Bio

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Scientific Committee, Stanford Translational Research and Applied Medicine Program (2012 - Present)

Professional Education


  • MD, Albany Medical College (1997)
  • Residency, Duke University, Internal Medicine (2000)
  • Fellowship, UCSF, Nephrology (2004)
  • MPH, UC Berkeley, Epidemiology (2004)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


I am a clinical and health services investigator whose primary interest is in improving the quality of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) care among older adults. My previous and current work aims to describe outcomes (especially geriatric outcomes) in older patients and to compare the effectiveness of different ESRD management strategies on these outcomes.

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Optimizing renal replacement therapy in older adults: a framework for making individualized decisions KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Tamura, M. K., Tan, J. C., O'Hare, A. M. 2012; 82 (3): 261-269

    Abstract

    It is often difficult to synthesize information about the risks and benefits of recommended management strategies in older patients with end-stage renal disease since they may have more comorbidity and lower life expectancy than patients described in clinical trials or practice guidelines. In this review, we outline a framework for individualizing end-stage renal disease management decisions in older patients. The framework considers three factors: life expectancy, the risks and benefits of competing treatment strategies, and patient preferences. We illustrate the use of this framework by applying it to three key end-stage renal disease decisions in older patients with varying life expectancy: choice of dialysis modality, choice of vascular access for hemodialysis, and referral for kidney transplantation. In several instances, this approach might provide support for treatment decisions that directly contradict available practice guidelines, illustrating circumstances when strict application of guidelines may be inappropriate for certain patients. By combining quantitative estimates of benefits and harms with qualitative assessments of patient preferences, clinicians may be better able to tailor treatment recommendations to individual older patients, thereby improving the overall quality of end-stage renal disease care.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ki.2011.384

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306370500005

    View details for PubMedID 22089945

  • Regional Variation in Health Care Intensity and Treatment Practices for End-stage Renal Disease in Older Adults JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION O'Hare, A. M., Rodriguez, R. A., Hailpern, S. M., Larson, E. B., Tamura, M. K. 2010; 304 (2): 180-186

    Abstract

    An increasing number of older adults are being treated for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with long-term dialysis.To determine how ESRD treatment practices for older adults vary across regions with differing end-of-life intensity of care.Retrospective observational study using a national ESRD registry to identify a cohort of 41,420 adults (of white or black race), aged 65 years or older, who started long-term dialysis or received a kidney transplant between June 1, 2005, and May 31, 2006. Regional end-of-life intensity of care was defined using an index from the Dartmouth Atlas of Healthcare.Incidence of treated ESRD (dialysis or transplant), preparedness for ESRD (under the care of a nephrologist, having a fistula [vs graft or catheter] at time of hemodialysis initiation), and end-of-life care practices.Among whites, the incidence of ESRD was progressively higher in regions with greater intensity of care and this trend was most pronounced at older ages. Among blacks, a similar relationship was present only at advanced ages (men aged > or = 80 years and women aged > or = 85 years). Patients living in regions in the highest compared with lowest quintile of end-of-life intensity of care were less likely to be under the care of a nephrologist before the onset of ESRD (62.3% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 61.3%-63.3%] vs 71.1% [95% CI, 69.9%-72.2%], respectively) and less likely to have a fistula (vs graft or catheter) at the time of hemodialysis initiation (11.2% [95% CI, 10.6%-11.8%] vs 16.9% [95% CI, 15.9%-17.8%]). Among patients who died within 2 years of ESRD onset (n = 21,190), those living in regions in the highest compared with lowest quintile of end-of-life intensity of care were less likely to have discontinued dialysis before death (22.2% [95% CI, 21.1%-23.4%] vs 44.3% [95% CI, 42.5%-46.1%], respectively), less likely to have received hospice care (20.7% [95% CI, 19.5%-21.9%] vs 33.5% [95% CI, 31.7%-35.4%]), and more likely to have died in the hospital (67.8% [95% CI, 66.5%-69.1%] vs 50.3% [95% CI, 48.5%-52.1%]). These differences persisted in adjusted analyses.There are pronounced regional differences in treatment practices for ESRD in older adults that are not explained by differences in patient characteristics.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279811000024

    View details for PubMedID 20628131

  • Functional Status of Elderly Adults before and after Initiation of Dialysis NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Tamura, M. K., Covinsky, K. E., Chertow, G. M., Yaffe, K., Landefeld, C. S., McCulloch, C. E. 2009; 361 (16): 1539-1547

    Abstract

    It is unclear whether functional status before dialysis is maintained after the initiation of this therapy in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Using a national registry of patients undergoing dialysis, which was linked to a national registry of nursing home residents, we identified all 3702 nursing home residents in the United States who were starting treatment with dialysis between June 1998 and October 2000 and for whom at least one measurement of functional status was available before the initiation of dialysis. Functional status was measured by assessing the degree of dependence in seven activities of daily living (on the Minimum Data Set-Activities of Daily Living [MDS-ADL] scale of 0 to 28 points, with higher scores indicating greater functional difficulty).The median MDS-ADL score increased from 12 during the 3 months before the initiation of dialysis to 16 during the 3 months after the initiation of dialysis. Three months after the initiation of dialysis, functional status had been maintained in 39% of nursing home residents, but by 12 months after the initiation of dialysis, 58% had died and predialysis functional status had been maintained in only 13%. In a random-effects model, the initiation of dialysis was associated with a sharp decline in functional status, indicated by an increase of 2.8 points in the MDS-ADL score (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 3.0); this decline was independent of age, sex, race, and functional-status trajectory before the initiation of dialysis. The decline in functional status associated with the initiation of dialysis remained substantial (1.7 points; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.1), even after adjustment for the presence or absence of an accelerated functional decline during the 3-month period before the initiation of dialysis.Among nursing home residents with ESRD, the initiation of dialysis is associated with a substantial and sustained decline in functional status.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270777000007

    View details for PubMedID 19828531

  • Octogenarians and nonagenarians starting dialysis in the United States ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Kurella, M., Covinsky, K. E., Collins, A. J., Chertow, G. M. 2007; 146 (3): 177-183

    Abstract

    The elderly constitute the fastest-growing segment of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population, but the epidemiology and outcomes of dialysis among the very elderly, that is, those 80 years of age and older, have not been previously examined at a national level.To describe recent trends in the incidence and outcomes of octogenarians and nonagenarians starting dialysis.Observational study.U.S. Renal Data System, a comprehensive, national registry of patients with ESRD.Octogenarians and nonagenarians initiating dialysis between 1996 and 2003.Rates of dialysis initiation and survival.The number of octogenarians and nonagenarians starting dialysis increased from 7054 persons in 1996 to 13,577 persons in 2003, corresponding to an average annual increase in dialysis initiation of 9.8%. After we accounted for population growth, the rate of dialysis initiation increased by 57% (rate ratio, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.53 to 1.62]) between 1996 and 2003. One-year mortality for octogenarians and nonagenarians after dialysis initiation was 46%. Compared with octogenarians and nonagenarians initiating dialysis in 1996, those starting dialysis in 2003 had a higher glomerular filtration rate and less morbidity related to chronic kidney disease but no difference in 1-year survival. Clinical characteristics strongly associated with death were older age, nonambulatory status, and more comorbid conditions.Survival of patients with incident ESRD who did not begin dialysis could not be assessed.The number of octogenarians and nonagenarians initiating dialysis has increased considerably over the past decade, while overall survival for patients on dialysis remains modest. Estimates of prognosis based on patient characteristics, when considered in conjunction with individual values and preferences, may aid in dialysis decision making for the very elderly.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243957400003

    View details for PubMedID 17283348

  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Mortality in Patients Receiving Dialysis: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study JOURNAL OF RENAL NUTRITION Anand, S., Chertow, G. M., Johansen, K. L., Grimes, B., Dalrymple, L. S., Kaysen, G. A., Tamura, M. K. 2013; 23 (6): 422-427

    Abstract

    Although several studies have shown poorer survival among individuals with 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D deficiency, data on patients receiving dialysis are limited. Using data from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS), we tested the hypothesis that patients new to dialysis with low serum concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D would experience higher mortality and hospitalizations.The CDS is a prospective cohort study.We recruited participants from 56 dialysis units located throughout the United States.We obtained data on demographics, comorbidites, and laboratory values from the CDS Patient Questionnaire as well as the Medical Evidence Form (CMS form 2728). Participants provided baseline serum samples for 25-OH vitamin D measurements.We ascertained time to death and first hospitalization as well as number of first-year hospitalizations via the U.S. Renal Data System standard analysis files. We used Cox proportional hazards to determine the association between 25-OH vitamin D tertiles and survival and hospitalization. For number of hospitalizations in the first year, we used negative binomial regression.The analytic cohort was composed of 256 patients with Patient Questionnaire data and 25-OH vitamin D concentrations. The mean age of participants was 62 (±14.0) years, and mean follow-up was 3.8 years. Patients with 25-OH vitamin D concentrations in the lowest tertile (<10.6 ng/mL) at the start of dialysis experienced higher mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-2.97) as well as hospitalization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.24-2.49). Patients in the lower 2 tertiles (<15.5 ng/mL) experienced a higher rate of hospitalizations in the first year (incidence rate ratio 1.70 [95% CI 1.06-2.72] for middle tertile, 1.66 [95% CI 1.10-2.51] for lowest tertile).We found a sizeable increase in mortality and hospitalization for patients on dialysis with severe 25-OH vitamin D deficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jrn.2013.05.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327007600007

  • Pre-ESRD Changes in Body Weight and Survival in Nursing Home Residents Starting Dialysis CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Stack, S., Chertow, G. M., Johansen, K. L., Si, Y., Tamura, M. K. 2013; 8 (10): 1734-1740

    Abstract

    Among patients receiving maintenance dialysis, weight loss at any body mass index is associated with mortality. However, it is not known whether weight changes before dialysis initiation are associated with mortality and if so, what risks are associated with weight gain or loss.Linking data from the US Renal Data System to a national registry of nursing home residents, this study identified 11,090 patients who started dialysis between January of 2000 and December of 2006. Patients were categorized according to weight measured between 3 and 6 months before dialysis initiation and the percentage change in body weight before dialysis initiation (divided into quintiles). The outcome was mortality within 1 year of starting dialysis.There were 361 patients (3.3%) who were underweight (Quételet's [body mass] index<18.5 kg/m(2)) and 4046 patients (36.5%) who were obese (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) before dialysis initiation. The median percentage change in body weight before dialysis initiation was -6% (interquartile range=-13% to 1%). There were 6063 deaths (54.7%) over 1 year of follow-up. Compared with patients with minimal weight changes (-3% to 3%, quintile 4), patients with weight loss ≥ 15% (quintile 1) had 35% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.47), whereas those patients with weight gain ≥ 4% (quintile 5) had a 24% higher risk for mortality (95% confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.35) adjusted for baseline body mass index and other confounders.Among nursing home residents, changes in body weight in advance of dialysis initiation are associated with significantly higher 1-year mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.01410213

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325268200015

    View details for PubMedID 24009221

  • Impact of frequent hemodialysis on anemia management: results from the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Trials NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Ornt, D. B., Larive, B., Rastogi, A., Rashid, M., Daugirdas, J. T., Hernandez, A., Tamura, M. K., Suri, R. S., Levin, N. W., Kliger, A. S. 2013; 28 (7): 1888-1898

