT-BMT.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-11-319509

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289984800031

    View details for PubMedID 21355084

  • Long-term outcomes in patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies following matched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning of BU, etoposide and CY BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Naik, S., Wong, R., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Blume, K., Negrin, R., Johnston, L. 2011; 46 (2): 192-199

    Abstract

    Patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies have limited effective treatment options. These include high-dose therapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report a single-institution, long-term follow-up of 96 patients, median age 50 (range, 20-60) years, who received HLA-matched related HCT between 1992 and 2007. All patients were treated with a uniform preparatory regimen intended to enhance the widely used regimen of BU and CY that included: BU 16.0?mg/kg (days -8 to -5), etoposide 60?mg/kg (day -4), CY 60?mg/kg (day -2) with GVHD prophylaxis of CsA or FK506 and prednisone. Disease status at transplantation was high-risk AML (n=41), CML in second chronic phase or blast crisis (n=8), myelofibrosis and myeloproliferative disorders (n=8), and myelodysplasia (n=39). Thirty-six percent (n=35) of patients received BM whereas 64% (n=61) received G-CSF-mobilized PBPC. With a median follow-up of 5.6 years (range, 1.6-14.6 years) actuarial 5-year OS was 32% (95% CI 22-42) and 5-year EFS was 31% (95% CI 21-41). Relapse rate was 24% (95% CI 15-33) at 2 and 5 years. Nonrelapse mortality was 29% (95% CI 20-38) at day 100 and 38% (95% CI 29-47) at 1 year. Cumulative incidence of acute (grade II-IV) and extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI 18-36) and 29% (95% CI 18-40), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (31 vs 32%, P=0.89) or relapse rates (17 vs 28%, P=0.22) for recipients of BM vs PBPC, respectively. These results confirm that patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies can achieve long-term survival following myeloablative allogeneic HCT with aggressive conditioning.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2010.114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287190700004

    View details for PubMedID 20498648

  • Complete donor T-cell engraftment 30 days after allogeneic transplantation predicts molecular remission in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukaemia BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Jones, C. D., Arai, S., Lowsky, R., Tyan, D. B., Zehnder, J. L., Miklos, D. B. 2010; 150 (5): 637-639
  • Phase I/II Trial of GN-BVC, a Gemcitabine and Vinorelbine-Containing Conditioning Regimen for Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Recurrent and Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Arai, S., Letsinger, R., Wong, R. M., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D. B., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Horning, S. J. 2010; 16 (8): 1145-1154

    Abstract

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation with augmented BCNU regimens is effective treatment for recurrent or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL); however, BCNU-related toxicity and disease recurrence remain challenges. We designed a conditioning regimen with gemcitabine in combination with vinorelbine in an effort to reduce the BCNU dose and toxicity without compromising efficacy. In this phase I/II dose escalation study, the gemcitabine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined at 1250 mg/m(2), and a total of 92 patients were treated at this dose to establish safety and efficacy. The primary endpoint was the incidence of BCNU-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints included 2-year freedom from progression (FFP), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Sixty-eight patients (74%) had 1 or more previously defined adverse risk factors for transplant (stage IV at relapse, B symptoms at relapse, greater than minimal disease pretransplant). The incidence of BCNU-related toxicity was 15% (95% confidence interval, 9%-24%). Only 2% of patients had a documented reduction in diffusing capacity of 20% or greater. With a median follow-up of 29 months, the FFP at 2 years was 71% and the OS at 2 years was 83%. Two-year FFP was 96%, 72%, 67%, and 14% for patients with 0 (n = 24), 1 (n = 37), 2 (n = 23), or 3 (n = 8) risk factors, respectively. Regression analysis identified PET status pretransplant and B symptoms at relapse as significant prognostic factors for FFP. This new transplant regimen for HL resulted in decreased BCNU toxicity with encouraging FFP and OS. A prospective, risk-modeled comparison of this new combination with other conditioning regimens is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.02.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280137800013

    View details for PubMedID 20197102

  • Rituximab in hematopoietic cell transplantation EXPERT OPINION ON BIOLOGICAL THERAPY Arai, S., Miklos, D. B. 2010; 10 (6): 971-982

