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  • Perspective: Evolution of Control Variables and Policies for Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Using Bidirectional Deep-Brain-Computer Interfaces FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE Bronte-Stewart, H. M., Petrucci, M. N., O'Day, J. J., Afzal, M., Parker, J. E., Kehnemouyi, Y. M., Wilkins, K. B., Orthlieb, G. C., Hoffman, S. L. 2020; 14
  • A Closed-loop Deep Brain Stimulation Approach for Mitigating Burst Durations in People with Parkinson's Disease. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference Petrucci, M. N., Anderson, R. W., O'Day, J. J., Kehnemouyi, Y. M., Herron, J. A., Bronte-Stewart, H. M. 2020; 2020: 3617–20

    Abstract

    Increased beta band synchrony has been demonstrated to be a biomarker of Parkinson's disease (PD). This abnormal synchrony can often be prolonged in long bursts of beta activity, which may interfere with normal sensorimotor processing. Previous closed loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms used averaged beta power to drive neurostimulation, which were indiscriminate to physiological (short) versus pathological (long) beta burst durations. We present a closed-loop DBS algorithm using beta burst duration as the control signal. Benchtop validation results demonstrate the feasibility of the algorithm in real-time by responding to pre-recorded STN data from a PD participant. These results provide the basis for future improved closed-loop algorithms focused on burst durations for in mitigating symptoms of PD.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9176196

    View details for PubMedID 33018785

  • Demonstration of Kinematic-Based Closed-loop Deep Brain Stimulation for Mitigating Freezing of Gait in People with Parkinson's Disease. Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual International Conference O'Day, J. J., Kehnemouyi, Y. M., Petrucci, M. N., Anderson, R. W., Herron, J. A., Bronte-Stewart, H. M. 2020; 2020: 3612–16

    Abstract

    Impaired gait in Parkinson's disease is marked by slow, arrhythmic stepping, and often includes freezing of gait episodes where alternating stepping halts completely. Wearable inertial sensors offer a way to detect these gait changes and novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems can respond with clinical therapy in a real-time, closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we present two novel closed-loop DBS algorithms, one using gait arrhythmicity and one using a logistic-regression model of freezing of gait detection as control signals. Benchtop validation results demonstrate the feasibility of running these algorithms in conjunction with a closed-loop DBS system by responding to real-time human subject kinematic data and pre-recorded data from leg-worn inertial sensors from a participant with Parkinson's disease. We also present a novel control policy algorithm that changes neurostimulator frequency in response to the kinematic inputs. These results provide a foundation for further development, iteration, and testing in a clinical trial for the first closed-loop DBS algorithms using kinematic signals to therapeutically improve and understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of gait impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9176638

    View details for PubMedID 33018784

  • REM sleep without atonia is associated with increased rigidity in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology Linn-Evans, M. E., Petrucci, M. N., Amundsen Huffmaster, S. L., Chung, J. W., Tuite, P. J., Howell, M. J., Videnovic, A., MacKinnon, C. D. 2020

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: Increased muscle activity during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (i.e. REM sleep without atonia) is common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study tested the hypotheses that people with PD and REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) would present with more severe and symmetric rigidity compared to individuals with PD without RSWA and age-matched controls.METHODS: Sixty-one individuals participated in this study (41 PD, 20 controls). An overnight sleep study was used to classify participants with PD as having either elevated (PD-RSWA+) or normal muscle activity (PD-RSWA-) during REM sleep. Quantitative measures of rigidity were obtained using a robotic manipulandum that passively pronated and supinated the forearm.RESULTS: Quantitative measures of forearm rigidity were significantly higher in the PD-RSWA+ group compared to the control group. Rigidity was significantly more asymmetric between limbs in the PD-RSWA- group compared with controls, while there was no significant difference in symmetry between the control and PD-RSWA+ groups.CONCLUSION: In people with mild to moderate PD, RSWA is associated with an increased and more symmetric presentation of upper limb rigidity.SIGNIFICANCE: Dysfunction of brainstem systems that control muscle tone during REM sleep may contribute to increased rigidity during wakefulness in people with PD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clinph.2020.04.017

    View details for PubMedID 32451296

  • Neural Closed loop deep brain stimulation for freezing of Gait. Brain stimulation Petrucci, M. N., Neuville, R. S., Afzal, M. F., Velisar, A., Anidi, C. M., Anderson, R. W., Parker, J. E., O'Day, J. J., Wilkins, K. B., Bronte-Stewart, H. M. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brs.2020.06.018