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfs593

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321821900034

  • Risk Factors for ESRD in Individuals With Preserved Estimated GFR With and Without Albuminuria: Results From the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Chang, T. I., Li, S., Chen, S., Peralta, C. A., Shlipak, M. G., Fried, L. F., Whaley-Connell, A. T., McCullough, P. A., Tamura, M. K. 2013; 61 (4): S4-S11

    Abstract

    Given the increasing costs and poor outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), we sought to identify risk factors for ESRD in people with preserved estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), with or without albuminuria, who were at high risk of ESRD.This cohort study included participants in the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) with eGFR ? 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at baseline stratified by the presence or absence of albuminuria. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation was used to calculate eGFR. Urine was tested for albuminuria by semiquantitative dipstick. The outcome was the development of treated chronic kidney failure, defined as initiation of maintenance dialysis therapy or kidney transplantation, determined by linkage to the US Renal Data System. We used a Cox model with the Fine-Gray method to assess risk factors for treated chronic kidney failure while accounting for the competing risk of death.During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 126 of 13,923 participants with albuminuria (16/10,000 patient-years) and 56 of 109,135 participants without albuminuria (1.1/10,000 patient-years) developed treated chronic kidney failure. Diabetes was a strong risk factor for developing treated chronic kidney failure in participants with and without albuminuria (adjusted HRs of 9.3 [95% CI, 5.7-15.3] and 7.8 [95% CI, 4.1-14.8], respectively). Black race, lower eGFR, and higher systolic blood pressure also were associated with higher adjusted risks of developing treated chronic kidney failure.In a diverse high-risk cohort of KEEP participants with preserved eGFR, we showed that diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, lower eGFR, and black race were risk factors for developing treated chronic kidney failure irrespective of albuminuria status, although the absolute risk of kidney failure in participants without albuminuria was very low. Our findings support testing for kidney disease in high-risk populations, which often have otherwise unrecognized kidney disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.12.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317270600002

    View details for PubMedID 23507268

  • Effect of More Frequent Hemodialysis on Cognitive Function in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Tamura, M. K., Unruh, M. L., Nissenson, A. R., Larive, B., Eggers, P. W., Gassman, J., Mehta, R. L., Kliger, A. S., Stokes, J. B. 2013; 61 (2): 228-237

    Abstract

    Cognitive impairment is common in patients with end-stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis 3 times per week.Randomized clinical trial.218 individuals participating in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily Trial and 81 participating in the FHN Nocturnal Trial.The Daily Trial tested in-center hemodialysis 6 times per week versus 3 times per week. The Nocturnal Trial tested home nocturnal hemodialysis 6 times per week versus home or in-center hemodialysis 3 times per week.Cognitive function was measured at baseline, month 4, and month 12. The primary outcome was performance on the Trail-Making Test, Form B, a measure of executive function, and a secondary outcome was performance on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, a measure of global cognition. The domains of attention, psychomotor speed, memory, and verbal fluency were assessed in 59 participants in the Daily Trial and 19 participants in the Nocturnal Trial.We found no benefit of frequent hemodialysis in either trial for the primary cognitive outcome (Daily Trial: OR for improvement, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.59-1.66; Nocturnal Trial: OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.48-2.96). Similarly, there was no benefit of frequent hemodialysis in either trial on global cognition, the secondary cognitive outcome. Exploratory analyses in the Daily Trial suggested possible benefits of frequent hemodialysis for memory and verbal fluency, but not for attention and psychomotor speed. Exploratory analyses in the Nocturnal Trial suggested no benefit of frequent hemodialysis on attention, psychomotor speed, memory, or verbal fluency.Unblinded intervention, small sample.Frequent hemodialysis did not improve executive function or global cognition.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.09.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313591800009

  • The Association between Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Hemoglobin in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Participants in the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program CARDIORENAL MEDICINE Memon, I., Norris, K. C., Bomback, A. S., Peralta, C., Li, S., Chen, S., McCullough, P. A., Whaley-Connell, A., Jurkovitz, C., Tamura, M. K., Saab, G. 2013; 3 (2): 120-127

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000351229

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321809200005

  • Predialyis Nephrology Care of Older Individuals Approaching End-Stage Renal Disease SEMINARS IN DIALYSIS Winkelmayer, W. C., Tamura, M. K. 2012; 25 (6): 628-632

    Abstract

    Many older patients with advanced CKD approaching ESRD do not receive timely nephrology care, although data suggest that the situation may be improving. In 2005-2008, 43% of older patients who initiated renal replacement therapy had experienced an outpatient nephrologist consultation more than 1 year before starting treatment. Earlier consultation with a nephrologist has been found to provide better access to peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation, better preparation for the chosen dialytic modality, and improved survival after start of dialysis or receipt of a kidney transplant. Recent data suggest that older individuals are less likely to receive treatment for ESRD compared with younger individuals in whom almost all receive dialysis treatment or transplantation. Little is known about the role nephrologists play in the decision whether to initiate dialysis or choose a conservative route among older adults with ESRD. Defining the appropriate role and involvement of nephrologists in the decision about initiating renal replacement therapy in older adults seems ripe for further investigation and discussion.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/sdi.12036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311404400007

    View details for PubMedID 23173891

  • The IDEAL Trial: A Closer Look SEMINARS IN DIALYSIS Tamura, M. K. 2012; 25 (5): 523-525
  • Prevalence and significance of stroke symptoms among patients receiving maintenance dialysis NEUROLOGY Tamura, M. K., Meyer, J. B., Saxena, A. B., Huh, J. W., Wadley, V. G., Schiller, B. 2012; 79 (10): 981-987

    Abstract

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and potential significance of stroke symptoms among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients without a prior diagnosis of stroke or TIA.We enrolled 148 participants with ESRD from 5 clinics. Stroke symptoms and functional status, basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL), were ascertained by validated questionnaires. Cognitive function was assessed with a neurocognitive battery. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score 2 SDs below norms for age and education in 2 domains. IADL impairment was defined as needing assistance in at least 1 of 7 IADLs.Among the 126 participants without a prior stroke or TIA, 46 (36.5%) had experienced one or more stroke symptoms. After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, language, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, participants with stroke symptoms had lower scores on tests of attention, psychomotor speed, and executive function, and more pronounced dependence in IADLs and ADLs (p ≤ 0.01 for all). After adjustment for age, sex, race, education, language, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, participants with stroke symptoms had a higher likelihood of cognitive impairment (odds ratio [OR] 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-5.92) and IADL impairment (OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.60-9.28).Stroke symptoms are common among patients with ESRD and strongly associated with impairments in cognition and functional status. These findings suggest that clinically significant stroke events may go undiagnosed in this high-risk population.

    View details for DOI 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31826845e9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308674000012

  • Awareness of Kidney Disease and Relationship to End-stage Renal Disease and Mortality AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Whaley-Connell, A., Shlipak, M. G., Inker, L. A., Tamura, M. K., Bomback, A. S., Saab, G., Szpunar, S. M., McFarlane, S. I., Li, S., Chen, S., Norris, K., Bakris, G. L., McCullough, P. A. 2012; 125 (7): 661-669

    Abstract

    Often, patients with chronic kidney disease are reported to be unaware of it. We prospectively evaluated the association between awareness of kidney disease to end-stage renal disease and mortality.We utilized 2000-2009 data from the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program. Mortality was determined by cross reference to the Social Security Administration Death Master File and development of end stage by cross reference with the United States Renal Data System.Of 109,285 participants, 28,244 (26%) had chronic kidney disease defined by albuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Only 9% (n=2660) reported being aware of kidney disease. Compared with those who were not aware, participants aware of chronic kidney disease had lower eGFR (49 vs 62 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and a higher prevalence of albuminuria (52% vs. 46%), diabetes (47% vs 42%), cardiovascular disease (43% vs 28%), and cancer (23% vs 14%). Over 8.5 years of follow-up, aware participants compared with those unaware had a lower rate of survival for end stage (83% and 96%) and mortality (78% vs 81%), P <.001. After adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic factors, comorbidity, and severity of kidney disease, aware participants continued to demonstrate an increased risk for end-stage renal disease (hazard ratio 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.75; P <.0123) and mortality (hazard ratio 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.52; P <.0077) relative to unaware participants with chronic kidney disease.Among patients identified as having chronic kidney disease at a health screening, only a small proportion had been made aware of their diagnosis previously by clinicians. This subgroup was at a disproportionately high risk for mortality and end-stage renal disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.11.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305752700019

    View details for PubMedID 22626510

  • Factors Associated With Depressive Symptoms and Use of Antidepressant Medications Among Participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC Studies AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Fischer, M. J., Xie, D., Jordan, N., Kop, W. J., Krousel-Wood, M., Tamura, M. K., Kusek, J. W., Ford, V., Rosen, L. K., Strauss, L., Teal, V. L., Yaffe, K., Powe, N. R., Lash, J. P. 2012; 60 (1): 27-38

    Abstract

    Depressive symptoms are correlated with poor health outcomes in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence, severity, and treatment of depressive symptoms and potential risk factors, including level of kidney function, in diverse populations with CKD have not been well studied.Cross-sectional analysis.Participants at enrollment into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) and Hispanic-CRIC (H-CRIC) Studies. CRIC enrolled Hispanics and non-Hispanics at 7 centers in 2003-2007, and H-CRIC enrolled Hispanics at the University of Illinois in 2005-2008.Depressive symptoms measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).Demographic and clinical factors.Elevated depressive symptoms (BDI score ?11) and antidepressant medication use.Of 3,853 participants, 27.4% had evidence of elevated depressive symptoms and 18.2% were using antidepressant medications; 31.0% of persons with elevated depressive symptoms were using antidepressants. The prevalence of elevated depressive symptoms varied by level of kidney function: 23.6% for participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ?60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and 33.8% of those with eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Lower eGFR (OR per 10-mL/min/1.73 m(2) decrease, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17), and non-Hispanic black race (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.16-1.74) were each associated with increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms after controlling for other factors. In regression analyses incorporating BDI score, whereas female sex was associated with greater odds of antidepressant use, Hispanic ethnicity, non-Hispanic black race, and higher urine albumin levels were associated with decreased odds of antidepressant use (P < 0.05 for each).Absence of clinical diagnosis of depression and use of nonpharmacologic treatments.Although elevated depressive symptoms were common in individuals with CKD, use of antidepressant medications is low. Individuals of racial and ethnic minority background and with more advanced CKD had a greater burden of elevated depressive symptoms and lower use of antidepressant medications.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.12.033

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305406200007

    View details for PubMedID 22497791

  • Timing of initiation of dialysis: time for a new direction? CURRENT OPINION IN NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION Abra, G., Tamura, M. K. 2012; 21 (3): 329-333

