Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • Hematology
  • Cancer > Hematology
  • Graft-Versus-Host Disease
  • Cancer > Blood and Marrow Transplant

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Internship:UCSF Medical Center (1990) CA
  • Fellowship:UCSF Medical Center (1995) CA
  • Residency:UCSF Medical Center (1992) CA
  • Medical Education:University of Minnesota School of Medicine (1989) MN
  • BS, University of MN, Microbiology (1982)
  • MD, University of MN, Medicine (1989)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


I conduct and develop clinical research trials in allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for hematologic malignancies: acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), myeloproliferative disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin disease, myelodysplasia and aplastic anemia.


A specific interest is graft versus host disease (GVHD), exploring prevention and treatment of acute and chronic GVHD via clinical trials. The objectives of the GVHD trials are to reduce the incidence of GVHD, successfully treat acute and chronic GVHD, identify modalities or agents with more tolerable toxicity profiles and ultimately improve morbidity and mortality of affected patients. To this end, I have established a chronic GVHD clinic within the Stanford BMT division which aids in prospectively identifiing appropriate patients for clinical trials. The chronic GVHD clinic allows comprehensive evaluation and treatment for allogeneic BMT patients with new or progressive CGVHD. Through a multidisciplinary approach with my interested colleagues, I hope to impact the formidable effects GVHD has on the quality of life of the post-allogeneic transplant patient.


Other interests include unrelated donor HCT exploring alternate preparative regimens or graft sources as well as HLA typing.

Clinical Trials


  • Protocol For A Research Database For Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Other Cellular Therapies and Marrow Toxic Injuries Recruiting

    The primary purpose of the Research Database is to have a comprehensive source of observational data that can be used to study HSC transplantation. A secondary purpose of the Research Database is to have a comprehensive source of data to study marrow toxic injuries. Objectives: To learn more about what makes stem cell transplants work well, such as determining the following: - how well recipients recover from their transplant - how recovery after a transplant can be improved - how access to transplant for different groups of patients can be improved - how well donors recover from the collection procedures

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  • Imatinib and Rituximab in Treating Cutaneous Sclerosis in Patients With Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Recruiting

    This randomized phase II trial is evaluating how well imatinib mesylate works compared to rituximab in treating cutaneous sclerosis in patients with chronic graft- versus-host disease (GVHD). Both imatinib and rituximab have been reported to decrease skin thickening and improve skin and joint flexibility in people with cutaneous sclerosis due to chronic GVHD.

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  • High Dose Sequential Therapy and Autologous Stem Cell Rescue for Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    To assess the role of autologous hematopoietic cell rescue in the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Transplantation for Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of high dose therapy and autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Fluticasone Propionate, Azithromycin, and Montelukast Sodium in Treating Patients With Bronchiolitis Obliterans Who Previously Underwent Stem Cell Transplant Not Recruiting

    This phase II trial studies how well giving fluticasone propionate, azithromycin, and montelukast sodium (FAM) together works in treating patients with bronchiolitis obliterans who previously underwent stem cell transplant. FAM may be an effective treatment for bronchiolitis obliterans

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Immune Mediated Disorders After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this research study is to better understand the onset and course of graft versus host disease (GVHD)and other immune-mediated disorders after stem cell transplant.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Phase 1 Nilotinib in Steroid Dependent/Refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: Determine the safety and tolerability of nilotinib in steroid dependent / refractory cGVHD. SECONDARY OBJECTIVES: Determine the clinical efficacy of nilotinib in steroid dependent / refractory cGVHD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, 650-721-2372.

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  • Prophylactic Use of Maribavir for the Prevention of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Disease in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this research study is to investigate whether or not maribavir is safe and effective for preventing CMV disease when taken by mouth for up to 12 weeks in patients who have had a stem cell transplant.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Janice Brown, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Post T-plant Infusion of Allogeneic Cytokine Induced Killer Cells as Consolidative Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndromes/Myeloproliferative Disorders Recruiting

    This study examines CIK (Cytokine Induced Killer Cells) as Consolidative Therapy after Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation.

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  • Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Treatment (BMT CTN 0802) Not Recruiting

    The study is a Phase III, randomized double blind, placebo controlled, and trial evaluating the addition of MMF vs. placebo to systemic corticosteroids as initial therapy for acute GVHD. The primary endpoint will be GVHD free survival at Day 56 post randomization.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Nilotinib and Imatinib Mesylate After Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Not Recruiting

    This phase I/II trial is studying the side effects and best way to give nilotinib when given together with imatinib mesylate after donor stem cell transplant in treating patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or chronic myelogenous leukemia. Nilotinib and imatinib mesylate may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation in Acute Non-Lymphoblastic Leukemia During First or Subsequent Remission Not Recruiting

    Evaluate the role of high dose chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for AML.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Haploid Allogeneic Transplant Using the CliniMACS System Not Recruiting

    To assess the proportion of patients with donor neutrophil engraftment on or before day 30 post transplant. To assess the incidence of acute GvHD during the first 100 days after transplantation.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • TLI & ATG for Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation for MDS and MPD Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of TLI/ATG conditioning for allogeneic HCT for elderly patients with advanced stage MDS and MPD.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Phase II Poor Risk Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) of Total Lymphoid Irradiation (TLI) and Antithymocyte Globulin (ATG) Followed by Matched Allogeneic Hematopoietic Transplantation as Consolidation to Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (AHCT) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to develop an alternative treatment for patients with relapsed diffuse large B cell lymphoma who are not likely to be cured by the conventional transplantation regimen.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Allo BMT in Advanced Leukemia or High Grade Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of ablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of advanced leukemia or lymphoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus as Primary Therapy for the Treatment of Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    Evaluate the clinical activity of sirolimus in combination with cyclosporine and corticosteroids as first line therapy for the treatment of chronic Graft Versus Host Disease.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Cyclosporine Eye Drops in Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease of the Eye in Patients Who Have Undergone Donor Stem Cell Transplant for Hematologic Cancer or Bone Marrow Failure Disorder Not Recruiting

    RATIONALE: Cyclosporine eye drops may prevent graft-versus-host disease of the eye in patients who have undergone donor stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer or bone marrow failure disorder. PURPOSE: This randomized phase I trial is studying how well cyclosporine eye drops work in preventing graft-versus-host disease of the eye in patients who have undergone donor stem cell transplant for hematologic cancer or bone marrow failure disorder.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, (650) 721 - 2372.

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  • A Phase 3 Study of Brentuximab Vedotin (SGN-35) in Patients at High Risk of Residual Hodgkin Lymphoma Following Stem Cell Transplant (The AETHERA Trial) Not Recruiting

    This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase 3 trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) and best supportive care (BSC) compared to placebo and BSC in treatment of residual Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) following autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sarah Robeson, (650) 725 - 1647.