    View details for PubMedID 32634599

  • Perspective: Evolution of Control Variables and Policies for Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Using Bidirectional Deep-Brain-Computer Interfaces. Frontiers in human neuroscience Bronte-Stewart, H. M., Petrucci, M. N., O'Day, J. J., Afzal, M. F., Parker, J. E., Kehnemouyi, Y. M., Wilkins, K. B., Orthlieb, G. C., Hoffman, S. L. 2020; 14: 353

    Abstract

    A deep brain stimulation system capable of closed-loop neuromodulation is a type of bidirectional deep brain-computer interface (dBCI), in which neural signals are recorded, decoded, and then used as the input commands for neuromodulation at the same site in the brain. The challenge in assuring successful implementation of bidirectional dBCIs in Parkinson's disease (PD) is to discover and decode stable, robust and reliable neural inputs that can be tracked during stimulation, and to optimize neurostimulation patterns and parameters (control policies) for motor behaviors at the brain interface, which are customized to the individual. In this perspective, we will outline the work done in our lab regarding the evolution of the discovery of neural and behavioral control variables relevant to PD, the development of a novel personalized dual-threshold control policy relevant to the individual's therapeutic window and the application of these to investigations of closed-loop STN DBS driven by neural or kinematic inputs, using the first generation of bidirectional dBCIs.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fnhum.2020.00353

    View details for PubMedID 33061899

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7489234

  • Modulation of anticipatory postural adjustments using a powered ankle orthosis in people with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait. Gait & posture Petrucci, M. N., MacKinnon, C. D., Hsiao-Wecksler, E. T. 2019; 72: 188–94

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Freezing of gait (FOG) during gait initiation in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) may be related to a diminished ability to generate anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Externally applied perturbations that mimic the desired motion of the body during an APA have been demonstrated to shorten and amplify APAs; however, no portable device has been tested. In this study, a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis (PPAFO) testbed was utilized to investigate the effect of mechanical assistance, provided at the ankle joint, on the APAs during gait initiation.RESEARCH QUESTION: Does mechanical assistance provided at the ankle joint improve APAs during gait initiation in people with PD and FOG?METHODS: Thirteen participants with PD and FOG initiated gait across five test conditions: two self-initiated (uncued) conditions in walking shoes [Baseline-Shoes], and the PPAFO in unpowered passive mode [Baseline-PPAFOPassive]; three "go" cued conditions that included an acoustic tone with the PPAFO in unpowered passive mode [Acoustic+PPAFOPassive], the mechanical assistance from the PPAFO [PPAFOActive], and the acoustic tone paired with mechanical assistance [Acoustic+PPAFOActive]. A warning-cue preceded the imperative "go" cue for all the cued trials. Peak amplitudes and timings of the vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) and center of pressure (COP) shifts from onset to toe-off were compared across conditions.RESULTS: Mechanical assistance significantly increased the peak amplitudes of the GRFs and COP shifts, reduced APA variability, and decreased the time to toe-off relative to the passive conditions.SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate the potential utility of mechanical assistance at the ankle joint (with or without an acoustic cue) as a method to generate more consistent, shortened, and amplified APAs in people with PD and FOG.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.05.002

    View details for PubMedID 31226601

  • A Neuromechanical Model of Reduced Dorsiflexor Torque During the Anticipatory Postural Adjustments of Gait Initiation IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL SYSTEMS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING Petrucci, M. N., DiBerardino, L. A., MacKinnon, C. D., Hsiao-Wecksler, E. T. 2018; 26 (11): 2210–16

    Abstract

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) precede gait initiation and function to accelerate the center of mass forward and towards the initial stance leg. Impairments in APA generation, such as those seen in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), can impact the quality of the first step. An initial burst of activity in the dorsiflexor muscle (tibialis anterior) of the stepping leg is an important contributor to the posterior excursion of the center of pressure that accelerates the center of mass forward during an APA. Tibialis anterior activation can be diminished or absent in people with PD; however, the neuromechanical consequence of this diminished dorsiflexor torque on APA generation is not fully understood. Computational models of gait initiation that include components of the neuromuscular system may provide additional insight. In this paper, an inverted pendulum model of the body generated from healthy young adult data was used to simulate reduced dorsiflexor torque during an APA for gait initiation. Forward body lean angle and center of pressure were assessed over various settings of decreased dorsiflexor torque and compared to experimental data from a person with PD. Results from the model demonstrate that reducing the peak dorsiflexor torque by as little as 8-Nm may alter forward body lean and the center of pressure excursion from their nominal trajectories. These results can help inform how much torque is needed from an external device to effectively modulate APAs for gait initiation, as well as provide insight into compensation strategies for reduced dorsiflexor torque in pathology.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TNSRE.2018.2874991

    View details for Web of Science ID 000451250400013

    View details for PubMedID 30307872

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