    Abstract

    The past 15 years have seen tremendous growth in the initiation of dialysis at higher levels of kidney function in the setting of mixed evidence and at great societal economic cost. We review recent data on the early dialysis initiation trend, the clinical and economic impact of early dialysis initiation and the future implications for the management of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD).The percentage of patients who initiate dialysis with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) above 10 ?ml/min/1.73m(2) is now greater than 50%, including 20% who initiate with an eGFR above 15 ml/min/1.73m(2). The drivers behind these findings are probably diverse but recent literature does not seem to support a higher symptom burden among the ageing CKD population as the major cause. The Initiating Dialysis Early And Late (IDEAL) trial provides guidance on the safety of waiting for symptoms or lower levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate prior to beginning dialysis. In addition, economic analyses based on the IDEAL and US Renal Data System findings suggest that significant cost savings could be achieved by reversing the early initiation trend.These findings should help clinicians and policy makers looking to rein in costs while maintaining the quality of CKD care.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MNH.0b013e328351c244

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302769500014

    View details for PubMedID 22388556

  • Blood Pressure Components and End-stage Renal Disease in Persons With Chronic Kidney Disease The Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Peralta, C. A., Norris, K. C., Li, S., Chang, T. I., Tamura, M. K., Jolly, S. E., Bakris, G., McCullough, P. A., Shlipak, M. 2012; 172 (1): 41-47

    Abstract

    Treatment of hypertension is difficult in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and blood pressure goals remain controversial. The association between each blood pressure component and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk is less well known.We studied associations of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) and pulse pressure (PP) with ESRD risk among 16,129 Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using Cox proportional hazards. We estimated the prevalence and characteristics associated with uncontrolled hypertension (SBP ≥ 150 or DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg).The mean (SD) age of participants was 69 (12) years; 25% were black, 6% were Hispanic, and 43% had diabetes mellitus. Over 2.87 years, there were 320 ESRD events. Higher SBP was associated with higher ESRD risk, starting at SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher. After sex and age adjustment, compared with SBP lower than 130 mm Hg, hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.74-1.59) for SBP of 130 to 139 mm Hg, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.21-2.45) for SBP of 140 to 149 mm Hg, and 3.36 (95% CI, 2.51-4.49) for SBP of 150 mm Hg or greater. After full adjustment, HRs for ESRD were 1.27 (95% CI, 0.88-1.83) for SBP of 140 to 149 mm Hg and 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02-1.85) for SBP of 150 mm Hg or higher. Persons with DBP of 90 mm Hg or higher were at higher risk for ESRD compared with persons with DBP of 60 to 74 mm Hg (HR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.33-2.45). Higher PP was also associated with higher ESRD risk (HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.00-2.07] for PP ≥ 80 mm Hg compared with PP < 50 mm Hg). Adjustment for SBP attenuated this association. More than 33% of participants had uncontrolled hypertension (SBP ≥ 150 mm Hg or DBP ≥ 90 mm Hg), mostly due to isolated systolic hypertension (54%).In this large, diverse, community-based sample, we found that high SBP seemed to account for most of the risk of progression to ESRD. This risk started at SBP of 140 mm Hg rather than the currently recommended goal of less than 130 mm Hg, and it was highest among those with SBP of at least 150 mm Hg. Treatment strategies that preferentially lower SBP may be required to improve BP control in CKD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298958900008

    View details for PubMedID 22232147

  • Association of Self-reported Physical Activity With Laboratory Markers of Nutrition and Inflammation: The Comprehensive Dialysis Study JOURNAL OF RENAL NUTRITION Anand, S., Chertow, G. M., Johansen, K. L., Grimes, B., Tamura, M. K., Dalrymple, L. S., Kaysen, G. A. 2011; 21 (6): 429-437

    Abstract

    Patients on dialysis maintain extremely low levels of physical activity. Prior studies have demonstrated a direct correlation between nutrition and physical activity but provide conflicting data on the link between inflammation and physical activity. Using a cohort of patients new to dialysis from the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS), we examined associations of self-reported physical activity with laboratory markers of nutrition and inflammation.Between June 2005 and June 2007, CDS collected data on self-reported physical activity, nutrition, and health-related quality of life from patients starting dialysis in 296 facilities located throughout the United States. Baseline serum samples were collected from participants in a nutrition sub-study of CDS.Serum albumin and prealbumin were measured as markers of nutrition, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and ?-1-acid glycoprotein as markers of inflammation. Self-reported physical activity was characterized by the maximum activity score (MAS) and adjusted activity score (AAS) of the Human Activity Profile.The mean age of participants in the analytic cohort (n = 201) was 61 years. The MAS and AAS were below the 10th and first percentile, respectively, in comparison with healthy 60 year-old norms. Both activity scores were directly correlated with albumin (r(2) = 0.3, P < .0001) and prealbumin (r(2) = 0.3, P < .0001), and inversely correlated with CRP (AAS: r(2) = -0.2, P = .01; MAS: r(2) = -0.1, P = .08). In multivariate analyses adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, diabetes status, and center, both activity scores were directly correlated with prealbumin and inversely correlated with CRP.Patients new to dialysis with laboratory-based evidence of malnutrition and/or inflammation are likely to report lower levels of physical activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.jrn.2010.09.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296533100001

    View details for PubMedID 21239185

  • Vitamin D deficiency, self-reported physical activity and health-related quality of life: the Comprehensive Dialysis Study NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Anand, S., Kaysen, G. A., Chertow, G. M., Johansen, K. L., Grimes, B., Dalrymple, L. S., Tamura, M. K. 2011; 26 (11): 3683-3688

    Abstract

    As research has identified a wide array of biological functions of vitamin D, the consequences of vitamin D deficiency in persons with chronic kidney disease has attracted increased attention. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) deficiency and its associations with self-reported physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among participants of the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS).The nutrition substudy of the CDS enrolled patients new to dialysis from 68 dialysis units throughout the USA. Baseline 25-OH vitamin D concentration was measured using the Direct Enzyme Immunoassay (Immunodiagnostic Systems Inc.). Physical activity was measured with the Human Activity Profile (HAP); the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12) was employed to measure HRQoL.Mean age of the participants (n = 192) was 62 years. There were 124 participants (65%) with 25-OH vitamin D concentrations < 15 ng/mL, indicating deficiency, and 64 (33%) with 25-OH vitamin D ? 15 to <30 ng/mL, indicating insufficiency. After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, season and center, lower 25-OH vitamin D concentrations were independently associated with lower scores on the HAP and on the Mental Component Summary of the SF-12 (P < 0.05 for both), but not with the Physical Component Summary of the SF-12.In a well-characterized cohort of incident dialysis patients, lower 25-OH vitamin D concentrations were associated with lower self-reported physical activity and poorer self-reported mental health.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfr098

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296350400041

    View details for PubMedID 21430182

  • Albuminuria, kidney function, and the incidence of cognitive impairment among adults in the United States. American journal of kidney diseases Kurella Tamura, M., Muntner, P., Wadley, V., Cushman, M., Zakai, N. A., Bradbury, B. D., Kissela, B., Unverzagt, F., Howard, G., Warnock, D., McClellan, W. 2011; 58 (5): 756-763

    Abstract

    Albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are each associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment, but their joint association is unknown.Prospective cohort study.A US national sample of 19,399 adults without cognitive impairment at baseline participating in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Disparities in Stroke) Study.Albuminuria was assessed using urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and GFR was estimated using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) equation.Incident cognitive impairment was defined as score ≤4 on the 6-Item Screener at the last follow-up visit.During a mean follow-up of 3.8 ± 1.5 years, UACRs of 30-299 and ≥300 mg/g were associated independently with 31% and 57% higher risk of cognitive impairment, respectively, relative to individuals with UACR <10 mg/g. This finding was strongest for those with high eGFRs and attenuated at lower levels (P = 0.04 for trend). Relative to eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was not associated independently with cognitive impairment. However, after stratifying by UACR, eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was associated with a 30% higher risk of cognitive impairment in participants with UACR <10 mg/g, but not higher UACRs (P = 0.04 for trend).Single measures of albuminuria and eGFR, screening test of cognition.When eGFR was preserved, albuminuria was associated independently with incident cognitive impairment. When albuminuria was <10 mg/g, low eGFR was associated independently with cognitive impairment. Albuminuria and low eGFR are complementary, but not additive, risk factors for incident cognitive impairment.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.05.027

    View details for PubMedID 21816528

  • Albuminuria, Kidney Function, and the Incidence of Cognitive Impairment Among Adults in the United States AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Tamura, M. K., Muntner, P., Wadley, V., Cushman, M., Zakai, N. A., Bradbury, B. D., Kissela, B., Unverzagt, F., Howard, G., Warnock, D., McClellan, W. 2011; 58 (5): 756-763
  • LESS IS MORE Trends in Timing of Initiation of Chronic Dialysis in the United States ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE O'Hare, A. M., Choi, A. I., Boscardin, W. J., Clinton, W. L., Zawadzki, I., Hebert, P. L., Tamura, M. K., Taylor, L., Larson, E. B. 2011; 171 (18): 1663-1669
  • Correlates of insulin resistance in older individuals with and without kidney disease NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Landau, M., Kurella-Tamura, M., Shlipak, M. G., Kanaya, A., Strotmeyer, E., Koster, A., Satterfield, S., Simsonick, E. M., Goodpaster, B., Newman, A. B., Fried, L. F. 2011; 26 (9): 2814-2819

    Abstract

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with insulin resistance (IR). Prior studies have found that in individuals with CKD, leptin is associated with fat mass but resistin is not and the associations with adiponectin are conflicting. This suggests that the mechanism and factors associated with IR in CKD may differ.Of the 2418 individuals without reported diabetes at baseline, participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, a study in older individuals aged 70-79 years, 15.6% had CKD defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) based on cystatin C. IR was defined as the upper quartile of the homeostasis model assessment. The association of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat, percent body fat, muscle fat, lipids, inflammatory markers and adiponectin were tested with logistic regression. Interactions were checked to assess whether the factors associated with IR were different in those with and without CKD.Individuals with IR had a lower eGFR (80.7 ± 20.9 versus 75.6 ± 19.6, P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, eGFR (odds ratio per 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.87-0.98) and CKD (1.41, 1.04-1.92) remained independently associated with IR. In individuals with and without CKD, the significant predictors of IR were male sex, black race, higher visceral fat, abdominal subcutaneous fat and triglycerides. In individuals without CKD, IR was associated with lower high-density lipoprotein and current nonsmoking status in multivariate analysis. In contrast, among individuals with CKD, interleukin-6 (IL-6) was independently associated with IR. There was a significant interaction of eGFR with race and IL-6 with a trend for adionectin but no significant interactions with CKD (P > 0.1). In the fully adjusted model, there was a trend for an interaction with adiponectin for eGFR (P = 0.08) and significant for CKD (P = 0.04 ), where adiponectin was associated with IR in those without CKD but not in those with CKD.In mainly Stage 3 CKD, kidney function is associated with IR; except for adiponectin, the correlates of IR are similar in those with and without CKD.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfq817

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295231600016

    View details for PubMedID 21248294

  • Predialysis Nephrology Care of Older Patients Approaching End-stage Renal Disease ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Winkelmayer, W. C., Liu, J., Chertow, G. M., Tamura, M. K. 2011; 171 (15): 1371-1378