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  • Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Transplant for Myelodysplastic Syndromes and Myeloproliferative Disorders Not Recruiting

    To improve survival outcomes for patients with MDS and MPD with a nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Post-transplant Autologous Cytokine-induced Killer (CIK) Cells for Treatment of High Risk Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to conduct a phase I study of adoptive immunotherapy with autologous, ex-vivo expanded cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells to reduce the relapse rate in autologous stem cell transplant patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sherry Moore, (650) 725 - 7951.

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  • Allogeneic HCT Using Nonmyeloablative Host Conditioning With TLI & ATG vs SOC in AML Not Recruiting

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the bone marrow that mostly affects older adults. Even with the best chemotherapy, two-year disease-free survival is achieved in a minority of patients. Bone marrow transplantation from a sibling donor may improve cure rates; however, patients over 50 years of age have a high risk of complications and therefore generally are excluded from this treatment option. Recently our group developed a transplantation strategy for older cancer patients that protects against transplant-associated complications, yet does not interfere with the ability of the transplanted donor cells to destroy cancer cells. With this new method, we can now safely evaluate transplantation as a curative therapy for AML patients over the age of 50. We have assembled clinical and scientific researchers throughout the state of California to study and compare bone marrow transplantation using our new approach with the best standard of care chemotherapy in AML patients over the age of 50. The results of this study have the potential to establish a new treatment standard that will improve survival of older AML patients.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, 650-725-1647.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation From Related Haploidentical Donors in Older Patients With Indolent Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of transplanting CD34+ selected hematopoietic cells from a haploidentical related donor following a nonmyeloablative regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • 90Y-IBRITUMOMAB Tiuxetan and AHCI With HD Chemotherapy and Autologous Transplantation for Relapsed or Resistant NHL Not Recruiting

    To test a new way to approach hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Relapsed or Resistant Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Intravenous Administration of RGI-2001 in Patient Undergoing Allogenic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (AHSCT) Recruiting

    The clinical trial is a Phase 1/2a, open-label, multi-center, dose-escalation study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic profile of RGI-2001 in patients undergoing AHSCT, with radiation or non-radiation myeloablative preparative treatment. The study will be separated into two parts; a dose escalation phase to assess safety, followed by a large expansion phase to further evaluate the pharmacologic effects of either a Maximum Tolerated Dose, Maximum Feasible Dose or optimal pharmacologically active dose of RGI-2001. The initial dose escalation safety portion of the study (Part 1) will include higher risk patients and limit the unrelated donor transplants. After safety is established in part 1 of the study, the second portion of the study will expand the enrollment criteria and allow transplantation by either related or unrelated donors. This study will endeavor to identify the dose range at which RGI-2001 has an acceptable safety profile, at which biologic activity is observed, and to guide possible dose levels to utilize in later phase studies based on biological activity.

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  • Phase I/II MAHCT w/ TCell Depleted Graft w/ Simultaneous Infusion Conventional and Regulatory T Cell Recruiting

    For patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic myeloablative (MA) HCT with a T cell depleted graft, the infusion of naturally occurring regulatory T cells with conventional T cells (T cell addback) in pre-defined doses and ratios will reduce the incidence of acute graft vs host disease while augmenting the graft vs leukemia effect and improving immune reconstitution.

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  • Phase II Early Behavioral Intervention in BMT w/ Sleep Disturbance-Assess QOL+Fatigue+Cognitive f(x) Recruiting

    This pilot clinical trial studies early brief behavioral intervention in treating sleep disturbance and improving quality of life in patients undergoing bone marrow transplant (BMT). A brief behavioral intervention may reduce symptoms of insomnia and fatigue and improve quality of life and cognitive function in patients undergoing BMT

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  • Mixed Chimera Allogeneic Transplantation From Matched Unrelated Donors For The Treatment Of Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to determine the toxicity and feasibility of non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants for multiple myeloma from unrelated donors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus and Mycophenolate Mofetil as Graft Versus Host Disease Prophylaxis in Myeloablative Matched Related Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD with sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil GVHD prophylaxis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Phase II Trial of Rituximab and Corticosteroid Therapy for Newly Diagnosed Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    We hypothesize the addition of rituximab to prednisone for the initial treatment of chronic GVHD will increase the overall response rate, and enable a more rapid and effective steroid taper.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Double Cord Versus Haploidentical (Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network #1101) Recruiting

    Hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT)are one treatment option for people with leukemia or lymphoma. Family members,unrelated donors or banked umbilical cordblood units with similar tissue type can be used for HCT. This study will compare the effectiveness of two new types of bone marrow transplants in people with leukemia or lymphoma: one that uses bone marrow donated from family members with only partially matched bone marrow; and, one that uses two partially matched cord blood units.

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  • Defibrotide for Patients With Hepatic Veno-occlusive Disease: A Treatment IND Study Recruiting

    Single arm, open-label study to provide Defibrotide to patients diagnosed with VOD. Defibrotide is no longer available though the Emergency Use IND mechanism (also known as compassionate use, or single patient named use). This protocol is the only mechanism by which Defibrotide can be made available to patients in the U.S.

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  • Defibrotide for the Treatment of Severe Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Hematopoetic Stem Cell Transplant Patients Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to (1) demonstrate the efficacy and safety (toxicity) of 25 mg/kg/day of Defibrotide in patients with severe veno-occlusive disease (sVOD) and (2) evaluate serum and endothelial markers of VOD through the analysis of blood samples.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Enrichment & Purging of Stem Cells in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of purging the hematopoietic cell graft on outcomes for non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Refferals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Stem Cell Transplant With Lenalidomide Maintenance in Patients With Multiple Myeloma (BMT CTN 0702) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a Phase III, multicenter trial of tandem autologous transplants plus maintenance therapy versus the strategy of single autologous transplant plus consolidation therapy with lenalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone (RVD) followed by maintenance therapy or single autologous transplant plus maintenance therapy as part of upfront treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). Lenalidomide will be used as maintenance therapy for three years in all arms.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Phase II Trial of Prophylactic Rituximab Therapy for Prevention of CGVHD Not Recruiting

    To determine if Rituximab administered after allogeneic transplantation decreases the incidence of chronic GvHD

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Autologous Followed by Non-myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Recruiting

    The purpose of this trial is to develop an alternative treatment for patients with poor risk non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This trial uses a combination of high dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant using the patient's own cells. This is followed with non-myeloablative transplant using stem cells from a related or unrelated donor to try and generate an anti-lymphoma response from the new immune system.

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  • Study of US-ATG-F to Prevent Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD) Recruiting

    The study objective is to compare the efficacy and safety of US-ATG-F as a supplement to standard of care prophylaxis versus standard of care prophylaxis alone in moderate to severe chronic GVHD-free survival.

