Professional Education

  • Bachelor of Science, Ain Shams University (1999)
  • Master of Science, Ain Shams University (2004)
  • Doctor of Philosophy, S.U.N.Y. State University at Buffalo (2012)

Stanford Advisors


Journal Articles

  • Multifunctional G-Rich and RRM-Containing Domains of TbRGG2 Perform Separate yet Essential Functions in Trypanosome RNA Editing EUKARYOTIC CELL Foda, B. M., Downey, K. M., Fisk, J. C., Read, L. K. 2012; 11 (9): 1119-1131


    Efficient editing of Trypanosoma brucei mitochondrial RNAs involves the actions of multiple accessory factors. T. brucei RGG2 (TbRGG2) is an essential protein crucial for initiation and 3'-to-5' progression of editing. TbRGG2 comprises an N-terminal G-rich region containing GWG and RG repeats and a C-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM)-containing domain. Here, we perform in vitro and in vivo separation-of-function studies to interrogate the mechanism of TbRGG2 action in RNA editing. TbRGG2 preferentially binds preedited mRNA in vitro with high affinity attributable to its G-rich region. RNA-annealing and -melting activities are separable, carried out primarily by the G-rich and RRM domains, respectively. In vivo, the G-rich domain partially complements TbRGG2 knockdown, but the RRM domain is also required. Notably, TbRGG2's RNA-melting activity is dispensable for RNA editing in vivo. Interactions between TbRGG2 and MRB1 complex proteins are mediated by both G-rich and RRM-containing domains, depending on the binding partner. Overall, our results are consistent with a model in which the high-affinity RNA binding and RNA-annealing activities of the G-rich domain are essential for RNA editing in vivo. The RRM domain may have key functions involving interactions with the MRB1 complex and/or regulation of the activities of the G-rich domain.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/EC.00175-12

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308446200005

    View details for PubMedID 22798390

  • TbRGG2 facilitates kinetoplastid RNA editing initiation and progression past intrinsic pause sites RNA-A PUBLICATION OF THE RNA SOCIETY Ammerman, M. L., Presnyak, V., Fisk, J. C., Foda, B. M., Read, L. K. 2010; 16 (11): 2239-2251


    TbRGG2 is an essential kinetoplastid RNA editing accessory factor that acts specifically on pan-edited RNAs. To understand the mechanism of TbRGG2 action, we undertook an in-depth analysis of edited RNA populations in TbRGG2 knockdown cells and an in vitro examination of the biochemical activities of the protein. We demonstrate that TbRGG2 down-regulation more severely impacts editing at the 5' ends of pan-edited RNAs than at their 3' ends. The initiation of editing is reduced to some extent in TbRGG2 knockdown cells. In addition, TbRGG2 plays a post-initiation role as editing becomes stalled in TbRGG2-depleted cells, resulting in an overall decrease in the 3' to 5' progression of editing. Detailed analyses of edited RNAs from wild-type and TbRGG2-depleted cells reveal that TbRGG2 facilitates progression of editing past intrinsic pause sites that often correspond to the 3' ends of cognate guide RNAs (gRNAs). In addition, noncanonically edited junction regions are either absent or significantly shortened in TbRGG2-depleted cells, consistent with impaired gRNA transitions. Sequence analysis further suggests that TbRGG2 facilitates complete utilization of certain gRNAs. In vitro RNA annealing and in vivo RNA unwinding assays demonstrate that TbRGG2 can modulate RNA-RNA interactions. Collectively, these data are consistent with a model in which TbRGG2 facilitates initiation and 3' to 5' progression of editing through its ability to affect gRNA utilization, both during the transition between specific gRNAs and during usage of certain gRNAs.

    View details for DOI 10.1261/rna.2285510

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283047900019

    View details for PubMedID 20855539

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