Honors & Awards

  • Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Training Fellowshiop, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (2007-2008)
  • American Urology Association Foundation Research Fellowship, American Urology Association (2013)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Medicine, Stanford University, MED-MD (2010)
  • Bachelor of Science, Stanford University, BIOL-BSH (2004)

Stanford Advisors

Research & Scholarship

Lab Affiliations


Journal Articles

  • Intraoperative optical imaging and tissue interrogation during urologic surgery. Current opinion in urology Hsu, M., Gupta, M., Su, L., Liao, J. C. 2014; 24 (1): 66-74


    To review optical imaging technologies in urologic surgery aimed to facilitate intraoperative imaging and tissue interrogation.Emerging new optical imaging technologies can be integrated in the operating room environment during minimally invasive and open surgery. These technologies include macroscopic fluorescence imaging that provides contrast enhancement between normal and diseased tissue and microscopic imaging that provides tissue characterization.Optical imaging technologies that have reached the clinical arena in urologic surgery were reviewed, including photodynamic diagnosis, near infrared fluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser endomicroscopy.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOU.0000000000000010

    View details for PubMedID 24240512

  • Transcriptional profiling and network analysis of the murine angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm PHYSIOLOGICAL GENOMICS Spin, J. M., Hsu, M., Azuma, J., Tedesco, M. M., Deng, A., Dyer, J. S., Maegdefessel, L., Dalman, R. L., Tsao, P. S. 2011; 43 (17): 993-1003


    We sought to characterize temporal gene expression changes in the murine angiotensin II (ANG II)-ApoE-/- model of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Aortic ultrasound measurements were obtained over the 28-day time-course. Harvested suprarenal aortic segments were evaluated with whole genome expression profiling at 7, 14, and 28 days using the Agilent Whole Mouse Genome microarray platform and Statistical Analysis of Microarrays at a false discovery rate of <1%. A group of angiotensin-treated mice experienced contained rupture (CR) within 7 days and were analyzed separately. Progressive aortic dilatation occurred throughout the treatment period. However, the numerous early expression differences between ANG II-treated and control were not sustained over time. Ontologic analysis revealed widespread upregulation of inflammatory, immune, and matrix remodeling genes with ANG II treatment, among other pathways such as apoptosis, cell cycling, angiogenesis, and p53 signaling. CR aneurysms displayed significant decreases in TGF-?/BMP-pathway signaling, MAPK signaling, and ErbB signaling genes vs. non-CR/ANG II-treated samples. We also performed literature-based network analysis, extracting numerous highly interconnected genes associated with aneurysm development such as Spp1, Myd88, Adam17 and Lox. 1) ANG II treatment induces extensive early differential expression changes involving abundant signaling pathways in the suprarenal abdominal aorta, particularly wide-ranging increases in inflammatory genes with aneurysm development. 2) These gene expression changes appear to dissipate with time despite continued growth, suggesting that early changes in gene expression influence disease progression in this AAA model, and that the aortic tissue adapts to prolonged ANG II infusion. 3) Network analysis identified nexus genes that may constitute aneurysm biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00044.2011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294730000002

    View details for PubMedID 21712436

  • Length of site-specific positive surgical margins as a risk factor for biochemical recurrence following radical prostatectomy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Hsu, M., Chang, S. L., Ferrari, M., Nolley, R., Presti, J. C., Brooks, J. D. 2011; 18 (4): 272-279
  • Statin treatment increases formation of carbon monoxide and bilirubin in mice: a novel mechanism of in vivo antioxidant protection CANADIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY Muchova, L., Wong, R. J., Hsu, M., Morioka, O., Vitek, L., Zelenka, J., Schroeder, H., Stevenson, D. K. 2007; 85 (8): 800-810