    Abstract

    Little is known about trends in the timing of first nephrology consultation and associated outcomes among older patients initiating dialysis.Data from patients aged 67 years or older who initiated dialysis in the United States between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2006, were stratified by timing of the earliest identifiable nephrology visit. Trends of earlier nephrology consultation were formally examined in light of concurrently changing case mix and juxtaposed with trends in 1-year mortality rates after initiation of dialysis.Among 323,977 older patients initiating dialysis, the proportion of patients receiving nephrology care less than 3 months before initiation of dialysis decreased from 49.6% (in 1996) to 34.7% (in 2006). Patients initiated dialysis with increasingly preserved kidney function, from a mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 1996 to 12 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in 2006. Patients were less anemic in later years, which was partly attributable to increased use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and fewer used peritoneal dialysis as the initial modality. During the same period, crude 1-year mortality rates remained unchanged (annual change in mortality rate, +0.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0% to +0.4%). Adjustment for changes in demographic and comorbidity patterns yielded estimated annual reductions in 1-year mortality rates of 0.9% (95% confidence interval, 0.7% to 1.1%), which were explained only partly by concurrent trends toward earlier nephrology consultation (annual mortality reduction after accounting for timing of nephrology care was attenuated to 0.4% [0.2% to 0.6%]).Despite significant trends toward earlier use of nephrology consultation among older patients approaching maintenance dialysis, we observed no material improvement in 1-year survival rates after dialysis initiation during the same time period.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293642800013

    View details for PubMedID 21824952

  • Association of Educational Attainment With Chronic Disease and Mortality: The Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Choi, A. I., Weekley, C. C., Chen, S., Li, S., Tamura, M. K., Norris, K. C., Shlipak, M. G. 2011; 58 (2): 228-234

    Abstract

    Recent reports have suggested a close relationship between education and health, including mortality, in the United States.Observational cohort.We studied 61,457 participants enrolled in a national health screening initiative, the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP).Self-reported educational attainment.Chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, reduced kidney function, and albuminuria) and mortality.We evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported educational attainment with the chronic diseases listed using logistic regression models adjusted for demographics, access to care, behaviors, and comorbid conditions. The association of educational attainment with survival was determined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression.Higher educational attainment was associated with a lower prevalence of each of the chronic conditions listed. In multivariable models, compared with persons not completing high school, college graduates had a lower risk of each chronic condition, ranging from 11% lower odds of decreased kidney function to 37% lower odds of cardiovascular disease. During a mean follow-up of 3.9 (median, 3.7) years, 2,384 (4%) deaths occurred. In the fully adjusted Cox model, those who had completed college had 24% lower mortality compared with participants who had completed at least some high school.Lack of income data does not allow us to disentangle the independent effects of education from income.In this diverse contemporary cohort, higher educational attainment was associated independently with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases and short-term mortality in all age and race/ethnicity groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2011.02.388

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293010000012

    View details for PubMedID 21601328

  • To Predict Dementia, Should We Be Mindful of the Kidneys? CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Tamura, M. K. 2011; 6 (6): 1232-1234

    View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.03390411

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291500900002

    View details for PubMedID 21566105

  • Special Considerations in the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in the Elderly DIALYSIS & TRANSPLANTATION Cheung, K. L., Soman, S., Tamura, M. K. 2011; 40 (6): 241-243

    View details for DOI 10.1002/dat.20571

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291561300004

    View details for PubMedID 21799548

  • Comparison of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study Equations: Risk Factors for and Complications of CKD and Mortality in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Stevens, L. A., Li, S., Tamura, M. K., Chen, S., Vassalotti, J. A., Norris, K. C., Whaley-Connell, A. T., Bakris, G. L., McCullough, P. A. 2011; 57 (3): S9-S16

    Abstract

    The National Kidney Foundation has recommended that the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation replace the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation. Before implementing this change in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), we compared characteristics of reclassified individuals and mortality risk predictions using the new equation.Of 123,704 eligible KEEP participants, 116,321 with data available for this analysis were included. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the MDRD Study (eGFR(MDRD)) and CKD-EPI (eGFR(CKD-EPI)) equations with creatinine level calibrated to standardized methods. Participants were characterized by eGFR category: >120, 90-119, 60-89, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Clinical characteristics ascertained included age, race, sex, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and anemia. Mortality was determined over a median of 3.7 years of follow-up.The prevalence of eGFR(CKD-EPI) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was 14.3% compared with 16.8% using eGFR(MDRD). Using eGFR(CKD-EPI), 20,355 participants (17.5%) were reclassified to higher eGFR categories, and 3,107 (2.7%), to lower categories. Participants reclassified upward were younger and less likely to have chronic conditions, with a lower risk of mortality. A total of 3,601 deaths (3.1%) were reported. Compared with participants classified to eGFR of 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) using both equations, those with eGFR(CKD-EPI) of 60-89 mL/min/1.73 m(2) had a lower mortality incidence rate (6.4 [95% CI, 5.1-7.7] vs 18.5 [95% CI, 17.1-19.9]). Results were similar for all eGFR categories. Net reclassification improvement was 0.159 (P < 0.001).The CKD-EPI equation reclassifies people at lower risk of CKD and death into higher eGFR categories, suggesting more accurate categorization. The CKD-EPI equation will be used to report eGFR in KEEP.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.11.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287472800003

    View details for PubMedID 21338849

  • Comparison of CKD Awareness in a Screening Population Using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) Equations AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Tamura, M. K., Anand, S., Li, S., Chen, S., Whaley-Connell, A. T., Stevens, L. A., Norris, K. C. 2011; 57 (3): S17-S23
  • Comparison of CKD awareness in a screening population using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study and CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations. American journal of kidney diseases Kurella Tamura, M., Anand, S., Li, S., Chen, S., Whaley-Connell, A. T., Stevens, L. A., Norris, K. C. 2011; 57 (3): S17-23

    Abstract

    Low awareness of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may reflect uncertainty about the accuracy or significance of a CKD diagnosis in individuals otherwise perceived to be low risk. Whether reclassification of CKD severity using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) modifies estimates of CKD awareness is unknown.In this cross-sectional study, we used data collected from 2000-2009 for 26,213 participants in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), a community-based screening program, with CKD based on GFR estimated using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation and measurement of albuminuria. We assessed CKD awareness after CKD stage was reclassified using the CKD-EPI equation.Of 26,213 participants with CKD based on GFR estimated using the MRDR equation (eGFR(MDRD)), 23,572 (90%) also were classified with CKD based on eGFR(CKD-EPI). Based on eGFR(MDRD), 9.5% of participants overall were aware of CKD, as were 4.9%, 6.3%, 9.2%, 41.9%, and 59.2% with stages 1-5, respectively. Based on eGFR(CKD-EPI), 10.0% of participants overall were aware of CKD, as were 5.1%, 6.6%, 10.0%, 39.3%, and 59.4% with stages 1-5, respectively. Reclassification to a less advanced CKD stage using eGFR(CKD-EPI) was associated with lower odds for awareness (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67); reclassification to a more advanced stage was associated with higher odds for awareness (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.05-2.13) after adjustment for confounding factors. Of participants unaware of CKD, 10.6% were reclassified as not having CKD using eGFR(CKD-EPI).Using eGFR(CKD-EPI) led to a modest increase in overall awareness rates, primarily due to reclassification of low-risk unaware participants.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.11.008

    View details for PubMedID 21338846

  • Comparison of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study Equations: Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in CKD in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES McFarlane, S. I., McCullough, P. A., Sowers, J. R., Soe, K., Chen, S., Li, S., Vassalotti, J. A., Stevens, L. A., Salifu, M. O., Tamura, M. K., Bomback, A. S., Norris, K. C., Collins, A. J., Bakris, G. L., Whaley-Connell, A. T. 2011; 57 (3): S24-S31

    Abstract

    Diabetes is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether reclassification of CKD stages based on glomerular filtration rate estimated using the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation versus the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation modifies estimates of prevalent risk factors across stages is unknown.This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), a community-based health screening program targeting individuals 18 years and older with diabetes, hypertension, or a family history of diabetes, hypertension, or kidney disease. Of 109,055 participants, 68.2% were women and 31.8% were African American. Mean age was 55.3 ± 0.05 years. Clinical, demographic, and laboratory data were collected from August 2000 through December 2009. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD-EPI and MDRD Study equations.CKD was present in 25.6% and 23.5% of the study population using the MDRD Study and CKD-EPI equations, respectively. Diabetes was present in 42.4% and 43.8% of participants with CKD, respectively. Prevalent risk factors for diabetes included obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)), 44.0%; hypertension, 80.5%; cardiovascular disease, 23.2%; family history of diabetes, 55.9%; and dyslipidemia, 43.0%. In a logistic regression model after adjusting for age and other risk factors, odds for diabetes increased significantly compared with no CKD with each CKD stage based on the CKD-EPI equation and similarly with stages based on the MDRD Study equation. Using a CKD-EPI-adjusted model, ORs were: stage 1, 2.08 (95% CI, 1.90-2.27); stage 2, 1.86 (95% CI, 1.72-2.02); stage 3, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.30); stage 4, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.42-2.03); and stage 5, 2.46 (95% CI, 1.46-4.14).Using the CKD-EPI equation led to a lower prevalence of CKD but to similar diabetes prevalence rates associated with CKD across all stages compared with the MDRD Study equation. Diabetes and other CKD risk factor prevalence was increased compared with the non-CKD population.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.11.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287472800005

    View details for PubMedID 21338847

  • Vascular Risk Factors and Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Kidney Disease: The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Tamura, M. K., Xie, D., Yaffe, K., Cohen, D. L., Teal, V., Kasner, S. E., Messe, S. R., Sehgal, A. R., Kusek, J., DeSalvo, K. B., Cornish-Zirker, D., Cohan, J., Seliger, S. L., Chertow, G. M., Go, A. S. 2011; 6 (2): 248-256

    Abstract

    Cognitive impairment is common among persons with chronic kidney disease, but the extent to which nontraditional vascular risk factors mediate this association is unclear.We conducted cross-sectional analyses of baseline data collected from adults with chronic kidney disease participating in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Modified Mini-Mental State Exam score>1 SD below the mean score.Among 3591 participants, the mean age was 58.2±11.0 years, and the mean estimated GFR (eGFR) was 43.4±13.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Cognitive impairment was present in 13%. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, prevalent vascular disease (stroke, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease) and traditional vascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and elevated cholesterol), an eGFR<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was associated with a 47% increased odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.05, 2.05) relative to those with an eGFR 45 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2. This association was attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment for hemoglobin concentration. While other nontraditional vascular risk factors including C-reactive protein, homocysteine, serum albumin, and albuminuria were correlated with cognitive impairment in unadjusted analyses, they were not significantly associated with cognitive impairment after adjustment for eGFR and other confounders.The prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher among those with lower eGFR, independent of traditional vascular risk factors. This association may be explained in part by anemia.

