Clinical Focus

  • Anesthesia

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Medical Education:University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine (1980) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology (2014)
  • Fellowship:Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (1984) PA
  • Fellowship:UCSF Graduate Division - Fellowships (1984) CA
  • Residency:UCSF House Staff Office (1983) CA
  • Internship:Univ Of Michigan Hospitals (1981) MI
  • Board Certification: Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology (1986)


All Publications

  • The Geographic Distribution of Pediatric Anesthesiologists Relative to the U.S. Pediatric Population. Anesthesia and analgesia Muffly, M. K., Medeiros, D., Muffly, T. M., Singleton, M. A., Honkanen, A. 2016: -?


    The geographic relationship between pediatric anesthesiologists and the pediatric population has potentially important clinical and policy implications. In the current study, we describe the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists relative to the U.S. pediatric population (0-17 years) and a subset of the pediatric population (0-4 years).The percentage of the U.S. pediatric population that lives within different driving distances to the nearest pediatric anesthesiologist (0 to 25 miles, >25 to 50 miles, >50 to 100 miles, >100 to 250 miles, and >250 miles) was determined by creating concentric driving distance service areas surrounding pediatric anesthesiologist practice locations. U.S. Census block groups were used to determine the sum pediatric population in each anesthesiologist driving distance service area. The pediatric anesthesiologist-to-pediatric population ratio was then determined for each of the 306 hospital referral regions (HRRs) in the United States and compared with ratios of other physician groups to the pediatric population. All geographic mapping and analysis was performed using ArcGIS Desktop 10.2.2 mapping software (Redlands, CA).A majority of the pediatric population (71.4%) lives within a 25-mile drive of a pediatric anesthesiologist; however, 10.2 million U.S. children (0-17 years) live greater than 50 miles from the nearest pediatric anesthesiologist. More than 2.7 million children ages 0 to 4 years live greater than 50 miles from the nearest identified pediatric anesthesiologist. The median ratio of pediatric anesthesiologists to 100,000 pediatric population at the HRR level was 2.25 (interquartile range, 0-5.46). Pediatric anesthesiologist geographic distribution relative to the pediatric population by HRR is lower and less uniform than for all anesthesiologists, neonatologists, and pediatricians.A substantial proportion of the U.S. pediatric population lives greater than 50 miles from the nearest pediatric anesthesiologist, and pediatric anesthesiologist-to-pediatric population ratios by HRR vary widely across the United States. These findings are important given that the new guidelines from the American College of Surgeons Children's Surgery Verification™ Quality Improvement Program state that pediatric anesthesiologists must care for a subset of pediatric patients. Because of the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists relative to the pediatric population, access to care by a pediatric anesthesiologist may not be feasible for all children, particularly for those with limited resources or in emergent situations.

    View details for PubMedID 27984248

  • The Current Landscape of US Pediatric Anesthesiologists: Demographic Characteristics and Geographic Distribution ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Muffly, M. K., Muffly, T. M., Weterings, R., Singleton, M., Honkanen, A. 2016; 123 (1): 179-185


    There is no comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists, their demographic characteristics, or geographic location in the United States.We endeavored to create a comprehensive database of pediatric anesthesiologists by merging individuals identified as US pediatric anesthesiologists by the American Board of Anesthesiology, National Provider Identifier registry, database, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia membership list as of November 5, 2015. Professorial rank was accessed via the Association of American Medical Colleges and other online sources. Descriptive statistics characterized pediatric anesthesiologists' demographics. Pediatric anesthesiologists' locations at the city and state level were geocoded and mapped with the use of ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 mapping software (Redlands, CA).We identified 4048 pediatric anesthesiologists in the United States, which is approximately 8.8% of the physician anesthesiology workforce (n = 46,000). The median age of pediatric anesthesiologists was 49 years (interquartile range, 40-57 years), and the majority (56.4%) were men. Approximately two-thirds of identified pediatric anesthesiologists were subspecialty board certified in pediatric anesthesiology, and 33% of pediatric anesthesiologists had an identified academic affiliation. There is substantial heterogeneity in the geographic distribution of pediatric anesthesiologists by state and US Census Division with urban clustering.This description of pediatric anesthesiologists' demographic characteristics and geographic distribution fills an important gap in our understanding of pediatric anesthesia systems of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001266

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378083300024

    View details for PubMedID 27049856

  • In Reply. Anesthesiology Singleton, M. A., Apfelbaum, J. L., Connis, R. T., Nickinovich, D. G. 2015; 123 (4): 977-978

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000827

    View details for PubMedID 26372136

  • American Society of Anesthesiologists on Children's Surgical Care. Journal of the American College of Surgeons Fitch, J. C., Singleton, M. A. 2014; 219 (2): 326-?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.05.004

    View details for PubMedID 25038962