    Heme oxygenase (HO) has a central role in cellular antioxidant defences and vascular protection, and it may mediate pleiotropic actions of drugs used in cardiovascular therapy. We investigated whether long-term use of statins upregulates HO activity and increases carbon monoxide (CO) and bilirubin levels in vivo. Adult FvB mice were given atorvastatin or rosuvastatin (5 mg/kg) daily by i.p. injections for 1, 2, or 3 weeks. HO activity, tissue CO, bilirubin, and antioxidant levels, total plasma bilirubin, and carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) were measured. Fold changes in heart HO activity significantly increased after 1, 2, and 3 weeks of atorvastatin (1.24 +/- 0.06 (p < or = 0.05); 1.29 +/- 0.26 (p < or = 0.03); 1.33 +/- 0.08 (p < 0.01), respectively) and 2 and 3 weeks of rosuvastatin (1.23 +/- 0.20 (p < or = 0.03); 1.63 +/- 0.42 (p < 0.01), respectively). Heart tissue CO and COHb levels also increased after 3 weeks with atorvastatin (1.30 +/- 0.24 (p < or = 0.05); 1.92 +/- 0.17 (p < or = 0.001), respectively) and rosuvastatin (1.47 +/- 0.13 (p < or = 0.004); 1.63 +/- 0.12 (p < or = 0.001), respectively). Significant increases in heart antioxidant levels were observed after statin treatment and corroborated by heart bilirubin content elevations. Antioxidant level increases were abolished by treatment with an HO inhibitor. These findings suggest that the induction of HO and the production of its products, CO and bilirubin, may be a mechanism by which statins exert antioxidant actions and confer cardioprotection in vivo.

    View details for DOI 10.1139/Y07-077

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250261400006

    View details for PubMedID 17901890

  • Targeting integrins and PI3K/Akt-mediated signal transduction pathways enhances radiation-induced anti-angiogenesis RADIATION RESEARCH Ning, S., Chen, Z., Dirks, A., Husbeck, B., Hsu, M., Bedogni, B., O'Neill, M., Powell, M. B., Knox, S. J. 2007; 168 (1): 125-133


    The integrins and PI3K/Akt are important mediators of the signal transduction pathways involved in tumor angiogenesis and cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation. Selective targeting of either integrins or PI3K/Akt can radiosensitize tumors. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the combined inhibition of integrin alphanubeta3 by cRGD and PI3K/Akt by LY294002 would significantly enhance radiation-induced inhibition of angiogenesis by vascular endothelial cells. Treatment with cRGD inhibited the adhesion and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory effect was further increased when cRGD and LY294002 were applied simultaneously. Both radiation and cRGD induced Akt phosphorylation, up-regulated COX2 expression, and increased PGE2 production in HUVECs. Treatment with LY294002 effectively inhibited radiation- and cRGD-induced Akt phosphorylation and up-regulation of COX2 and increased apoptosis of HUVECs. The combined use of cRGD and LY294002 enhanced radiation-induced cell killing. The clonogenic survival of HUVECs was decreased from 34% with 2 Gy radiation to 4% with these agents combined. These results demonstrate that combined use of ionizing radiation, cRGD and LY294002 inhibited multiple signaling transduction pathways involved in tumor angiogenesis and enhanced radiation-induced effects on vascular endothelial cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247607900009

    View details for PubMedID 17722999

  • Tissue-specific effects of statins on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 in vivo BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS HSU, M., Muchova, L., Morioka, I., Wong, R. J., Schroder, H., Stevenson, D. K. 2006; 343 (3): 738-744


    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays a central role in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, which may be mediated through its formation of biliverdin/bilirubin and carbon monoxide. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) induce in vitro HO-1 expression and are reported to have pleiotropic benefits that reduce oxidative stress in the vasculature. We characterized the effects of statins on in vivo HO-1 expression in various extravascular tissues: liver, lung, brain, and heart. Adult mice were orally administered simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin. HO activity significantly increased in a statin- and tissue-specific manner, with all statins increasing heart and lung activity within 24 h. Significant elevations of HO-1 protein and mRNA were also observed in heart and lung after atorvastatin treatment. We conclude that in vivo HO-1 induction is statin- and tissue-specific. Through this pathway, statins may confer antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions in the vasculature and extravascular systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236976800010

    View details for PubMedID 16563347

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