    View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.02660310

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287430800004

    View details for PubMedID 20930087

  • Dementia and cognitive impairment in ESRD: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Tamura, M. K., Yaffe, K. 2011; 79 (1): 14-22
  • Dementia and cognitive impairment in ESRD: diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Kidney international Kurella Tamura, M., Yaffe, K. 2011; 79 (1): 14-22

    Abstract

    Cognitive impairment, including dementia, is a common but poorly recognized problem among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), affecting 16-38% of patients. Dementia is associated with high risks of death, dialysis withdrawal, hospitalization, and disability among patients with ESRD; thus, recognizing and effectively managing cognitive impairment may improve clinical care. Dementia screening strategies should take into account patient factors, the time available, the timing of assessments relative to dialysis treatments, and the implications of a positive screen for subsequent management (for example, transplantation). Additional diagnostic testing in patients with cognitive impairment, including neuroimaging, is largely based on the clinical evaluation. There is limited data on the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy for dementia in the setting of ESRD; therefore, decisions about the use of these medications should be individualized. Management of behavioral symptoms, evaluation of patient safety, and advance care planning are important components of dementia management. Prevention strategies targeting vascular risk factor modification, and physical and cognitive activity have shown promise in the general population and may be reasonably extrapolated to the ESRD population. Modification of ESRD-associated factors such as anemia and dialysis dose or frequency require further study before they can be recommended for treatment or prevention of cognitive impairment.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ki.2010.336

    View details for PubMedID 20861818

  • Design and Rationale of Health-Related Quality of Life and Patient-Reported Outcomes Assessment in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials BLOOD PURIFICATION Jhamb, M., Tamura, M. K., Gassman, J., Garg, A. X., Lindsay, R. M., Suri, R. S., Ting, G., Finkelstein, F. O., Beach, S., Kimmel, P. L., Unruh, M. 2011; 31 (1-3): 151-158

    Abstract

    End-stage renal disease patients experience significant impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Testing various strategies to improve patient HRQOL in multicenter clinical trials, such as the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) trials is vitally important.The aim of this paper is to describe the design and conduct of HRQOL and patient-reported outcomes (PRO) assessment in the FHN trials.In the FHN trials, HRQOL was examined as a multidimensional concept, and the SF-36 RAND Physical Health Composite score was one of the co-primary outcomes. The instruments completed to assess HRQOL included the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form SF-36, Health Utilities Index 3, Sleep Problems Index, Beck Depression Inventory and feeling thermometer. These instruments have been shown to have high reliability, validity and responsiveness to change in the end-stage renal disease population. Additional items evaluating PRO including sexual function, time to recovery after dialysis and patients' self-perceived burden to caregiver were also assessed. All questionnaires were administered by trained interviewers using computer-assisted telephone interviewing to ensure blinding and minimizing selection bias. Interim analysis reveals that these instruments can be used to collect a comprehensive set of HRQOL measures with minimal patient burden.Accurate measurement of HRQOL and PRO can help us test whether hemodialysis interventions improve the health and well-being of this compromised patient population. We have shown that a comprehensive set of HRQOL measures can be centrally collected through telephone interviews in a blinded fashion, in a way that is well tolerated with minimum respondent burden.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000321855

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287667000026

    View details for PubMedID 21228584

  • The Association between Parathyroid Hormone Levels and the Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome in Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease CARDIORENAL MEDICINE Saab, G., Whaley-Connell, A., Bombeck, A., Tamura, M. K., Li, S., Chen, S., McFarlane, S. I., Sowers, J. R., Norris, K., Bakris, G. L., McCullough, P. A. 2011; 1 (2): 123-130

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000327149

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312167400006

  • Impact of Sleep Quality on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients: Results from the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Study AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY Unruh, M., Tamura, M. K., Larive, B., Rastogi, A., James, S., Schiller, B., Gassman, J., Chan, C., Lockridge, R., Kliger, A. 2011; 33 (5): 398-406

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000326343

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290841100003

  • Signs and Symptoms Associated With Earlier Dialysis Initiation in Nursing Home Residents AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Tamura, M. K., O'Hare, A. M., McCulloch, C. E., Johansen, K. L. 2010; 56 (6): 1117-1126

    Abstract

    Factors driving the trend of earlier dialysis initiation for persons with end-stage renal disease are unknown. We wanted to determine the association of the number and type of signs and symptoms with timing of initiation of dialysis in US nursing home residents.Observational study.We used data from the US Renal Data System linked with the Minimum Data Set, a national registry of nursing home residents. The cohort consisted of 2,402 nursing home residents who initiated dialysis between 1998 and 2000 and had at least 2 recorded clinical assessments in the year before dialysis initiation.We evaluated 7 clinical signs and symptoms: dependence in activities of daily living, cognitive function, edema, dyspnea, nutritional problems, vomiting, and body size.Earlier dialysis initiation was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate ? 1 5 mL/min/1.73 m² at the start of dialysis.Median estimated glomerular filtration rate at the start of dialysis was 9.8 (25th-75th percentile, 7.4-13.4) mL/min/1.73 m². After adjustment for age, sex, race, and comorbid conditions, each additional sign or symptom was associated with a higher odds for earlier dialysis initiation (OR, 1.16 per symptom; 95% CI, 1.06-1.28), as was each adversely changing sign or symptom (OR, 1.26 per symptom; 95% CI, 1.16-1.38). The population-attributable risk for earlier dialysis initiation associated with having one or more signs and symptoms of volume overload, cognitive decline, increasing activities of daily living dependence, and weight loss was 31%; volume overload had the largest aggregate population-attributable risk.We lacked information about metabolic indications for dialysis initiation.Volume overload, cognitive decline, increasing activities of daily living dependence, and weight loss were associated with earlier dialysis initiation; however, these factors explained less than one-third of cases of earlier dialysis initiation in nursing home residents.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.08.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284401800016

    View details for PubMedID 20974509

  • Hemoglobin Concentration and Cognitive Impairment in the Renal REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study JOURNALS OF GERONTOLOGY SERIES A-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES AND MEDICAL SCIENCES Kurella Tamura, M., Wadley, V. G., Newsome, B. B., Zakai, N. A., McClure, L. A., Howard, G., Warnock, D. G., McClellan, W. 2010; 65 (12): 1380-1386

    Abstract

    There is growing interest in determining the degree of anemia, which is clinically significant. The goal of this study was to determine the association between hemoglobin concentration and cognitive impairment in a large sample of U.S. adults.We used cross-sectional data from 19,701 adults participating in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke study. Cognitive impairment was defined as a score of 4 or less on the six-item screener. Hemoglobin was analyzed in 1 g/dL increments relative to the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold (<13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women).The mean hemoglobin concentration was 13.7 ± 1.5 g/dL. The prevalence of cognitive impairment increased from 4.3% among individuals with a hemoglobin >3 g/dL above the WHO threshold to 16.8% for those with a hemoglobin ?2 g/dL below the WHO threshold. After adjustment for demographics, chronic health conditions, health status, and inflammation, the association between reduced hemoglobin and cognitive impairment was attenuated and no longer significant, including among those with hemoglobin ?2 g/dL below the WHO threshold (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval = 0.94-2.04). A test for linear trend was of borderline significance (p value = .06). For 94% of the sample within 2 g/dL of the WHO threshold, there was no relationship between hemoglobin concentration and the odds of cognitive impairment. The associations did not differ by sex and race.Within a large sample of community-dwelling adults, there was no significant association between hemoglobin concentration and cognitive impairment after multivariable adjustment.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/gerona/glq126

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284639700014

    View details for PubMedID 20634281

  • Should there be an expanded role for palliative care in end-stage renal disease? CURRENT OPINION IN NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION Tamura, M. K., Cohen, L. M. 2010; 19 (6): 556-560

    Abstract

    In this review, we outline the rationale for expanding the role of palliative care in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), describe the components of a palliative care model, and identify potential barriers in implementation.Patients receiving chronic dialysis have reduced life expectancy and high rates of chronic pain, depression, cognitive impairment, and physical disability. Delivery of prognostic information and advance care planning are desired by patients, but occur infrequently. Furthermore, although hospice care is associated with improved symptom control and lower healthcare costs at the end of life, it is underutilized by the ESRD population, even among patients who withdraw from dialysis. A palliative care model incorporating communication of prognosis, advance care planning, symptom assessment and management, and timely hospice referral may improve quality of life and quality of dying. Resources and clinical practice guidelines are available to assist practitioners with incorporating palliative care into ESRD management.There is a large unmet need to alleviate the physical, psychosocial, and existential suffering of patients with ESRD. More fully integrating palliative care into ESRD management by improving end-of-life care training, eliminating structural and financial barriers to hospice use, and identifying optimal methods to deliver palliative care are necessary if we are to successfully address the needs of an aging ESRD population.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MNH.0b013e32833d67bc

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282981200007

    View details for PubMedID 20644475

  • Prevalence and Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Hemodialysis Patients: The Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trials CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Tamura, M. K., Larive, B., Unruh, M. L., Stokes, J. B., Nissenson, A., Mehta, R. L., Chertow, G. M. 2010; 5 (8): 1429-1438

    Abstract

    Cognitive impairment is common among persons with ESRD, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. This study evaluated the prevalence of cognitive impairment and association with modifiable ESRD- and dialysis-associated factors in a large group of hemodialysis patients.Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline data collected from 383 subjects participating in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials. Global cognitive impairment was defined as a score <80 on the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam, and impaired executive function was defined as a score >or=300 seconds on the Trailmaking B test. Five main categories of explanatory variables were examined: urea clearance, nutritional markers, hemodynamic measures, anemia, and central nervous system (CNS)-active medications.Subjects had a mean age of 51.6 +/- 13.3 years and a median ESRD vintage of 2.6 years. Sixty-one subjects (16%) had global cognitive impairment, and 110 subjects (29%) had impaired executive function. In addition to several nonmodifiable factors, the use of H1-receptor antagonists and opioids were associated with impaired executive function. No strong association was found between several other potentially modifiable factors associated with ESRD and dialysis therapy, such as urea clearance, proxies of dietary protein intake and other nutritional markers, hemodynamic measures, and anemia with global cognition and executive function after adjustment for case-mix factors.Cognitive impairment, especially impaired executive function, is common among hemodialysis patients, but with the exception of CNS-active medications, is not strongly associated with several ESRD- and dialysis-associated factors.

