Beyond Infrastructure: Understanding Why Patients Decline Surgery in the Developing World: An Observational Study in Cameroon.
Annals of surgery
Antibiotic Use in Cold and Flu Season and Prescribing Quality: A Retrospective Cohort Study.
2015; 53 (12): 1066-1071
Out-of-pocket health expenditures and antimicrobial resistance in low-income and middle-income countries: an economic analysis
LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES
2015; 15 (10): 1203-1210
Risk factors for AIDS-defining illnesses among a population of poorly adherent people living with HIV/AIDS in Atlanta, Georgia
AIDS CARE-PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-MEDICAL ASPECTS OF AIDS/HIV
2015; 27 (7): 844-848
The aim of this study was to quantify and describe a population of patients in rural Cameroon who present with a surgically treatable illness but ultimately decline surgery, and to understand the patient decision-making process and identify key socioeconomic factors that result in barriers to care.An estimated 5 billion people lack access to safe, affordable surgical care and anesthesia when needed, and this unmet need resides disproportionally in low-income countries (LICs). An understanding of the socioeconomic factors underlying decision-making is key to future efforts to expand surgical care delivery in this population. We assessed patient decision-making in a LIC with a cash-based health care economy.Standardized interviews were conducted of a random sample of adult patients with treatable surgical conditions over a 7-week period in a tertiary referral hospital in rural Cameroon. Main outcome measures included participant's decision to accept or decline surgery, source of funding, and the relative importance of various factors in the decision-making process.Thirty-four of 175 participants (19.4%) declined surgery recommended by their physician. Twenty-six of 34 participants declining surgery (76.4%) cited procedure cost, which on average equaled 6.4 months' income, as their primary decision factor. Multivariate analysis revealed female gender [odds ratio (OR) 3.35, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.14-5.25], monthly earnings (OR 0.83, 95% CI, 0.77-0.89), supporting children in school (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.31), and inability to borrow funds from family or the community (OR 6.49, 95% CI 4.10-10.28) as factors associated with declining surgery.Nearly one-fifth of patients presenting to a surgical clinic with a treatable condition did not ultimately receive needed surgery. Both financial and sociocultural factors contribute to the decision to decline care.
View details for PubMedID 27849672
The Effect of the TseTse Fly on African Development
AMERICAN ECONOMIC REVIEW
2015; 105 (1): 382-410
In order to achieve the programmatic goals established in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, virologic suppression remains the most important outcome within the HIV care continuum for individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therefore, clinicians have dedicated substantial resources to improve adherence and clinic retention for individuals on ART; however, these efforts should be focused first on those most at risk of morbidity and mortality related to AIDS. Our study aimed to characterize the factors that are associated with AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) amongst people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are poorly adherent or retained in care in order to identify those at highest risk of poor clinical outcomes. We recruited 99 adult PLHIV with a history of poor adherence to ART, poor clinic attendance, or unsuppressed viral load (VL) from the Infectious Disease Program (IDP) of the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia between January and May 2011 to participate in a survey investigating the acceptability of a financial incentive for improving adherence. Clinical outcomes including the number of ADI episodes in the last five years, VLs, and CD4 counts were abstracted from medical records. Associations between survey items and number of ADIs were performed using chi-square analysis. In our study, 36.4% of participants had ?1 ADI in the last five years. The most common ADIs were Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, recurrent bacterial pneumonia, and esophageal candidiasis. Age <42.5 years (OR 2.52, 95% CI = 1.08-5.86), male gender (OR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.08-11.34), CD4 nadir <200 cells/無 (OR 11.92, 95% CI = 1.51-94.15), unemployment (OR 3.54, 95% CI = 1.20-10.40), and travel time to clinic <30 minutes (OR 2.80, 95% CI = 1.20-6.52) were all significantly associated with a history of ?1 ADI in the last five years. Awareness of factors associated with ADIs may help clinicians identify which poorly adherent PLHIV are at highest risk of HIV-related morbidity.
View details for DOI 10.1080/09540121.2015.1007114
View details for Web of Science ID 000353482500005
View details for PubMedID 25660100