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  • Stem Cell Transplant From Matched Unrelated or Partially Matched Related Donors Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the use of unrelated donors for hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of hematologic and lymphoid malignancies.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • High Dose Chemotherapy and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of NHL.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Pilot Study of Imatinib Mesylate in Steroid Refractory Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease Not Recruiting

    To determine if subjects with steroid refractory cGVHD can tolerate imatinib mesylate and whether their cGVHD responds to imatinib mesylate.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Joanne Otani, (650) 721 - 2372.

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  • Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Treatment (BMT CTN 0801) Not Recruiting

    This study is designed as a combined Phase II/III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective comparative study of sirolimus plus prednisone versus sirolimus/calcineurin-inhibitor plus prednisone for the treatment of chronic GVHD. Patients will be stratified by transplant center and will be randomized to an experimental arm of one of the two pre-specified experimental arms (sirolimus + prednisone or the comparator arm of sirolimus + calcineurin inhibitor + prednisone) in a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation for Patients With Acute Leukemia or Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the overall and disease free survival of recipients who have received G-CSF mobilized stem cells from HLA matched sibling donors.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Evaluate Palifermin (rHuKGF) in the Reduction of Acute Graft Versus Host Disease in Subjects With Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Allogeneic Marrow/PBPC Transplantation Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the incidence of grade 2-4 GVHD and WHO grades 3-4 Oral Mucositis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus & Mycophenolate Mofetil as GVHD Prophylaxis in Myeloablative, Matched Related Donor HCT Not Recruiting

    GVHD prophylaxis of sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil for patients undergoing matched related allogeneic transplant for acute and chronic leukemia, MDS, high risk NHL and HL

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Ph II of Autologous Followed by Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation Using TLI & ATG Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the toxicity and tolerability of this tandem autologous/allogeneic transplant approach for patients with advanced stage multiple myeloma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sibling and Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplant in Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to determine the tolerability and efficacy in treating patients aged 51-60 with acute leukemia and in treating myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or myeloproliferative disorders (MPD).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Autologous Stem Cell Rescue for Primary Amyloidosis Not Recruiting

    To evaluate the role of high dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant for amyloidosis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • High -Dose Sequential Therapy and Single Autologous Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    This study uses a sequence of high-dose chemotherapy drugs and a stem cell transplant to treat multiple myeloma. The study is being performed to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of treatment. Specifically, the study is designed to reduce the risk of interstitial pneumonitis.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Comparing Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation Versus Bone Marrow Transplantation in Individuals With Hematologic Cancers Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a Phase III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective, comparative trial of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) versus marrow from unrelated donors for transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies. Recipients will be stratified by transplant center and disease risk and will be randomized to either the PBSC or marrow arm in a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Sirolimus as Treatment of Steroid-Refractory or Steroid-Dependent Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Not Recruiting

    To study the effectiveness of an immunosuppressive drug, sirolimus in the treatment of chronic graft versus host disease in combination with prednisone.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation Using TL1 & ATG for Older Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    To measure how frequently and to what degree a complication of transplant cell acute graft versus host disease (GV/HD) occurs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Mixed Chimera Allo Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma Not Recruiting

    To determine toxicity and feasibility of mixed chimera allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants for multiple myeloma; prepare and vaccinate patients with allogenic dendritic cell vaccinations following mixed chimera allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Sirolimus/Tacrolimus Versus Tacrolimus/Methotrexate for Preventing Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) Not Recruiting

    The study is designed as a phase III, randomized, open label, multicenter, prospective, comparative trial of sirolimus and tacrolimus versus tacrolimus and methotrexate as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis after human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, related, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in individuals with hematologic cancer. Participants will be stratified by transplant center and will be randomly assigned to the sirolimus/tacrolimus or tacrolimus/methotrexate arms at a 1:1 ratio.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Gemcitabine and Hodgkin's Disease Chemotherapy Followed by Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Rescue for Hodgkin's Disease Not Recruiting

    Phase II Gemcitabine + HD Chemotherapy Followed by PBSC Rescue for HD

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Prophylactic rituximab after allogeneic transplantation decreases B-cell alloimmunity with low chronic GVHD incidence BLOOD Arai, S., Sahaf, B., Narasimhan, B., Chen, G. L., Jones, C. D., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J. A., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Weng, W., Benjamin, J. E., Schaenman, J., Brown, J., Ramirez, J., Zehnder, J. L., Negrin, R. S., Miklos, D. B. 2012; 119 (25): 6145-6154

    Abstract

    B cells are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic GVHD (cGVHD). We hypothesized that prophylactic anti-B-cell therapy delivered 2 months after transplantation would decrease allogeneic donor B-cell immunity and possibly the incidence of cGVHD. Therefore, in the present study, patients with high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia (n = 22) and mantle-cell lymphoma (n = 13) received a total lymphoid irradiation of 80 cGy for 10 days and antithymocyte globulin 1.5 mg/kg/d for 5 days. Rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) was infused weekly on days 56, 63, 70, and 77 after transplantation. The incidence of acute GVHD was 6%. The cumulative incidence of cGVHD was 20%. Nonrelapse mortality was 3%. Rituximab treatment after allogeneic transplantation significantly reduced B-cell allogeneic immunity, with complete prevention of alloreactive H-Y Ab development in male patients with female donors (P = .01). Overall survival and freedom from progression at 4 years for chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were 73% and 47%, respectively; for mantle-cell lymphoma patients, they were 69% and 53%, respectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-12-395970

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307398700030

    View details for PubMedID 22563089

  • Sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil as GVHD prophylaxis in myeloablative, matched-related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Johnston, L., Florek, M., Armstrong, R., McCune, J. S., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Sheehan, K., Lavori, P., Negrin, R. 2012; 47 (4): 581-588

    Abstract

    We investigated sirolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as GVHD prophylaxis in patients with advanced hematological malignancies receiving myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-identical sibling donors. On the basis of pre-study stopping rules, the trial was closed to accrual after enrollment of 11 adult patients. In all, 7 of the 11 patients received BU-containing preparative regimens. Sirolimus was discontinued in three patients because of the toxicity-related events of severe sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, portal vein thrombosis, altered mental status and in one patient because of the risk of poor wound healing. In all, 6 of the 11 patients developed grade II-IV acute GVHD (AGVHD) a median of 15.5 days post HCT. Two of three patients with grade IV AGVHD had sirolimus discontinued by 9 days post HCT. All patients responded to AGVHD therapy without GVHD-related deaths. There were two non-relapse- and two relapse-related deaths. At a median follow-up of 38 months (2-47 months), 7 of 11 patients were alive without disease. MMF and sirolimus GVHD prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of AGVHD, however, there were no GVHD-related deaths. The severe toxicities in the patients receiving the BU-containing preparative regimens limited the continued use of sirolimus and MMF for the prevention of AGVHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2011.104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302576700018