    View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.01090210

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280689600012

    View details for PubMedID 20576825

  • The elderly patients on hemodialysis MINERVA UROLOGICA E NEFROLOGICA Anand, S., Tamura, M. K., Chertow, G. M. 2010; 62 (1): 87-101

    Abstract

    Nephrologists care for an increasing number of elderly patients on hemodialysis. As such, an understanding of the overlap among complications of hemodialysis and geriatric syndromes is crucial. This article reviews hemodialysis management issues including vascular access, hypertension, anemia and bone and mineral disorders with an attention towards the distinct medical needs of the elderly. Key concepts of geriatrics frailty, dementia and palliative care are also discussed, as nephrologists frequently participate in decision-making directed toward balancing longevity, functional status and the burden of therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000208661300008

  • Chronic Kidney Disease and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Cognitive Study JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY Yaffe, K., Ackerson, L., Tamura, M. K., Le Blanc, P., Kusek, J. W., Sehgal, A. R., Cohen, D., Anderson, C., Appel, L., DeSalvo, K., Ojo, A., Seliger, S., Robinson, N., Makos, G., Go, A. S. 2010; 58 (2): 338-345

    Abstract

    To investigate cognitive impairment in older, ethnically diverse individuals with a broad range of kidney function, to evaluate a spectrum of cognitive domains, and to determine whether the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive function is independent of demographic and clinical factors.Cross-sectional.Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.Eight hundred twenty-five adults aged 55 and older with CKD.Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) was estimated using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Cognitive scores on six cognitive tests were compared across eGFR strata using linear regression; multivariable logistic regression was used to examine level of CKD and clinically significant cognitive impairment (score < or =1 standard deviations from the mean).Mean age of the participants was 64.9, 50.4% were male, and 44.5% were black. After multivariable adjustment, participants with lower eGFR had lower cognitive scores on most cognitive domains (P<.05). In addition, participants with advanced CKD (eGFR<30) were more likely to have clinically significant cognitive impairment on global cognition (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.0, 95% CI=1.1-3.9), naming (AOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.0-3.3), attention (AOR=2.4, 95% CI=1.3-4.5), executive function (AOR=2.5, 95% CI=1.9-4.4), and delayed memory (AOR=1.5, 95% CI=0.9-2.6) but not on category fluency (AOR=1.1, 95% CI=0.6-2.0) than those with mild to moderate CKD (eGFR 45-59).In older adults with CKD, lower level of kidney function was associated with lower cognitive function on most domains. These results suggest that older patients with advanced CKD should be screened for cognitive impairment.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2009.02670.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274183800017

    View details for PubMedID 20374407

  • Preferences for dialysis withdrawal and engagement in advance care planning within a diverse sample of dialysis patients NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Tamura, M. K., Goldstein, M. K., Perez-Stable, E. J. 2010; 25 (1): 237-242

    Abstract

    Rates of dialysis withdrawal are higher among the elderly and lower among Blacks, yet it is unknown whether preferences for withdrawal and engagement in advance care planning also vary by age and race or ethnicity. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We recruited 61 participants from two dialysis clinics to complete questionnaires regarding dialysis withdrawal preferences in five different health states. Engagement in advance care planning (end-of-life discussions), completion of advance directives and 'do not resuscitate' or 'do not intubate' (DNR/DNI) orders were ascertained by a questionnaire and from dialysis unit records.The mean age was 62 +/- 15 years; 38% were Black, 11% were Latino, 34% were White and 16% of participants were Asian. Blacks were less likely to prefer dialysis withdrawal as compared with Whites (odds ratio 0.16, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.88) and other race/ethnicity groups, and this difference was not explained by age, education, comorbidity and other confounders. In contrast, older age was not associated with preferences for withdrawal. Rates of engagement in end-of-life discussions were higher than for documentation of advance care planning for all age and most race/ethnicity groups. Although younger participants and minorities were generally less likely to document treatment preferences as compared with older patients and Whites, they were not less likely to engage in end-of-life discussions.Preferences for withdrawal vary by race/ ethnicity, whereas the pattern of engagement in advance care planning varies by age and race/ethnicity. Knowledge of these differences may be useful for improving communication about end-of-life preferences and in implementing effective advance care planning strategies among diverse haemodialysis patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfp430

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273113100039

    View details for PubMedID 19734137

  • Frailty and Chronic Kidney Disease: The Third National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Wilhelm-Leen, E. R., Hall, Y. N., Tamura, M. K., Chertow, G. M. 2009; 122 (7): 664-U86

    Abstract

    Frailty is common in the elderly and in persons with chronic diseases. Few studies have examined the association of frailty with chronic kidney disease.We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate the prevalence of frailty among persons with chronic kidney disease. We created a definition of frailty based on established validated criteria, modified to accommodate available data. We used logistic regression to determine whether and to what degree stages of chronic kidney disease were associated with frailty. We also examined factors that might mediate the association between frailty and chronic kidney disease.The overall prevalence of frailty was 2.8%. However, among persons with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2), 20.9% were frail. The odds of frailty were significantly increased among all stages of chronic kidney disease, even after adjustment for the residual effects of age, sex, race, and prevalent chronic diseases. The odds of frailty associated with chronic kidney disease were only marginally attenuated with additional adjustment for sarcopenia, anemia, acidosis, inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Frailty and chronic kidney disease were independently associated with mortality.Frailty is significantly associated with all stages of chronic kidney disease and particularly with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. Potential mechanisms underlying the chronic kidney disease and frailty connection remain elusive.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.01.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267341000014

    View details for PubMedID 19559169

  • Incidence, management, and outcomes of end-stage renal disease in the elderly CURRENT OPINION IN NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION Tamura, M. K. 2009; 18 (3): 252-257

    Abstract

    The elderly constitute a substantial and growing fraction of the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) population. We review recent studies on ESRD incidence, management, and outcomes in the elderly.Rates of treated ESRD among the elderly (>80 years) have risen by more than 50% in the last decade. In studies with a large number of elderly patients, median survival after dialysis initiation is modest, and although a majority have reasonable life expectancy, a substantial minority of elderly patients experience very high early mortality rates after dialysis initiation. Quality of life results are mixed--compared with younger ESRD patients or non-ESRD elderly, mental well being is similar and physical well being is reduced in elderly patients with ESRD. In several studies, elderly patients with ESRD initiating peritoneal dialysis had higher mortality rates than elderly patients with ESRD initiating hemodialysis. Strategies such as nondialytic management of ESRD or dietary protein restriction and delayed dialysis initiation may be alternatives for elderly patients wishing to avoid dialysis initiation, but further studies are needed to determine the patients best suited for these approaches. Quality improvement initiatives in geriatric ESRD care have been successfully implemented in some centers and may ultimately improve care for elderly patients with ESRD.These findings should help to clarify some of the risks and benefits of dialysis in the elderly and may be useful in dialysis decision-making and management.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MNH.0b013e328326f3ac

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265560600011

    View details for PubMedID 19374012

  • Kidney function and cognitive impairment in US adults: The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Tamura, M. K., Wadley, V., Yaffe, K., McClure, L. A., Howard, G., Go, R., Allman, R. M., Warnock, D. G., McClellan, W. 2008; 52 (2): 227-234

    Abstract

    The association between kidney function and cognitive impairment has not been assessed in a national sample with a wide spectrum of kidney disease severity.Cross-sectional.23,405 participants (mean age, 64.9 +/- 9.6 years) with baseline measurements of creatinine and cognitive function participating in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a study of stroke risk factors in a large national sample.Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).Cognitive impairment.Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Kidney function was analyzed in 10-mL/min/1.73 m(2) increments in those with CKD, and in exploratory analyses, across the range of kidney function. Cognitive function was assessed using the 6-Item Screener, and participants with a score of 4 or less were considered to have cognitive impairment.CKD was associated with an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment independent of confounding factors (odds ratio, 1.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.43). In patients with CKD, each 10-mL/min/1.73 m(2) decrease in eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was associated with an 11% increased prevalence of impairment (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.19). Exploratory analyses showed a nonlinear association between eGFR and prevalence of cognitive impairment, with a significant increased prevalence of impairment in those with eGFR less than 50 and 100 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or greater.Longitudinal measures of cognitive function were not available.In US adults, lower levels of kidney function are associated with an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. The prevalence of impairment appears to increase early in the course of kidney disease; therefore, screening for impairment should be considered in all adults with CKD.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.05.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257943400007

    View details for PubMedID 18585836

  • Cystatin C as a marker of cognitive function in elders: Findings from the Health ABC study ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY Yaffe, K., Lindquist, K., Shlipak, M. G., Simonsick, E., Fried, L., Rosano, C., Satterfield, S., Atkinson, H., Windham, B. G., Kurella-Tamura, M. 2008; 63 (6): 798-802

    Abstract

    We determined whether serum cystatin C, a novel measure of kidney function that colocalizes with brain beta-amyloid, is associated with cognition among 3,030 elders. Those with high cystatin C (n = 445; 15%) had worse baseline scores on Modified Mini-Mental State Examination or Digit Symbol Substitution Test (p or=1.0 standard deviation) was greatest among those with high cystatin C (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination: 38 vs 25%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.69; Digit Symbol Substitution: 38 vs 26%; odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.15).

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ana.21383

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257294100014

    View details for PubMedID 18496846

  • Kidney function as a predictor of loss of lean mass in older adults: Health, aging and body composition study JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY Fried, L. F., Boudreau, R., Lee, J. S., Chertow, G., Kurella-Tamura, M., Shlipak, M. G., Ding, J., Sellmeyer, D., Tylavsky, F. A., Simsonick, E., Kritchevsky, S. B., Harris, T. B., Newman, A. B. 2007; 55 (10): 1578-1584

    Abstract

    To assess the association between kidney function and change in body composition in older individuals.Prospective cohort study.Two sites, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee.Three thousand twenty-six well-functioning, participants aged 70 to 79 in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.Body composition (bone-free lean mass and fat mass) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry annually for 4 years. Kidney function was measured at baseline according to serum creatinine (SCr). Comorbidity and inflammatory markers were evaluated as covariates in mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis.High SCr was associated with loss of lean mass in men but not women, with a stronger relationship in black men (P=.02 for difference between slopes for white and black men). In white men, after adjustment for age and comorbidity, higher SCr remained associated with loss of lean mass (-0.07+/-0.03 kg/y greater loss per 0.4 mg/dL (1 standard deviation (SD)), P=.009) but was attenuated after adjustment for inflammatory factors (-0.05+/-0.03 kg/y greater loss per SD, P=.10). In black men, the relationship between SCr and loss of lean mass (-0.19+/-0.04 kg/y per SD, P<.001) persisted after adjustment for inflammation and overall weight change.Impaired kidney function may contribute to loss of lean mass in older men. Inflammation appeared to mediate the relationship in white but not black men. Future studies should strive to elucidate mechanisms linking kidney disease and muscle loss and identify treatments to minimize loss of lean mass and its functional consequences.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01398.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249825500011

    View details for PubMedID 17908060

  • Correlates and outcomes of dementia among dialysis patients: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Kurella, M., Mapes, D. L., Port, F. K., Chertow, G. M. 2006; 21 (9): 2543-2548

    Abstract

    Recent studies suggest a high prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia in persons with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), yet risk factors for dementia and its prognostic significance in persons with ESRD remain unclear. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence, correlates and dialysis-related outcomes of dementia in an international sample of haemodialysis patients.We analysed data collected from a cohort of 16 694 patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. Dementia was defined as a diagnosis of dementia documented in the medical record. We used logistic regression to determine the baseline correlates of dementia and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the relative risk (RR) of death and dialysis withdrawal for patients with dementia, while adjusting for a number of confounding factors.Overall, 4% of the cohort had a recorded diagnosis of dementia. In the cross-sectional analyses, risk factors for dementia in the general population including age, black race, low educational attainment, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes, as well as modifiable uraemia-related factors, including markers of malnutrition and anaemia, were independently associated with dementia. After adjustment for a number of confounding factors, dementia was associated with an increased risk of death [RR 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-1.66] and dialysis withdrawal (RR 2.01, 95% CI 1.57-2.57).Dementia is associated with adverse outcomes among ESRD patients. Dialysis providers should consider instituting routine screening for cognitive impairment among elderly patients in order to identify those at risk for associated adverse outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfl275

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240694200032

    View details for PubMedID 16751655

  • The tortoise and hare on hemodialysis: Does slow and steady win the race? KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Chertow, G. M., Kurella, M., Lowrie, E. G. 2006; 70 (1): 24-25

    Abstract

    The importance of hemodialysis session length relative to small solute (e.g., urea) clearance has been debated for many years. Longer session length augments clearance of larger molecules and may facilitate ultrafiltration; however, the independent effects of session length on survival and other outcomes are unknown. In this report, we review two recently published observational studies examining the association between hemodialysis session length and survival. Prospective clinical trials will be required to resolve the debate.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.ki.5001544

