Reduction in red blood cell transfusions using a bedside analyzer in extremely low birth weight infants.
Journal of perinatology
2005; 25 (1): 21-25
Effect of position on sleep, heart rate variability, and QT interval in preterm infants at 1 and 3 months' corrected age
2003; 111 (3): 622-625
Preterm infants typically experience heavy phlebotomy losses from frequent laboratory testing in the first few weeks of life. This results in anemia, requiring red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We recently introduced a bedside point-of-care (POC) blood gas analyzer (iSTAT, Princeton, NJ) that requires a smaller volume of blood to replace conventional Radiometer blood gas and electrolyte analysis used by our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The smaller volume of blood required for sampling (100 vs 300-500 microl), provided an opportunity to assess if a decrease in phlebotomy loss occurred and, if so, to determine if this resulted in decreased transfusions administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants.We hypothesized that the use of the POC iSTAT analyzer that measures pH, PCO(2), PO(2), hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum sodium, serum potassium and ionized calcium would result in a significant decrease in the number and volume of RBC transfusions in the first 2 weeks of life.A retrospective chart review was conducted of all inborn premature infants with birth weights less than 1000 g admitted to the NICU that survived for 2 weeks of age during two separate 1-year periods. Blood gas analysis was performed by conventional laboratory methods during the first period (designated Pre-POC testing) and by the iSTAT POC device during the second period (designated post-POC testing). Data collected for individual infants included the number of RBC transfusions, volume of RBCs transfused, and the number and kind of blood testing done. There was no effort to change either the RBC transfusion criteria applied or blood testing practices.The mean (+/-SD) number of RBC transfusions administered in the first 2 weeks after birth was 5.7+/-3.74 (n=46) in the pre-POC testing period to 3.1+/-2.07 (n=34) in the post-POC testing period (p<0.001), a 46% reduction. The mean volume of RBC transfusions decreased by 43% with use of the POC analyzer, that is, from 78.4+/-51.6 ml/kg in the pre-POC testing group to 44.4+/-32.9 ml/kg in the Post-POC testing group (p<0.002). There was no difference between the two periods in the total number of laboratory blood tests done.Use of a bedside blood gas analyzer is associated with clinically important reductions in RBC transfusions in the ELBW infant during the first two weeks of life.
View details for PubMedID 15496875
Frequency and timing of symptoms in infants screened for sepsis: Effectiveness of a sepsis-screening pathway
2003; 42 (1): 11-18
Prone sleeping position has a strong link to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and the "Back to Sleep" campaign has played an important role in reducing SIDS. We tested the hypothesis that the mechanism of the sleep position effect is based on changes in sleep, arousal, heart rate variability (HRV), and the QT interval of the electrocardiogram.We studied 16 premature infants longitudinally, at 1 and 3 months' corrected age. Videosomnography recordings were made during the infants' normal daytime naps. Each infant was recorded in both supine and prone positions. The recordings were analyzed in 30-second epochs, which were classified as awake, active sleep (AS), quiet sleep (QS), or indeterminate sleep. Electrocardiogram data were sampled with an accuracy of 1 millisecond. Time domain analysis of HRV was measured by standard deviation of all R-R intervals and by the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of the differences between adjacent R-R intervals. Frequency domain analysis was done for low frequency (0.04-0.14 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.5 Hz) HRV. We measured QT, JT, and R-R intervals during AS and QS for each position.We found no significant differences between supine and prone position, either in total sleep time or in percentage of QS. Percentage of AS was significantly lower in the supine position, but only at 1 month corrected age. The incidence of short, spontaneous, sleep transitions was significantly higher in supine, also only at 1 month corrected age. Time domain analysis of HRV showed a significantly lower variability in prone, but only during QS. Frequency domain analysis of HRV showed no differences between the 2 sleeping positions. Both QT and JT intervals were significantly longer in prone during QS, but only at 1 month corrected age.Despite the commonly held belief, prone position did not substantially increase total sleep at these ages. On the other hand, prone sleeping decreased the number of sleep transitions at 1 month corrected age, increased QT and JT intervals, and reduced HRV, thereby potentially increasing the vulnerability for SIDS. This study supports "Back to Sleep" as the position of choice not only for term but also for preterm infants after discharge home.