    Abstract

    The success of rituximab therapy in managing B cell malignancies supports its widespread application in both autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.We searched the PubMed database using the terms rituximab, stem cell transplant, autologous, or allogeneic and limited the search to clinical trials in English. In total, 92 trials were identified and 16 were reviewed in detail for significance of rituximab intervention. In this review, we will examine rituximab's emerging roles in: i) in vivo graft purging; ii) maintenance following autologous transplantation; iii) allogeneic transplant conditioning; and iv) the rationale for its use in the treatment/prevention of chronic graft-versus-host disease and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.The reader will gain an understanding of the use of rituximab not only in transplants for B cell malignancies, but also its extension to other diseases where we are learning that B cells are involved in the pathogenesis.With rituximab firmly established in the non-transplant therapy of B cell malignancies, the new challenge in transplantation is how to incorporate the drug for optimum efficacy in those patients coming to transplant with relapse after rituximab-containing therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1517/14712598.2010.485982

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277392300011

    View details for PubMedID 20420511

  • TLI and ATG conditioning with low risk of graft-versus-host disease retains antitumor reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors BLOOD Kohrt, H. E., Turnbull, B. B., Heydari, K., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Miklos, D. B., Johnston, L. J., Arai, S., Weng, W., Hoppe, R. T., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2009; 114 (5): 1099-1109

    Abstract

    A hematopoietic cell transplantation regimen was adapted from a preclinical model that used reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and protected against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by skewing residual host T-cell subsets to favor regulatory natural killer T cells. One hundred eleven patients with lymphoid (64) and myeloid (47) malignancies received RIC using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by the infusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized grafts. Included were 34 patients at least 60 years of age, 32 patients at high risk of lymphoma relapse after disease recurrence following prior autologous transplantation, and 51 patients at high risk of developing GVHD due to lack of a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor. Durable chimerism was achieved in 97% of patients. Cumulative probabilities of acute GVHD (grades II-IV) were 2 and 10% of patients receiving related and unrelated donor grafts. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year was less than 4%. Cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 27%. The 36-month probability of overall and event-free survival was 60% and 40%, respectively. Disease status at start of conditioning and the level of chimerism achieved after transplantation significantly impacted clinical outcome. The high incidence of sustained remission among patients with active disease at time of transplantation suggests retained graft-versus-tumor reactions. Active trial registration currently at clinicaltrials.gov under IDs of NCT00185640 and NCT00186615.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-03-211441

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268491100025

    View details for PubMedID 19423725

  • High prevalence of metabolic syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Majhail, N. S., Flowers, M. E., Ness, K. K., Jagasia, M., Carpenter, P. A., Arora, M., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Martin, P. J., Baker, K. S., Lee, S. J., Burns, L. J. 2009; 43 (1): 49-54

    Abstract

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, among 86 adults who had allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplant (HCT) as compared with 258 age- and gender-matched US population controls selected from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database. The median age at study enrollment was 50 years (range, 21-71), and patients were at a median of 3 years (range, 1-21) from HCT. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 49% (95% confidence intervals (CI), 38-60%) among HCT recipients, a 2.2-fold (95% CI, 1.3-3.6, P=0.002) increase compared with controls. The prevalence rates of elevated blood pressure and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly higher among HCT recipients than among controls, but the prevalence rates of abdominal obesity, elevated blood glucose and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were not. HCT survivors with metabolic syndrome were more likely to have microalbuminuria (43 vs 10%) and elevated creatinine (31 vs 11%). No patient, donor or transplant characteristics were associated with the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. We conclude that metabolic syndrome occurs frequently among allogeneic HCT survivors who are seen by transplant physicians. Approaches to screening, prevention and management of metabolic syndrome should be developed for HCT recipients.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2008.263

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262489800007

    View details for PubMedID 18724397

  • Infusion of the allogeneic cell line NK-92 in patients with advanced renal cell cancer or melanoma: a phase I trial CYTOTHERAPY Arai, S., Meagher, R., Swearingen, M., Myint, H., Rich, E., Martinson, J., Klingemann, H. 2008; 10 (6): 625-632

    Abstract

    Renal cell cancer and malignant melanoma are two types of cancer that are responsive to immunotherapy. In this phase I dose-escalation study, the feasibility of large-scale expansion and safety of administering ex vivo-expanded NK-92 cells as allogeneic cellular immunotherapy in patients with refractory renal cell cancer and melanoma were determined.Twelve patients (aged 31-74 years) were enrolled, three per cohort at cell dose levels of 1x10(8)/m(2), 3x10(8)/m(2), 1x10(9)/m(2) and 3x10(9)/m(2). One treatment course consisted of three infusions. Eleven patients had refractory metastatic renal cell cancer; one patient had refractory metastatic melanoma.The NK-92 cells were expanded in X-Vivo 10 serum-free media supplemented with 500 U/mL Proleukin recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2), amino acids and 2.5% human AB plasma. Final yields of approximately 1x10(9) cells/culture bag (218-250xexpansion) over 15-17 days were achievable with >or=80% viability. Infusional toxicities of NK-92 were generally mild, with only one grade 3 fever and one grade 4 hypoglycemic episode. All toxicities were transient, resolved and did not require discontinuation of treatment. One patient was alive with disease at 4 years post-NK-92 infusion. The one metastatic melanoma patient had a minor response during the study period. One other patient exhibited a mixed response.This study establishes the feasibility of large-scale expansion and safety of administering NK-92 cells as allogeneic cellular immunotherapy in advanced cancer patients and serves as a platform for future study of this novel natural killer (NK)-cell based therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14653240802301872