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238969300012

    View details for PubMedID 16763569

  • The metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease CURRENT OPINION IN NEPHROLOGY AND HYPERTENSION Peralta, C. A., Kurella, M., Lo, J. C., Chertow, G. M. 2006; 15 (4): 361-365

    Abstract

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of physical and laboratory abnormalities including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and abdominal obesity. Over the past decade, the metabolic syndrome has emerged as a critically important risk factor for cardiovascular disease.A large population-based cross-sectional analysis (the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey III) found that the presence of the metabolic syndrome was associated with chronic kidney disease, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m and was also associated with proteinuria. More recently, a prospective cohort study found that the presence of the metabolic syndrome was associated with incident chronic kidney disease by the same definition, even when excluding individuals with diabetes mellitus and hypertension. More studies are required to determine whether the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease is mainly mediated by hyperglycemia (with insulin resistance) and hypertension, or other metabolic or hemodynamic factors.The metabolic syndrome is associated with chronic kidney disease. Efforts aimed at determining the mechanisms underlying this association and strategies for the prevention of chronic kidney disease (or slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease) in affected patients should be research priorities in the future.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239103000002

    View details for PubMedID 16775449

  • Systemic inflammatory markers, periodontal diseases, and periodontal infections in an elderly population JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY Bretz, W. A., Weyant, R. J., Corby, P. M., Ren, D., Weissfeld, L., Kritchevsky, S. B., Harris, T., Kurella, M., Satterfield, S., Visser, M., Newman, A. B. 2005; 53 (9): 1532-1537

    Abstract

    To study the levels of systemic markers for inflammation with parameters of periodontal diseases in older people.A cross-sectional study was conducted in a cohort that is being followed prospectively on the effects of aging and body composition on morbidity.University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, and University of Tennessee, Memphis.One thousand one hundred thirty-one participants (mean age+/-standard deviation 72.7+/-2.8); 66% white and 50% male.Periodontal examination, including probing depth and attachment loss, was performed. Periodontal disease extent was divided into 0% of sites with probing depth of 6 mm or more, 1% to 10% of sites with probing depth of 6 mm or more and more than 10% of sites with probing depth of 6 mm or more. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four molar teeth, and the levels of periodontal pathogens were determined using the benzoyl-DL-arginine-naphthylamide (BANA) test. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were measured in all participants. Assessments of risk factors associated with elevated levels of markers of systemic inflammation were also determined. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyze the data.IL-6 levels were significantly higher in participants with more-extensive periodontal disease than in other participants. Periodontal disease extent was significantly associated with higher TNF-alpha plasma levels, controlling for established risk factors for elevated TNF-alpha levels. Participants with BANA-positive species had significantly higher CRP plasma levels when controlling for risk factors for elevated CRP levels.Periodontal disease and infection may be modifiable risk indicators for elevated levels of systemic inflammatory markers in older people.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53468.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231509000012

    View details for PubMedID 16137283

  • Chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment in the elderly: The health, aging, and body composition study JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Kurella, M., Chertow, G. M., Fried, L. F., Cummings, S. R., Harris, T., Simonsick, E., Satterfield, S., Ayonayon, H., Yaffe, K. 2005; 16 (7): 2127-2133

    Abstract

    Previous studies suggest a link between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive impairment. Whether the longitudinal course of cognitive impairment differs among people with or without CKD is unknown. Data collected in 3034 elderly individuals who participated in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study were analyzed. Cognitive function was assessed with the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (3MS) at baseline and then 2 and 4 yr after baseline. Cognitive impairment was defined as a 3MS score <80 or a decline in 3MS >5 points after 2 or 4 yr of follow-up among participants with baseline 3MS scores > or =80. Participants with CKD, defined as an estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, were further divided into two eGFR strata. Unadjusted mean baseline 3MS scores and mean declines in 3MS scores over 4 yr were significantly more pronounced for participants with lower baseline eGFR. More advanced stages of CKD were associated with an increased risk for cognitive impairment: Odds ratio (OR) 1.32 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 1.69) and OR 2.43 (95% CI, 1.38 to 4.29) for eGFR 45 to 59 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively, adjusted for case mix, baseline 3MS scores, and other potential confounders. CKD is associated with an increased risk for cognitive impairment in the elderly that cannot be fully explained by other well-established risk factors. Studies aimed at understanding the mechanism(s) responsible for cognitive impairment in CKD and efforts to interrupt this decline are warranted.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230046900032

    View details for PubMedID 15888561

  • Metabolic syndrome and the risk for chronic kidney disease among nondiabetic adults JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Kurella, M., Lo, J. C., Chertow, G. M. 2005; 16 (7): 2134-2140

    Abstract

    The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease; however, no prospective studies have examined the metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 10,096 nondiabetic participants who were in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and had normal baseline kidney function composed the study cohort. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to recent guidelines from the National Cholesterol Education Program. Incident CKD was defined as an estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at study year 9 among those with an eGFR > or =60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at baseline. After 9 yr of follow-up, 691 (7%) participants developed CKD. The multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) of developing CKD in participants with the metabolic syndrome was 1.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.73). Compared with participants with no traits of the metabolic syndrome, those with one, two, three, four, or five traits of the metabolic syndrome had OR of CKD of 1.13 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.45), 1.53 (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.98), 1.75 (95% CI, 1.32 to 2.33), 1.84 (95% CI, 1.27 to 2.67), and 2.45 (95% CI, 1.32 to 4.54), respectively. After adjusting for the subsequent development of diabetes and hypertension during the 9 yr of follow-up, the OR of incident CKD among participants with the metabolic syndrome was 1.24 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.51). The metabolic syndrome is independently associated with an increased risk for incident CKD in nondiabetic adults.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230046900033

    View details for PubMedID 15901764

  • Dialysis session length ("t") as a determinant of the adequacy of dialysis SEMINARS IN NEPHROLOGY Kurella, M., Chertow, G. M. 2005; 25 (2): 90-95

    Abstract

    Several studies have shown an association between the hemodialysis session length (the t of Kt or Kt/V) and favorable outcomes for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. In a single randomized controlled trial that systematically varied hemodialysis session length, shorter session length was associated with an increased risk for morbidity and mortality, independent of the time-averaged concentration of urea. Observational studies of dialysis session length have yielded conflicting results, although virtually all studies have confounded hemodialysis session length with hemodialysis efficiency or dose. Limited observational data from nocturnal hemodialysis programs more strongly suggest an independent beneficial effect of longer session length. In aggregate, data on the effects of hemodialysis session length are inconclusive. Future studies should evaluate hemodialysis session length independent of efficiency, and should consider the evaluation of dose by using other clearance parameters and the adequacy of ultrafiltration in addition to solute kinetics.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.semnephrol.2004.09.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228545200005

    View details for PubMedID 15791560

  • Suicide in the United States end-stage renal disease program JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Kurella, M., Kimmel, P. L., Young, B. S., Chertow, G. M. 2005; 16 (3): 774-781

    Abstract

    Although depression and dialysis withdrawal are relatively common among individuals with ESRD, there have been few systematic studies of suicide in this population. The goals of this study were to compare the incidence of suicide with national rates and to contrast the factors associated with suicide with those associated with withdrawal in persons with ESRD. All individuals who were aged 15 yr and older and initiated dialysis between April 1, 1995, and November 30, 2000, composed the analytic cohort. Patients were censored at the time of death, transplantation, or October 31, 2001. Death as a result of suicide in the ESRD population and the general US population was ascertained from the Death Notification Form and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Standardized incidence ratios for suicide among patient subgroups were computed using national data from the year 2000 as the reference population. The crude suicide rate from 1995 to 2001 was 24.2 suicides per 100,000 patient-years, and the overall standardized incidence ratio for suicide was 1.84 (95% confidence interval, 1.50 to 2.27). In multivariable models, age > or =75 yr, male gender, white or Asian race, geographic region, alcohol or drug dependence, and recent hospitalization with mental illness were significant independent predictors of death as a result of suicide. Persons with ESRD are significantly more likely to commit suicide than persons in the general population. Although relatively rare, risk assessment can be used to identify patients for whom counseling and other interventions might be beneficial.

    View details for DOI 10.1681/ASN.2004070550

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227372000026

    View details for PubMedID 15659561

  • Frequent hemodialysis and psychosocial function SEMINARS IN DIALYSIS Kurella, M., Suri, R. S., Chertow, G. M. 2005; 18 (2): 132-136

    Abstract

    Studies suggest that more frequent hemodialysis (HD; short daily and long nocturnal dialysis) may be associated with a variety of clinical benefits, including improvement in blood pressure, anemia, and hyperphosphatemia, regression of left ventricular hypertrophy, and reduced rates of hospitalization. Whether these clinical benefits are paralleled by improvements in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been unclear. In addition, the psychosocial burden of more intensive HD schedules has not been critically evaluated. Recent reports have suggested beneficial effects of frequent HD on global HRQOL, dialysis-related and uremic symptoms, patient satisfaction, and psychosocial burden. However, the interpretation of many of these studies is restricted by limitations in study design, follow-up, and generalizability. This article reviews the current literature focusing on psychosocial and HRQOL effects of frequent HD and suggests future directions for research in this important area.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227478200010

    View details for PubMedID 15771657

  • Self-assessed sleep quality in chronic kidney disease. International urology and nephrology Kurella, M., Luan, J., Lash, J. P., Chertow, G. M. 2005; 37 (1): 159-165

    Abstract

    Although sleep complaints are commonly reported in persons with end stage renal disease (ESRD), little is known about the prevalence of sleep complaints in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and the relation of sleep quality to the severity of kidney disease.We administered the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOL) sleep scale to 156 subjects, 78 with ESRD and 78 with CKD. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the six variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation and used to stratify subjects with CKD as mild-moderate (GFR >25 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and advanced (GFR <25 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). We used multivariable linear regression to determine independent predictors of KDQOL sleep scale scores. Higher scores indicate higher self-reported quality of sleep.Median scores on the KDQOL sleep scale were 59 (interquartile range 40-80) in subjects with ESRD and 69 (interquartile range 53-80) in subjects with CKD (P=0.04). Thirty-four percent of subjects with ESRD, 27% of subjects with advanced CKD, and 14% of subjects with mild to moderate CKD had sleep maintenance disturbances (P=0.05). Thirteen percent of subjects with ESRD, 11% of subjects with advanced CKD, and no subjects with mild-moderate CKD had complaints of daytime somnolence (P=0.03). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of sleep adequacy complaints in persons with ESRD versus CKD. In multivariable analyses, only age and ESRD status (vs. CKD) were significant predictors of lower KDQOL sleep scores. Among subjects with CKD, there was a significant direct association between estimated GFR and scores on the KDQOL sleep scale in non-African American subjects (P=0.01).Sleep complaints are common in persons with CKD and ESRD and may be associated with the severity of kidney disease.