    View details for PubMedID 21552302

  • Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer Treated with High-Dose Chemotherapy and Transplantation of Purified Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Mueller, A. M., Kohrt, H. E., Cha, S., Laport, G., Klein, J., Guardino, A. E., Johnston, L. J., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Hanania, E., Juttner, C., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2012; 18 (1): 125-133

    Abstract

    Metastatic breast cancer remains a major treatment challenge. The use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with rescue by autologous mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) is controversial, in part because of contamination of MPB by circulating tumor cells. CD34(+)Thy-1(+) selected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) represent a graft source with a greater than 250,000-fold reduction in cancer cells. Here, we present the long-term outcome of a pilot study to determine feasibility and engraftment using HDCT and purified HSC in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Twenty-two patients who had been treated with standard chemotherapy were enrolled into a phase I/II trial between December 1996 and February 1998, and underwent HDCT followed by rescue with CD34(+)Thy-1(+) HSC isolated from autologous MPB. More than 12 years after the end of the study, 23% (5 of 22) of HSC recipients are alive, and 18% (4 of 22) are free of recurrence with normal hematopoietic function. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16 months, and median overall survival (OS) was 60 months. Retrospective comparison with 74 patients transplanted between February 1995 and June 1999 with the identical HDCT regimen but rescue with unmanipulated MPB indicated that 9% of patients are alive, and 7% are without disease. Median PFS was 10 months, and median OS was 28 months. In conclusion, cancer-depleted HSC following HDCT resulted in better than expected 12- to 14-year PFS and OS in a cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients. These data prompt us to look once again at purified HSC transplantation in a protocol powered to test for efficacy in advanced-stage breast cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.07.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303140200015

    View details for PubMedID 21767515

  • Adoptive Immunotherapy with Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for Patients with Relapsed Hematologic Malignancies after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Laport, G. G., Sheehan, K., Baker, J., Armstrong, R., Wong, R. M., Lowsky, R., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D., Arai, S., Benjamin, J. E., Weng, W., Negrin, R. S. 2011; 17 (11): 1679-1687

    Abstract

    Donor leukocyte infusions induce remissions in some patients with hematologic malignancies who relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT); however, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the major complication of this strategy. Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are a unique population of cytotoxic T lymphocytes that express the CD3(+)CD56(+) phenotype and show marked up-regulation of the natural killer cell receptor NKG2D (CD314). CIK cells are non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted and NKG2D-dependent in target recognition and cytotoxicity. We explored the feasibility of ex vivo expansion of allogeneic CIK cells in patients with relapsed hematologic malignancies after allogeneic HCT. Eighteen patients (median age, 53 years; range, 20-69 years) received CIK cell infusions at escalating doses of 1 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 4), 5 × 10(7) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 6), and 1 × 10(8) CD3(+) cells/kg (n = 8). The median expansion of CD3(+) cells was 12-fold (range, 4- to 91-fold). CD3(+)CD56(+) cells represented a median of 11% (range, 4%-44%) of the harvested cells, with a median 31-fold (range, 7- to 515-fold) expansion. Median CD3(+)CD314(+) cell expression was 53% (range, 32%-78%) of harvested cells. Significant cytotoxicity was demonstrated in vitro against a panel of human tumor cell lines. Acute GVHD grade I-II was seen in 2 patients, and 1 patient had limited chronic GVHD. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range, 1-69 months) from CIK infusion, the median overall survival was 28 months, and the median event-free survival was 4 months. All deaths were due to relapsed disease; however, 5 patients had longer remissions after infusion of CIK cells than from allogeneic HCT to relapse. Our findings indicate that this form of adoptive immunotherapy is well tolerated and induces a low incidence of GVHD, supporting further investigation as an upfront modality to enhance graft-versus-tumor responses in high-risk patient populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.05.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296829000016

    View details for PubMedID 21664472

  • A phase 1 study of imatinib for corticosteroid-dependent/refractory chronic graft-versus-host disease: response does not correlate with anti-PDGFRA antibodies BLOOD Chen, G. L., Arai, S., Flowers, M. E., Otani, J. M., Qiu, J., Cheng, E. C., McMillan, A., Johnston, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Miklos, D. B. 2011; 118 (15): 4070-4078

    Abstract

    Stimulatory antiplatelet derived growth factor receptor ? (PDGFRA) antibodies have been associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed a phase 1 dose escalation trial of imatinib in corticosteroid-dependent/refractory cGVHD to assess the safety of imatinib and test the hypothesis that abrogation of PDGFRA signaling can ameliorate the manifestations of cGVHD. Fifteen patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up time was 56.6 weeks (range, 18-82.4 weeks). Imatinib 400 mg daily was associated with more frequent moderate to life-threatening adverse events than 200 mg daily. The main adverse events were nausea, edema, confusion, diarrhea, liver function test elevation, fatigue, and myalgia. The overall response rate was 40% (6 of 15). The treatment failure rate was 40% (6 of 15). Twenty percent (3 of 15) of subjects had stable disease. Of 4 subjects with phospho-PDGFRA and phospho-PDGFRB immunohistochemistry studies before and after treatment, inhibition of phosphorylation was observed in 3 but correlated with response in one. Anti-PDGFRA antibodies were observed in 7 of 11 evaluable subjects but correlated with clinical activity in 4. We conclude that cGVHD responds to imatinib through multiple pathways that may include PDGFRA signal transduction. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00760981.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-03-341693

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296282200013

    View details for PubMedID 21828142

  • Early CMV Viremia Is Associated with Impaired Viral Control following Nonmyeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation with a Total Lymphoid Irradiation and Antithymocyte Globulin Preparative Regimen BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Schaenman, J. M., Shashidhar, S., Rhee, C., Wong, J., Navato, S., Wong, R. M., Ho, D. Y., Arai, S., Johnston, L., Brown, J. M. 2011; 17 (5): 693-702

    Abstract

    The reconstitution of immune function after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) plays an important role in the control of viral infections. Both donor and recipient cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus has been shown to contribute to effective immune function; however, the influence of a nonmyeloablative preparative (NMA) regimen using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) on antiviral immune reconstitution has not yet been described. In 117 recipients of NMA HCT patients following ATG and TLI, not unexpectedly, CMV viremia was seen in approximately 60% of the seropositive patients regardless of donor serostatus, and recipient seropositivity significantly increased the odds of CMV viremia after transplant in a multivariate analysis. The administration of ATG and TLI resulted in a strikingly earlier viremia in the posttransplant period when compared to the previously reported timing of viremia following myeloablative preparative regimens, especially for transplant recipients who were seropositive for CMV with seronegative donors. Furthermore, early viremia in the setting of a CMV naïve donor was associated with a delay in functional antiviral control. These observations demonstrate the dynamic nature of immunity in relation to CMV antigen exposure in the complex environment resulting from NMA conditions where both donor and residual recipient immune response affect viral control.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.08.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290061500012