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259762000009

    View details for PubMedID 18836917

  • A cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant trastuzumab regimens in early HER2/neu-positive breast cancer JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Kurian, A. W., Newton Thompson, R., Gaw, A. F., Arai, S., Ortiz, R., Garber, A. M. 2007; 25 (6): 634-641

    Abstract

    One-year adjuvant trastuzumab (AT) therapy, with or without anthracyclines, increases disease-free and overall survival in early-stage HER2/neu-positive breast cancer. We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of these regimens, which are expensive and potentially toxic.We used a Markov health-state transition model to simulate three adjuvant therapy options for a cohort of 49-year-old women with HER2/neu-positive early-stage breast cancer: conventional chemotherapy without trastuzumab; anthracycline-based AT regimens used in the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-31 and North Central Cancer Treatment Group N9831 trials; and the nonanthracycline AT regimen used in the Breast Cancer International Research group 006 trial. The base case used treatment efficacy measures reported in the randomized clinical trials of AT. We measured health outcomes in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and costs in 2005 United States dollars (US dollars) and subjected results to probabilistic sensitivity analysis.In the base case, the anthracycline-based AT arm has an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of 39,982 dollars/QALY, whereas the nonanthracycline AT arm is more expensive and less effective; this result is insensitive to changes in recurrence rates, but if there is no benefit after 4 years, ICERs exceed 100,000 dollars/QALY for both AT arms. Results are moderately sensitive to variation in breast cancer survival rates and trastuzumab cost, and less sensitive to variations in cardiac toxicity.AT has an ICER comparable to those for other widely used interventions. Longer clinical follow-up is warranted to evaluate the long-term efficacy and toxicity of different AT regimens.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2006.06.3081

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244384000006

    View details for PubMedID 17308268

  • Natural killer cells: can they be useful as adoptive immunotherapy for cancer? Expert Opin Biol Ther Arai S, Klingemann H-G 2005; 5: 163-172
  • Regulation of OX40 gene expression in graft-versus- host disease TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Miura, Y., Thoburn, C. J., Bright, E. C., Arai, S., Hess, A. D. 2005; 37 (1): 57-61

    Abstract

    OX40 (CD134), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is expressed on activated T cells, including CD4(+)CD25(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells. To investigate the kinetics of OX40-OX40L in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), OX40 mRNA transcript levels were temporally examined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients undergoing either allogeneic (allo) bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT) or autologous (auto) BMT with the induction of autoGVHD by cyclosporine (CsA) treatment posttransplant. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that OX40 mRNA expression decreased significantly in PBMCs from patients with either alloGVHD or autoGVHD compared with healthy individuals. No differences were detected between patients developing alloGVHD and those who did not develop this posttransplant complication. On the other hand, a decrease in OX40 mRNA levels correlated directly with the development of autoGVHD. Moreover, the upregulation of OX40 gene expression coincided with the resolution of autoGVHD. Interestingly, expression of OX40 by CD4(+) T lymphocytes after stimulation with autoantigen (Ag) was significantly (>700-fold) increased with a concomitant increase in expression of the Foxp3 regulatory gene. Expression of OX40 was increased (maximum 11-fold) after allo-Ag via mixed-lymphocyte reaction response. CsA suppressed the upregulation of OX40 expression after allo-Ag in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that the decrease in OX40 expression posttransplant includes the defective reconstitution of Treg cells, and the active inhibition of gene transcription by CsA.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.transproceed.2005.01.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228091300022

    View details for PubMedID 15808546

  • Association of Foxp3 regulatory gene expression and graft-versus-host disease Blood Miura Y, Thoburn CJ, Bright EC, Phelps ML, Shin T, Matsui EC, Matsui WH, Arai S, Fuchs EJ, Vogelsang GB, Jones RJ, Hess AD 2004; 104: 2187-93
  • Role of immunotherapy in stem cell transplantation INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY Arai, S., Klingemann, H. G. 2003; 77 (1): 22-28

