Professional Education

  • Doctor of Medicine, Stanford University, MED-MD (2009)
  • Bachelor of Arts, Stanford University, ENGL-BA (2002)


All Publications

  • Predicting the outcomes of rhabdomyolysis: a good starting point. JAMA internal medicine Wilhelm-Leen, E. R., Winkelmayer, W. C. 2013; 173 (19): 1828-1829

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.9235

    View details for PubMedID 23999843

  • Vitamin D deficiency and frailty in older Americans JOURNAL OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Wilhelm-Leen, E. R., Hall, Y. N., DEBOER, I. H., Chertow, G. M. 2010; 268 (2): 171-180


    To explore the relation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and frailty. Frailty is a multidimensional phenotype that describes declining physical function and a vulnerability to adverse outcomes in the setting of physical stress such as illness or hospitalization. Low serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are known to be associated with multiple chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, in addition to all cause mortality.Using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES III), we evaluated the association between low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and frailty, defined according to a set of criteria derived from a definition previously described and validated.Nationally representative survey of noninstitutionalized US residents collected between 1988 and 1994.25-Hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, defined as a serum concentration <15 ng mL(-1), was associated with a 3.7-fold increase in the odds of frailty amongst whites and a fourfold increase in the odds of frailty amongst non-whites. This association persisted after sensitivity analyses adjusting for season of the year and latitude of residence, intended to reduce misclassification of persons as 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficient or insufficient.Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with frailty amongst older adults.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02248.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279448600009

    View details for PubMedID 20528970

  • Frailty and Chronic Kidney Disease: The Third National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Wilhelm-Leen, E. R., Hall, Y. N., Tamura, M. K., Chertow, G. M. 2009; 122 (7): 664-U86


    Frailty is common in the elderly and in persons with chronic diseases. Few studies have examined the association of frailty with chronic kidney disease.We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate the prevalence of frailty among persons with chronic kidney disease. We created a definition of frailty based on established validated criteria, modified to accommodate available data. We used logistic regression to determine whether and to what degree stages of chronic kidney disease were associated with frailty. We also examined factors that might mediate the association between frailty and chronic kidney disease.The overall prevalence of frailty was 2.8%. However, among persons with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2), 20.9% were frail. The odds of frailty were significantly increased among all stages of chronic kidney disease, even after adjustment for the residual effects of age, sex, race, and prevalent chronic diseases. The odds of frailty associated with chronic kidney disease were only marginally attenuated with additional adjustment for sarcopenia, anemia, acidosis, inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Frailty and chronic kidney disease were independently associated with mortality.Frailty is significantly associated with all stages of chronic kidney disease and particularly with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Potential mechanisms underlying the chronic kidney disease and frailty connection remain elusive.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.01.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267341000014

    View details for PubMedID 19559169

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