    View details for PubMedID 20736077

  • Long-term Clinical Course of Dry Eye in Patients With Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Referred for Eye Examination CORNEA Sales, C. S., Johnston, L. J., Ta, C. N. 2011; 30 (2): 143-149

    Abstract

    To assess the long-term clinical course of dry eye in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD).A prospective case series of 49 patients with cGVHD was conducted. Complete history and ophthalmic examination were performed at baseline and at 36 months (range, 26-53). All patients received treatment for dry eye.Of the 49 participants, 18 (37%) had expired at the time of the 3-year eye examination, 11 were lost to follow-up, 11 declined or were unable to attend the final examination, and 9 (18%) completed the study. There was a statistically insignificant improvement in symptoms of dry eye assessed by the ocular surface disease index [start vs. endpoint: 36 ± 22 (range, 4-72) vs. 30 ± 27 (range, 4-86); P = 0.51]. Visual acuity remained stable at approximately 20/20. Lissamine green staining improved and Schirmer test (with anesthetic) worsened, but neither trend was statistically or clinically significant.Stable visual acuity, tear production, and lissamine green staining and a statistically insignificant improvement in dry eye symptoms were observed in the 9 participants who completed this 3-year prospective case series of 49 patients with cGVHD. Insofar as these patients represent a minority (18%) of the original cohort, their clinical course may not be generalizable to all patients with cGVHD but may still suggest that this patient population's prognosis could be characterized by stability and excellent vision. Sufficiently powered prospective studies are required to validate these postulates.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ICO.0b013e3181e9b3bf

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285914700006

    View details for PubMedID 20885310

  • Long-term outcomes in patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies following matched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning of BU, etoposide and CY BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Naik, S., Wong, R., Arai, S., Brown, J., Laport, G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D., Shizuru, J., Blume, K., Negrin, R., Johnston, L. 2011; 46 (2): 192-199

    Abstract

    Patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies have limited effective treatment options. These include high-dose therapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report a single-institution, long-term follow-up of 96 patients, median age 50 (range, 20-60) years, who received HLA-matched related HCT between 1992 and 2007. All patients were treated with a uniform preparatory regimen intended to enhance the widely used regimen of BU and CY that included: BU 16.0?mg/kg (days -8 to -5), etoposide 60?mg/kg (day -4), CY 60?mg/kg (day -2) with GVHD prophylaxis of CsA or FK506 and prednisone. Disease status at transplantation was high-risk AML (n=41), CML in second chronic phase or blast crisis (n=8), myelofibrosis and myeloproliferative disorders (n=8), and myelodysplasia (n=39). Thirty-six percent (n=35) of patients received BM whereas 64% (n=61) received G-CSF-mobilized PBPC. With a median follow-up of 5.6 years (range, 1.6-14.6 years) actuarial 5-year OS was 32% (95% CI 22-42) and 5-year EFS was 31% (95% CI 21-41). Relapse rate was 24% (95% CI 15-33) at 2 and 5 years. Nonrelapse mortality was 29% (95% CI 20-38) at day 100 and 38% (95% CI 29-47) at 1 year. Cumulative incidence of acute (grade II-IV) and extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI 18-36) and 29% (95% CI 18-40), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (31 vs 32%, P=0.89) or relapse rates (17 vs 28%, P=0.22) for recipients of BM vs PBPC, respectively. These results confirm that patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies can achieve long-term survival following myeloablative allogeneic HCT with aggressive conditioning.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2010.114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287190700004

    View details for PubMedID 20498648

  • Phase I/II Trial of GN-BVC, a Gemcitabine and Vinorelbine-Containing Conditioning Regimen for Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Recurrent and Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Arai, S., Letsinger, R., Wong, R. M., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Lowsky, R., Miklos, D. B., Shizuru, J. A., Weng, W., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Horning, S. J. 2010; 16 (8): 1145-1154

    Abstract

    Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation with augmented BCNU regimens is effective treatment for recurrent or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL); however, BCNU-related toxicity and disease recurrence remain challenges. We designed a conditioning regimen with gemcitabine in combination with vinorelbine in an effort to reduce the BCNU dose and toxicity without compromising efficacy. In this phase I/II dose escalation study, the gemcitabine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined at 1250 mg/m(2), and a total of 92 patients were treated at this dose to establish safety and efficacy. The primary endpoint was the incidence of BCNU-related toxicity. Secondary endpoints included 2-year freedom from progression (FFP), event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Sixty-eight patients (74%) had 1 or more previously defined adverse risk factors for transplant (stage IV at relapse, B symptoms at relapse, greater than minimal disease pretransplant). The incidence of BCNU-related toxicity was 15% (95% confidence interval, 9%-24%). Only 2% of patients had a documented reduction in diffusing capacity of 20% or greater. With a median follow-up of 29 months, the FFP at 2 years was 71% and the OS at 2 years was 83%. Two-year FFP was 96%, 72%, 67%, and 14% for patients with 0 (n = 24), 1 (n = 37), 2 (n = 23), or 3 (n = 8) risk factors, respectively. Regression analysis identified PET status pretransplant and B symptoms at relapse as significant prognostic factors for FFP. This new transplant regimen for HL resulted in decreased BCNU toxicity with encouraging FFP and OS. A prospective, risk-modeled comparison of this new combination with other conditioning regimens is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.02.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280137800013

    View details for PubMedID 20197102

  • Long-term follow-up of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma receiving purged autografts after induction failure BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Benjamin, J. E., Chen, G. L., Cao, T. M., Cao, P. D., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Shizuru, J. A., JOHNSTON, L. J., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R., Laport, G. G. 2010; 45 (2): 303-309

    Abstract

    Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who do not achieve a complete response to front-line combination chemotherapy are often offered high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT). However, the efficacy of this therapy in this patient population has been addressed in only a few published reports. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of patients with a diagnosis of de novo DLBCL who underwent AHCT at our center between 1988 and 2002, and identified 43 consecutive patients who had not achieved a CR before AHCT, although most showed at least a partial response (PR) to either induction or subsequent salvage chemotherapy. A total of 15 patients received a conditioning regimen that included high-dose chemotherapy with fractionated TBI (FTBI), whereas 28 patients received high-dose chemotherapy only. All autografts were treated ex vivo with MoAbs and complement in an effort to remove any residual malignant B cells. A total of 33 (77%) patients achieved a CR after AHCT. With a median follow-up of 7.3 years, the 5-year OS was 69% and EFS was 59%. Four patients died from non-relapse mortality. By univariate analyses, the following characteristics did not significantly impact OS: disease stage at diagnosis, age-adjusted IPI (International Prognostic Index) score, age > or =40 years, earlier radiotherapy and the use of FTBI in the conditioning regimen. These results confirm the long-term efficacy of AHCT for patients with DLBCL after induction failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2009.152