    View details for PubMedID 16132780

  • Chronic kidney disease and cognitive impairment in menopausal women AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Kurella, M., Yaffe, K., Shlipak, M. G., Wenger, N. K., Chertow, G. M. 2005; 45 (1): 66-76

    Abstract

    Although end-stage renal disease has been associated with cognitive impairment, the relation between lesser degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cognitive impairment is less well understood.Data for 1,015 women enrolled at 10 of the 20 Heart Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study clinical sites were analyzed. All participants were younger than 80 years and had established coronary artery disease at study entry. Participants underwent 6 standard tests of cognitive function evaluating various domains. Unadjusted, residual age- and race-adjusted, and multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease regression equation. In addition to analyses across the spectrum of GFRs, CKD was categorized as mild (estimated GFR [eGFR], 45 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderate (eGFR, 30 to 44 mL/min/1.73 m2), and severe (eGFR, <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) according to a modification of recently established classification guidelines.Mean eGFR was 57 +/- 14 mL/min/1.73 m2. In multivariable analyses, eGFR was associated significantly with impairment in global cognition, executive function, language, and memory (approximately 15% to 25% increase in risk for dysfunction/10-mL/min/1.73 m2 decrement in eGFR). Associations among eGFR and cognitive function were independent of residual effects of age and race (2 key determinants of GFR) and the contributions of education, lifestyle factors, stroke, diabetes, and other laboratory variables.CKD is associated with cognitive impairment in menopausal women with coronary artery disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2004.08.044

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226517300009

    View details for PubMedID 15696445

  • Validation of the kidney disease quality of life (KDQOL) cognitive function subscale KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Kurella, M., Luan, J., Yaffe, K., Chertow, G. M. 2004; 66 (6): 2361-2367

    Abstract

    Formal cognitive function testing is cumbersome, and no self-administered instruments for estimating cognitive function in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have been validated. The goal of this study was to determine the validity of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Cognitive Function scale (KDQOL-CF) for the assessment of cognitive impairment in persons with kidney disease.We administered the KDQOL-CF to 157 subjects, 79 with ESRD and 78 with CKD participating in a cross-sectional study of cognitive function. Scores on the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam (3MS) were considered the gold standard measure of global cognitive function. Performance characteristics of the KDQOL-CF were assessed using correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots, and receiver operating characteristic curves.Median scores on the KDQOL-CF were 73 (interquartile range 60-87) for subjects with ESRD and 87 (interquartile range 73-100) for subjects with CKD (P < 0.0001). Scores on the KDQOL-CF were directly correlated with scores on the 3MS (r = 0.31, P = 0.0001). Defining global cognitive impairment as a 3MS score < 80, a cut-point of 60 on the KDQOL-CF accurately classified 76% of subjects, with 52% sensitivity and 81% specificity. On multivariable analysis, cerebral and peripheral vascular disease, benzodiazepine use, and higher serum phosphorus concentrations were associated with lower KDQOL-CF scores, while beta blocker use, education, and higher serum albumin concentrations were associated with higher KDQOL-CF scores.The KDQOL-CF is a valid instrument for estimating cognitive function in patients with CKD and ESRD. KDQOL-CF screening followed by 3MS testing in selected individuals may prove to be an effective and efficient strategy for identifying cognitive impairment in patients with kidney disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225026200028

    View details for PubMedID 15569327

  • Cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY Kurella, M., Chertow, G. M., Luan, J., Yaffe, K. 2004; 52 (11): 1863-1869

    Abstract

    To assess the prevalence of cognitive impairment in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its relation to the severity of CKD.Cross-sectional study.University-affiliated ambulatory nephrology and dialysis practices.Eighty subjects with CKD Stages III and IV not requiring dialysis (CKD) and 80 subjects with CKD Stage V on hemodialysis (end-stage renal disease (ESRD)) with a mean age+/-standard deviation of 62.5+/-14.3.Three standardized cognitive tests, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), Trailmaking Test B (Trails B), and California Verbal Learning Trial (CVLT). Glomerular filtration rate was estimated in subjects with CKD using the six-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation.There was a graded relation between cognitive function and severity of CKD. Mean scores on the 3MS, Trails B, and CVLT immediate and delayed recall were significantly worse for subjects with ESRD than for subjects with CKD or published norms (P<.001 for all comparisons). Scores on the Trails B (P<.001) and CVLT immediate (P=.01) and delayed (P<.001) recall were significantly worse for subjects with CKD not requiring dialysis than for published norms. In addition, the fraction of subjects with impairment on the 3MS and Trails B increased with decreasing kidney function.Cognitive impairment is associated with the severity of kidney disease. Further studies are needed to determine the reasons for cognitive impairment in subjects with CKD and ESRD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224594100010

    View details for PubMedID 15507063

  • Physical and sexual function in women with chronic kidney disease AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Kurella, M., Ireland, C., Hlatky, M. A., Shlipak, M. G., Yaffe, K., Hulley, S. B., Chertow, G. M. 2004; 43 (5): 868-876

    Abstract

    Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between functional status and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether physical function deteriorates with progression of CKD is unknown.To determine associations among CKD, physical function, and sexual function in women, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of 2,761 women enrolled in the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study. Physical and sexual function were evaluated using the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) and the Sexual Problems Scale of the Medical Outcomes Study, respectively. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease regression equation. In addition to analyses across the spectrum of GFR, CKD was categorized as mild (estimated GFR, 45 to 60 mL/min/1.73 m2), moderate (estimated GFR, 30 to 44 mL/min/1.73 m2), and severe (estimated GFR, <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) according to a modification of recently established classification guidelines.Mean age of study participants was 67 +/- 7 years, and mean estimated GFR was 61 +/- 14 mL/min/1.73 m2. In unadjusted analyses, mean baseline DASI score was 10 points lower in women with an estimated GFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 than in women with an estimated GFR of 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater (P < 0.0001). Estimated GFR remained significantly associated with DASI score after multivariable adjustment. In longitudinal analyses, a decline in estimated GFR was associated with a significant decline in DASI score independent of baseline estimated GFR and other factors. There were no significant associations between estimated GFR and psychosocial aspects of sexual function.CKD is associated with impaired physical function, and a decline in estimated GFR is associated with a decline in physical function.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2003.12.050

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221104800013

    View details for PubMedID 15112178

  • Analgesia in patients with ESRD: A review of available evidence AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Kurella, M., Bennett, W. M., Chertow, G. M. 2003; 42 (2): 217-228

    Abstract

    Moderate to severe pain frequently accompanies chronic diseases in general and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in particular. Several analgesic agents and associated metabolites show altered pharmacokinetics in the presence of reduced glomerular filtration rate. Drug-related side effects may exacerbate symptoms frequently observed in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD; eg, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and constipation) or those often attributed to hemodialysis therapy (eg, orthostatic hypotension and impaired cognition). Persons with advanced CKD and ESRD are at increased risk for adverse effects of analgesic agents because of enhanced drug sensitivity, comorbid conditions, and concurrent medication use. Dose adjustment and avoidance of certain analgesics may be required in patients with advanced CKD and ESRD. We review the available evidence on pharmacokinetics and adverse drug effects of various analgesic agents commonly used in patients with advanced CKD and ESRD. Determining an optimal approach to the control of pain in patients with advanced CKD and ESRD will require additional research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0272-6386(03)00645-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184557300001

    View details for PubMedID 12900801

  • Post transplant erythrocytosis in hypercalcernic renal transplant recipients AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Kurella, M., Butterly, D. W., Smith, S. R. 2003; 3 (7): 873-877

    Abstract

    In vitro data suggest that calcium plays an important role in normal and disordered erythropoiesis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between serum calcium, various hormone levels, and the development of post transplant erythrocytosis (PTE). Data were collected on 283 patients who underwent renal transplantation between 1994 and 1998. The relationship between serum calcium and PTE development was tested using the chi-square test. Univariate and multivariable adjusted models were employed to determine predictors of maximum hematocrit. Selected patients underwent measurement of intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D, and erythropoietin (EPO). Seventy-three patients (26%) developed PTE. Post transplant erythrocytosis was more common in patients with hypercalcemia compared with patients with normal serum calcium (34% vs. 18%, p = 0.002). In multivariable analyses, serum calcium was a strong independent predictor of maximum hematocrit post transplant, even after adjustment for renal function. A serum calcium of >or=10.2 mg/dL was associated with greater than two-fold increased odds of PTE. There were no differences in hormone levels between subjects with hypercalcemia and PTE, subjects with PTE alone, and subjects with hypercalcemia alone. Hypercalcemia is associated with the development of PTE in renal transplant recipients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184032600013

    View details for PubMedID 12814479

  • Monitoring changes in gene expression in renal ischemia-reperfusion in the rat KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Yoshida, T., Kurella, M., Beato, F., Min, H., Ingelfinger, J. R., Stears, R. L., Swinford, R. D., Gullans, S. R., Tang, S. S. 2002; 61 (5): 1646-1654

    Abstract

    Although acute renal failure (ARF) is a relatively common disorder with major morbidity and mortality, its molecular basis remains incompletely defined. The present study examined global gene expression in the well-characterized ischemia-reperfusion model of ARF using DNA microarray technology.Male Wistar rats underwent bilateral renal ischemia (30 min) or sham operation, followed by reperfusion for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days. Plasma creatinine increased approximately fivefold over baseline, peaking on day 1. Renal total RNA was used to probe cDNA microarrays.Alterations in expression of 18 genes were identified by microarray analysis. Nine genes were up-regulated (ADAM2, HO-1, UCP-2, and thymosin beta4 in the early phase and clusterin, vanin1, fibronectin, heat-responsive protein 12 and FK506 binding protein in the established phase), whereas another nine were down-regulated (glutamine synthetase, cytochrome p450 IId6, and cyp 2d9 in the early phase and cyp 4a14, Xist gene, PPARgamma, alpha-albumin, uromodulin, and ADH B2 in the established phase). The identities of these 18 genes were sequence-verified. Changes in gene expression of ADAM2, cyp2d6, fibronectin, HO-1 and PPARgamma were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ADAM2, cyp2d6, and PPARgamma have not previously been known to be involved in ARF.Using DNA microarray technology, we identified changes in expression of 18 genes during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat. We confirmed changes in five genes (fibronectin, ADAM2, cyp 2d6, HO-1 and PPARgamma) by quantitative real-time PCR. Several genes, not previously been identified as playing a role in ischemic ARF, may have importance in this disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175054200009

    View details for PubMedID 11967014

  • DNA microarray analysis of complex biologic processes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Kurella, M., Hsiao, L. L., Yoshida, T., Randall, J. D., Chow, G., Sarang, S. S., Jensen, R. V., Gullans, S. R. 2001; 12 (5): 1072-1078

    Abstract

    DNA microarrays, or gene chips, allow surveys of gene expression, (i.e., mRNA expression) in a highly parallel and comprehensive manner. The pattern of gene expression produced, known as the expression profile, depicts the subset of gene transcripts expressed in a cell or tissue. At its most fundamental level, the expression profile can address qualitatively which genes are expressed in disease states. However, with the aid of bioinformatics tools such as cluster analysis, self-organizing maps, and principle component analysis, more sophisticated questions can be answered. Microarrays can be used to characterize the functions of novel genes, identify genes in a biologic pathway, analyze genetic variation, and identify therapeutic drug targets. Moreover, the expression profile can be used as a tissue or disease "fingerprint." This review details the fabrication of arrays, data management tools, and applications of microarrays to the field of renal research and the future of clinical practice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168307600024

    View details for PubMedID 11316867

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