    Abstract

    Relapse of the underlying malignancy continues to be a major problem after both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Over the years, it has been recognized that immune-mediated graft-versus-tumor effects are crucially involved in eliminating minimal disease and controlling its recurrence after stem cell transplantation. This recognition has led to a number of studies that have attempted to stimulate a cellular immune response in the recipient, especially after allogeneic transplantation. Immunotherapy after autologous transplantation has to take into consideration the fact that patients' immune cells frequently are compromised and tolerance to the host tumor may have developed. Hence, trials involving the administration of cytokines (such as with interleukin and interferon) have shown limited benefits. This situation is different for allogeneic transplantation for which the infusion of donor lymphocytes has shown disease regression, especially in patients with chronic leukemias. However, such treatment is effective only if the patient has limited disease, and severe graft-versus-host disease frequently has to be accepted as a complication. This fact has led investigators to pursue the generation of specific lymphocytes that can recognize tumor antigens but not necessarily induce graft-versus-host disease. Such studies are in the early stages, and although some promising results have been observed, it is unclear at this point if the antitumor effect can be separated sufficiently from the graft-versus-host disease mediated by allogeneic lymphocytes. More recently, it has been shown that natural killer (NK) cells can have an antitumor effect in myeloid malignancies, particularly if the cells are allogeneic and do not recognize self-HLA antigens. At this point, it appears that engineered T-lymphocytes and allogeneic NK cells may be useful in preventing or treating relapse after allogeneic transplantation. It remains to be seen if such novel cellular therapies can also be implemented after autologous transplantation via the use of engineered allogeneic immune cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180669400004

    View details for PubMedID 12568296

  • Poor outcome in steroid refractory GVHD with ATG treatment Biol Blood Marrow Transplant Arai S, Margolis J, Zahurak M, Anders V, Vogelsang GB 2002; 8: 155-60
  • Mycophenolate mofetil for the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease following stem cell transplantation: preliminary findings BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Vogelsang, G. B., Arai, S. 2001; 27 (12): 1255-1262

    Abstract

    The therapeutic benefits of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematologic disorders are limited by the significant morbidity and mortality of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Current agents for the prevention and treatment of GVHD have limited efficacy and often result in toxic side-effects. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a new immunosuppressant with a selective mechanism of action. When employed following solid organ transplantation, MMF reduces the incidence and severity of acute rejection episodes. By selectively targeting activated lymphocytes, the active metabolite of MMF, mycophenolic acid (MPA), appears to augment the actions of standard immunosuppressant agents without adding overlapping toxicities. Studies of combination regimens that include MMF report that this agent permits a dose reduction of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, or corticosteroid, without increasing the incidence of acute rejection in solid organ transplants. Reports on the efficacy of MMF following stem cell transplantation in animal studies were mixed. However, the use of a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen with a post-graft immunosuppressive regimen of MMF and cyclosporine was able to sustain stable mixed chimeras in 60% to 80% of dogs who received hematopoietic grafts from DLA-identical littermates. MMF has demonstrated activity in preliminary clinical trials for GVHD prophylaxis, and treatment of acute or chronic GVHD. Larger clinical trials are warranted to determine the optimum dose and route of MMF administration for GVHD, as well as the comparative safety and efficacy of MMF-containing regimens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169873200005

    View details for PubMedID 11548843

  • von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease activity and proteolysis of von Willebrand factor in bone marrow transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy The Hematology Journal Arai S, Allan C, Streiff M, Hutchins GM, Vogelsang GB, Tsai HM 2001; 2: 292-299
  • Management of graft-versus-host disease BLOOD REVIEWS Arai, S., Vogelsang, G. B. 2000; 14 (4): 190-204

    Abstract

    The increasing number of allogeneic stem cell transplants, particularly those involving donors other than HLA-identical siblings, has made the management of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) a continuing problem for transplant experts. There have been improvements in the prevention of acute GVHD with cyclosporine- and FK506-based combination therapies, as well as lymphocyte depletion. However, fewer than 50% of patients have durable improvement after initial treatment. FK506 and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) are promising salvage therapies in steroid-resistant GVHD, as are the anti-cytokine antibodies and the purine nucleoside analog, pentostatin. The incidence of chronic GVHD has unfortunately not decreased, despite advances in treatment of acute GVHD. Treatment of chronic GVHD involves treatment of the underlying immunologic process and supportive therapies. Initial therapy has tended to be cyclosporine and prednisone. Refractory patients have hope with combination MMF and FK506, etretinate, plaquenil, and nonpharmacologic approaches, such as PUVA. Supportive care is an integral part of chronic GVHD management with emphasis on infection control and symptom control. Death in chronic GVHD is still largely attributable to infection. The progress in therapies for GVHD has been encouraging, but the future of GVHD management lies in a better understanding of its pathogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1054/blre.2000.0137

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166387000003

    View details for PubMedID 11124107

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