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274397400013

    View details for PubMedID 19597427

  • TLI and ATG conditioning with low risk of graft-versus-host disease retains antitumor reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors BLOOD Kohrt, H. E., Turnbull, B. B., Heydari, K., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Miklos, D. B., Johnston, L. J., Arai, S., Weng, W., Hoppe, R. T., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2009; 114 (5): 1099-1109

    Abstract

    A hematopoietic cell transplantation regimen was adapted from a preclinical model that used reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and protected against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by skewing residual host T-cell subsets to favor regulatory natural killer T cells. One hundred eleven patients with lymphoid (64) and myeloid (47) malignancies received RIC using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by the infusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized grafts. Included were 34 patients at least 60 years of age, 32 patients at high risk of lymphoma relapse after disease recurrence following prior autologous transplantation, and 51 patients at high risk of developing GVHD due to lack of a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor. Durable chimerism was achieved in 97% of patients. Cumulative probabilities of acute GVHD (grades II-IV) were 2 and 10% of patients receiving related and unrelated donor grafts. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year was less than 4%. Cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 27%. The 36-month probability of overall and event-free survival was 60% and 40%, respectively. Disease status at start of conditioning and the level of chimerism achieved after transplantation significantly impacted clinical outcome. The high incidence of sustained remission among patients with active disease at time of transplantation suggests retained graft-versus-tumor reactions. Active trial registration currently at clinicaltrials.gov under IDs of NCT00185640 and NCT00186615.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-03-211441

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268491100025

    View details for PubMedID 19423725

  • High-dose chemotherapy followed by stem cell rescue for high-risk germ cell tumors: the Stanford experience BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Agarwal, R., Dvorak, C. C., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Johnston, L., Srinivas, S. 2009; 43 (7): 547-552

    Abstract

    Germ cell tumors carry an excellent prognosis with platinum-based therapy upfront. The patients who either relapse or demonstrate refractoriness to platinum pose a challenge. There exist many reports in the literature on the use of high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue improving the outcome in patients with relapsed germ cell tumors. However, the reports have great variability in the patient selection, prior treatments, the choice of the conditioning regimen and variability of the doses within the same regimen. In this report, we present 37 patients who underwent a uniform protocol of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue. Stem cell mobilization was performed with high-dose CY (4 g per m(2)) and we were able to collect adequate cells for marrow rescue in all patients. Patients received a high-dose regimen with etoposide (800 mg/m(2) per day) days -6, -5 and -4 as a continuous infusion, carboplatin (667 mg/m(2) per day) on days -6, -5 and -4 as a 1 h infusion, and CY (60 mg/kg per day) on days -3 and -2. In this high-risk group of patients, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue led to a 3-year overall survival of 57% and a 3-year event-free survival of 49%. The results are reflective of a single procedure. No tandem transplants were performed. The treatment-related mortality was low at 3% in this heavily pretreated group.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/bmt.2008.364

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265005800005

    View details for PubMedID 18997833

  • Acute graft-versus-host disease: differing risk with differing graft sources and conditioning intensity BEST PRACTICE & RESEARCH CLINICAL HAEMATOLOGY Johnston, L. 2008; 21 (2): 177-192

    Abstract

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a constant component of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), with variations in incidence and severity affected by the graft source, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility, and the preparative regimen. The graft source - related versus unrelated donors, bone marrow (BM) versus peripheral blood (PB), umbilical cord blood (UCB) versus unrelated donor BM - are discussed in this review, as well as myeloablative versus reduced-intensity (RI) preparative regimens. Recent comparisons of matched related versus matched unrelated donor HCT support a minimal difference in aGVHD between these two donor sources. The use of BM versus mobilized PB in the matched related donor (MRD) setting has been compared in randomized as well as phase-II comparative clinical trials which support a slight increase in aGVHD in the adult population. Similar results have been seen in the unrelated donor (URD) setting, although based on minimal comparative data to date. Preliminary comparisons of UCB versus URD BM have shown a decreased incidence of aGVHD with UCB, despite increased HLA mismatching. Haploidentical HCT has continued to be explored, with limitations due to delayed immune reconstitution and disease relapse. Many reduced-intensity preparative regimens have been published, with a reduced or minimal difference in incidence of aGVHD when historically compared to myleoablative preparative regimens. More formal comparisons of the different graft sources as well as preparative regimen intensities will be required to determine a more accurate picture of the differences between these transplantation alternatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.beha.2008.02.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257005500008

    View details for PubMedID 18503985

  • High-dose carmustine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Law, L. Y., Horning, S. J., Wong, R. M., Johnston, L. J., Laport, G. G., Lowsky, R., Shizuru, J. A., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E. 2006; 12 (7): 703-711

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been shown to be curative in a group of patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A previous study has demonstrated equivalent outcomes with a conditioning regimen based on total body irradiation and another not based on total body irradiation with preparative therapy using cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide (CBV) in autologous HCT. We investigated the safety and efficacy of using CBV in an allogeneic setting. Patients were required to have relapsed or be at high risk for subsequent relapse of NHL. All patients had a fully HLA-matched sibling donor. Patients received carmustine (15 mg/kg), etoposide (60 mg/kg), and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg) on days -6, -4, and -2, respectively, followed by allogeneic HCT. All patients were treated with cyclosporine and methylprednisolone as prophylaxis for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Thirty-one patients (median age, 46 years) who were felt to be inappropriate candidates for autologous transplantation were enrolled. Each subject had a median of 3 previous chemotherapy regimens. All patients engrafted. Fifteen of 31 patients are alive. Median follow-up time was 11.5 months (range, .4-126). There were 8 deaths due to relapse. Nonrelapse mortality (n = 8) included infection (n = 3), GVHD (n = 2), diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (n = 1), veno-occlusive disease in the setting of concurrent acute GVHD of the liver (n = 1), and leukoencephalopathy (n = 1). Probabilities of event-free survival and overall survival were, respectively, 44% (95% confidence interval, 26%-62%) and 51% (33%-69%) at 1 year and 44% (26%-62%) and 47% (29%-65%) at 5 years. Probability of relapse was 33% (15%-51%) at 1 year and 5 years. Probability of nonrelapse mortality was 31% (13%-49%) at 1 year and 5 years. Incidences were 29% for acute GVHD and 39% for chronic GVHD. None of the 12 patients who developed chronic GVHD has disease recurrence. Patients who had required >3 previous chemotherapy regimens before HCT had an increased probability of relapse. CBV is an effective preparative regimen for patients with aggressive NHL who undergo allogeneic HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2006.02.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238774800002