View details for Web of Science ID 000181294000044
View details for PubMedID 12612246
More awakenings and heart rate variability during supine sleep in preterm infants
1999; 103 (3): 603-609
To determine the frequency and timing of symptoms and to evaluate the effectiveness of a sepsis-screening pathway in term and near-term infants, data were collected prospectively for a period of 1 year from December 1, 2000, to November 30, 2001. Results confirmed that a sepsis-screening pathway using a combination of at least 2 serial complete blood cell count and C-reactive protein measurements in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants is a safe, simple strategy that prevents unnecessary treatment of infants with risk factors with antibiotics. However, most infants with presumed or suspected early-onset sepsis are symptomatic. Routine treatment of asymptomatic infants with risk factors or prior treatment with intrapartum antibiotics is unnecessary. A combined approach of screening in the presence of risk factors and /or symptoms of sepsis and adequate follow-up for infants discharged at less than 72 hours of age may help reduce unnecessary treatment of infants with antibiotics.
View details for Web of Science ID 000180798700002
View details for PubMedID 12635976
Survey of sleeping position after hospital discharge in healthy preterm infants.
Journal of perinatology
1998; 18 (3): 168-172
The Task Force of The American Academy of Pediatrics (1996) recommends the nonprone sleeping position for asymptomatic preterm infants to prevent sudden infant death syndrome. The mechanism by which the nonprone sleeping position reduces the rate of sudden infant death syndrome is unclear for full-term infants and the precise effect of sleeping position on sleep and cardiorespiratory characteristics has never been addressed in preterm infants. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the effect of sleeping position on sleep and cardiorespiratory characteristics in preterm infants at an age when they are ready for discharge.Sixteen asymptomatic preterm infants were studied in both supine and prone sleeping positions at 36.5 +/- 0.6 weeks' postconceptional age using videosomnography. Sleep, respiratory, and heart rate characteristics were compared between the two positions using each infant as his/her own control.More awakenings (ie, arousals >/=60 seconds) were seen during all sleep states in the supine sleeping position but overall the total sleep and percent sleep state were not affected by sleeping position. After each feeding, the first quiet sleep was significantly shorter, with more heart rate variability and awakenings in the supine position. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of arousals (<60 seconds) or the incidence or severity of apnea and periodic breathing. No clinically significant apnea (>/=15 seconds), bradycardia, or oxygen desaturations were seen.In 36-week-postconceptional age preterm infants, the supine sleeping position had less quiet sleep and was associated with greater heart rate variability during the first sleep cycle after the feeding. More awakenings were seen during all sleep states in the supine position. These data support the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for "Back to Sleep" for asymptomatic preterm infants because more awakenings and lower threshold for arousal may provide some benefit for the infant responding to a life-threatening event. However, further studies are needed to address positional effect on the physiologic measures in preterm infants at older ages (later stages of development). Precisely what constitutes the most healthy or advantageous sleep for newborn infants remains an important question.
View details for Web of Science ID 000078960100012
View details for PubMedID 10049964
To evaluate the prevalence of nonprone (supine or side) versus prone sleeping position in healthy preterm infants.A questionnaire on sleeping position was mailed to mothers of 167 preterm infants discharged from the intermediate nursery at Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford. The prevalence of nonprone sleeping at 1 month (term corrected age) and 3 months (2 months corrected age) after nursery discharge was analyzed by an unpaired t test.Nonprone position sleeping occurred in 64% initially and dropped to 35% at 2 months corrected age.Overall, nonprone sleeping was widespread in our healthy preterm infants after hospital discharge but may not persist. A majority of these infants were sleeping prone during a high-risk period for sudden infant death syndrome.
View details for PubMedID 9659642