    View details for PubMedID 16785059

  • Protective conditioning for acute graft-versus-host disease NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Lowsky, R., Takahashi, T., Liu, Y. P., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., GRUMET, F. C., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Hoppe, R. T., Bloch, D. A., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S. 2005; 353 (13): 1321-1331

    Abstract

    Conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte serum protects mice against acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. We tested this strategy in humans.Thirty-seven patients with lymphoid malignant diseases or acute leukemia underwent an experimental conditioning regimen with 10 doses of total lymphoid irradiation (80 cGy each) plus antithymocyte globulin, followed by an infusion of HLA-matched peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from related or unrelated donors who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.Of the 37 transplant recipients, only 2 had acute GVHD after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. Potent antitumor effects in patients with lymphoid malignant diseases were shown by the change from partial to complete remission. In the transplant recipients who underwent conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin, the fraction of donor CD4+ T cells that produced interleukin-4 after in vitro stimulation increased by a factor of five, and the proliferative response to alloantigens in vitro was reduced, as compared with normal control subjects and control subjects who underwent conditioning with a single dose of total-body irradiation (200 cGy).A regimen of total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte globulin decreases the incidence of acute GVHD and allows graft antitumor activity in patients with lymphoid malignant diseases or acute leukemia treated with hematopoietic-cell transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232146200004

    View details for PubMedID 16192477

  • Treatment of verruca vulgaris with topical cidofovir in an immunlocompromised patient: a case report and review of the literature TRANSPLANT INFECTIOUS DISEASE Cha, S., Johnston, L., Natkunam, Y., Brown, J. 2005; 7 (3-4): 158-161

    Abstract

    Lesions caused by verrucus vulgaris are commonly refractory to therapy and may become large, painful, or disfiguring in immunocompromised patients. Cidofovir is a potent nucleoside analog antiviral agent shown to have in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad spectrum of DNA viruses. We report a successful use of topical cidofovir to treat verruca vulgaris lesions in a highly immunocompromised patient, who was not considered a candidate for conventional therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236936200012

    View details for PubMedID 16390407

  • Engraftment and survival following reduced-intensity allogeneic peripheral blood hematopoietic cell transplantation is affected by CD8(+) T-cell dose BLOOD Cao, T. M., Shizuru, J. A., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Stuart, M. J., GRUMET, F. C., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. 2005; 105 (6): 2300-2306

    Abstract

    The influence of graft composition on clinical outcomes after reduced-intensity conditioning is not well-characterized. In this report we prospectively enumerated CD34+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell doses in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood mononuclear cell (G-PBMC) allografts in 63 patients who received transplants following non-myeloablative conditioning with total body irradiation 200 cGy plus fludarabine as treatment for malignant diseases. Donors were HLA-identical siblings (n = 38) or HLA-matched unrelated individuals (n = 25). By univariate analyses G-PBMC CD8+ T-cell dose in at least the 50th percentile favorably correlated with full donor blood T-cell chimerism (P = .03), freedom from progression (P = .001), and overall survival (P = .01). No G-PBMC cell dose influenced grade II to IV acute or extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. In multivariate analysis only G-PBMC CD8+ T-cell dose (P = .003; RR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.6) was associated with improved freedom from progression. Infusion of low G-PBMC CD8+ T-cell dose for reduced-intensity allografting may adversely affect T-cell engraftment and survival outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2004-04-1473

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227630500020

    View details for PubMedID 15572597

  • CD34, CD49 and CD8 cell doses do not influence engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, or survival following myeloablative human leukocyte antigen-identical peripheral blood allografting for hematologic malignancies EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Cao, T. M., Wong, R. M., Sheehan, K., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Shizuru, J. A., Negrin, R. S., Lowsky, R. 2005; 33 (3): 279-285

    Abstract

    Optimal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cell (G-PBMC) graft compositions for myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) have not been identified. G-PBMC cell contents were analyzed for influence on outcomes.Human leukocyte antigen(HLA)-identical related donor AHCT was used to treat 101 patients with hematologic malignancies at a single institution between 1995 and 2002. CD34+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell doses were enumerated by flow cytometry and evaluated by univariate analysis.Categorized by the median of cell doses infused, no G-PBMC cell dose significantly correlated with neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Incidence of grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 24.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.9-33.3) and was not significantly influenced by evaluated G-PBMC cell doses. With a median follow-up time of 18 months for surviving patients, estimates for extensive chronic GVHD was 43.8% (95% CI: 31.4-56.2), for freedom from progression was 69.5% (95% CI: 58.1-80.9), and for overall survival was 46.9% (95% CI: 35.5-58.3). CD34+, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ cell doses were not significantly predictive of extensive chronic GVHD, freedom from progression or overall survival. Additionally, comparing patients receiving the upper versus lower 33rd percentiles of CD34+ cell dose, associations with extensive chronic GVHD remained insignificant (p=0.21; relative risk (RR)=1.7; 95% CI: 0.7-3.9).G-PBMC graft content does not influence outcomes after myeloablative AHCT. In particular, no significant association between extensive chronic GVHD was identified with any G-PBMC cell dose, including CD34.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exphem.2004.12.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227829300003

    View details for PubMedID 15730851

  • Rapamycin (sirolimus) for treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Johnston, L. J., Brown, J., Shizuru, J. A., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Stuart, M. J., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Chao, N. J. 2005; 11 (1): 47-55

    Abstract

    We conducted a phase II trial in 19 chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) patients with rapamycin, calcineurin inhibitors, and prednisone with the goals of controlling cGVHD, reducing prednisone use, and defining the safety of this regimen. Rapamycin was begun as second-line (n = 9) or more than second-line (n = 10) therapy. With a median follow-up of 42 months, 16 patients were evaluable for response. Nine patients discontinued rapamycin because of poor compliance/patient request (n = 2) or an adverse event (n = 7), 3 of whom were not evaluable because of withdrawal at < or =1 month or noncompliance. The adverse events included serum creatinine > or =2.4 mg/dL (n = 4), hemolytic uremic syndrome (n = 2), and relapse of malignancy (n = 1). Fifteen of 16 evaluable patients had a clinical response. Five of the 16 discontinued the drug, and 1 died of relapsed leukemia. Of the 10 patients who continued rapamycin, 2 discontinued and 1 successfully tapered all systemic immunosuppression. Three of the 10 developed progressive cGVHD with tapering immunosuppression; all responded to resumption of prior medications. Four of the 10 patients required alternate therapy for persistent or progressive cGVHD while receiving rapamycin; prednisone was discontinued (n = 2) or tapered at the time of progressive disease (n = 2). Seventeen of 19 original patients were alive. One death was due to relapsed malignancy, and 1 was due to congestive heart failure. In this report of rapamycin as cGVHD therapy, there is evidence of rapamycin's efficacy. Given the significant toxicities described, investigation of altered administration of rapamycin and calcineurin inhibitors should be pursued in future cGVHD trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2004.10.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226450300006

    View details for PubMedID 15625544

  • Treatment of acute leukemia with idarubicin, etoposide and cytarabine (IDEA). A randomized study of etoposide schedule CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY AND PHARMACOLOGY Damon, L. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Ries, C. A., Rugo, H. S., Case, D., Ault, K., Linker, C. A. 2004; 53 (6): 468-474

    Abstract

    The differences in toxicity of etoposide following continuous or bolus infusion are unknown.We studied the schedule-dependent toxicity of high-dose etoposide when combined with high-dose cytarabine and idarubicin (IDEA) in 138 patients with acute leukemia. Four groups of patients were studied: group I, relapse; group II, secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML); group III, de novo AML, age >60 years; and group IV, induction failure or blast crisis of myeloproliferative syndrome. Treatment for groups I-III was idarubicin 8 mg/m(2) per day days 1-3, cytarabine 2000 mg/m(2) once a day days 1-6, and etoposide 1600 mg/m(2) total dose. Group IV treatment differed by cytarabine given twice daily days 1-6. Patients were randomized to etoposide as a continuous infusion days 1-6 or as a bolus infusion over 10 h on day 7.Continuous infusion etoposide produced significantly more oral mucositis than bolus etoposide. In groups I-III, comparing continuous and bolus etoposide, there was a median of 3 vs 0 days of grade 2 or more oral mucositis (P<0.0001) and 13.5 vs 0 days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (P=0.0003). Group IV patients had a median 7 vs 0 days of grade 2 or more oral mucositis (P<0.01) and 21 vs 7 days of TPN (P<0.003), respectively. There were no differences in hematologic recovery, length of hospital stay, complete remission rate or overall survival between the two etoposide schedules. Of groups I-III patients, 51% achieved complete remission, and 11% died from treatment-related complications.The toxicity profile of high-dose etoposide is schedule-dependent with prolonged exposure producing significantly more non-hematologic toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00280-003-0758-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221344600002

    View details for PubMedID 15138711

  • Rituximab as adjuvant to high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; Blood Steven M Horwitz, Robert S Negrin, Karl G Blume, Sheila Breslin, Monic J Stuart, Keith E Stockerl-Goldstein, Laura J Johnston, Ruby M Wong, Judith A Shizuru, Sandra J Horning. 2003; 2003: 1257
  • Comparison of chronic graft-versus-host disease after transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells versus bone marrow in allogeneic recipients: long-term follow-up of a randomized trial BLOOD Flowers, M. E., Parker, P. M., JOHNSTON, L. J., Matos, A. V., Storer, B., Bensinger, W. I., STORB, R., Appelbaum, F. R., Forman, S. J., Blume, K. G., Martin, P. J. 2002; 100 (2): 415-419

    Abstract

    In a previous multicenter phase III trial comparing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from HLA-matched related donors, we found no statistically significant difference in the cumulative incidence of clinical extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the 2 groups. We have analyzed the results in more detail to determine whether the clinical characteristics of chronic GVHD after PBSCT might be distinct from those that occur after BMT. Clinical extensive chronic GVHD developed in 39 of 63 recipients of PBSCs and in 32 of 63 BM recipients who were alive and free of malignancy at day 100 after the transplantation. No significant differences were found in the time and type of onset of clinical extensive chronic GVHD or in the frequency of complications associated with severe morbidity. Involvement of skin and female genital tract was more frequent in PBSC recipients than in BM recipients. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 3 years was similar in the 2 groups, but the number of successive treatments needed to control chronic GVHD was higher after PBSCT than after BMT (P =.03), and the duration of glucocorticoid treatment was longer after PBSCT compared to BMT (P =.03). These results suggest that chronic GVHD after PBSCT may be more protracted and less responsive to current treatment than chronic GVHD after BMT. Assessment of the overall benefits of PBSCT compared to BMT will require continued long-term follow up of morbidity associated with chronic GVHD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176741200006

    View details for PubMedID 12091330

  • High-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic-cell transplantation for follicular lymphoma beyond first remission: The Stanford University experience BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Cao, T. M., Horning, S. F., Negrin, R. S., Hu, W. W., Johnston, L. F., Taylor, T. L., Shizuru, J. A., Hoppe, R. T., Brown, B. W., Blume, K. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. 2001; 7 (5): 294-301

    Abstract

    A retrospective analysis was performed to investigate the outcome of high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with follicular lymphomas beyond first remission. Ninety-two patients with primary induction failure or relapsed follicular low-grade lymphoma (FLGL), follicular large cell lymphoma (FLCL), and transformed follicular lymphoma (TFL) were treated with myeloablative therapy consisting of etoposide (60 mg/kg), cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg), and either carmustine (BCNU;15 mg/kg) or fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI; 1200 cGy) followed by transplantation of purged autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood hematopoietic cells. For the 49 patients with relapsed FLGL, the median age was 49 years and the median interval from diagnosis to HDT was 30 months. The 4-year estimate of overall survival (OS) was 60% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45%-75%) and of disease-free survival (DFS) was 44% (95% CI, 29%-59%). Treatment with the FTBI-containing HDT regimen was associated with significantly longer DFS (P = .04) and OS (P = .04) in our multivariate analysis. OS was also significantly longer among those treated with 3 or fewer chemotherapy regimens. For the 26 FLCL patients, the median age was 51 years and in 31% the indication for HDT was primary induction failure. For FLCL patients, the 4-year estimate of OS was 58% (95% CI, 37%-79%) and of DFS was 51% (95% CI, 30%-72%). Among the 17 patients with TFL, 13 (76%) transformed at first relapse, and only 6 patients (35%) achieved complete remission with salvage therapy prior to HDT. For TFL patients, the 4-year estimate of OS was 50% (95% CI, 24%-76%) and of DFS 49% (95% CI, 20%-78%). There were 3 occurrences of myelodysplasia (1 after treatment with TBI, 2 after BCNU treatment), yielding an estimated incidence of 7% (95% CI, 0%-16%) at 56 months. This analysis shows that relapsed FLGL patients treated with 3 or fewer different chemotherapy regimens show inferior survival. The HDT regimen containing FTBI appears to be superior to the BCNU-based regimen for relapsed FLGL, although longer follow-up is needed to evaluate late effects. Lastly, patients with TFL or induction failure and relapsed FLCL can achieve survival outcome comparable to those observed with the indolent follicular lymphomas.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169118600007

    View details for PubMedID 11400952

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