Bio

Bio


Dr. Yu's research centers on the role of calcium-dependent calcineurin signaling in health and diseases.

Education & Certifications


  • MD, Liaoning Chinese Medical College, Shenyang, China, Medicine (1991)
  • MS, Dalian Medical College, Dalian, China, Microbiology (1994)
  • PhD, University of California, Davis, Immunology (2001)
  • Postdoctoral Training, Stanford University School of Medicine (with Dr. Stephen J. Galli), Cellular and Molecular Immunology (2004)
  • Board Certificate, California Board of Acupuncture, Licensed Practitioner of Chinese Medicine (Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine) (2012)

Patents


  • Mang Yu. "China P.Rep.Submerged fermentation of Cordyceps sinensis", China Patent Administration, Mar 14, 2001

Publications

All Publications


  • Protective Effects of Calcineurin on Pancreatitis in Mice Depend on Cellular Source. Gastroenterology Wen, L., Javed, T. A., Dobbs, A. K., Brown, R., Niu, M., Li, L., Khalid, A., Barakat, M., Xiao, X., Yimlamai, D., Konnikova, L., Yu, M., Byersdorfer, C. A., Husain, S. Z. 2020

    Abstract

    Calcineurin is a ubiquitously expressed central Ca2+-responsive signaling molecule that mediates acute pancreatitis, but little is known about its effects. We compared the effects of calcineurin expression by hematopoietic cells vs pancreas in mouse models of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung inflammation.We performed studies with mice with hematopoietic-specific or pancreas-specific deletion of protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha isoform (PPP3R1, also called CNB1), in mice with deletion of CNB1 (Cnb1UBC△/△), and in the corresponding controls for each deletion of CNB1. Acute pancreatitis was induced in mice by administration of caerulein or high-pressure infusion of radiocontrast into biliopancreatic ducts; some mice were also given intraductal infusions of an adeno-associated virus vector that expressed NFAT-luciferase into pancreas. Pancreas, bone marrow, liver, kidney, heart, and lung were collected and analyzed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblots; levels of cytokines were measured in serum. Mouse and human primary pancreatic acinar cells were transfected with a vector that expressed NFAT-luciferase and incubated with an agent that blocks interaction of NFAT with calcineurin; cells were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Calcineurin-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured in neutrophils from mice.Mice with hematopoietic-specific deletion of CNB1 developed the same level of local pancreatic inflammation as control mice after administration of caerulein or infusion of radiocontrast into biliopancreatic ducts. Cnb1UBC△/△ mice or mice with pancreas-specific deletion of CNB1 developed less severe pancreatitis and reduced pancreatic inflammation after administration of caerulein or infusion of radiocontrast into biliopancreatic ducts compared with control mice. NFAT was activated in pancreas of Swiss Webster mice given caerulein or infusions of radiocontrast into biliopancreatic ducts. Blocking the interaction between calcineurin and NFAT did not reduce pancreatic acinar cell necrosis in response to caerulein or infusions of radiocontrast. Mice with hematopoietic-specific deletion of CNB1 (but not mice with pancreas-specific deletion of CNB1) had reduced infiltration of lung tissues by neutrophils. Neutrophil chemotaxis and production of ROS were decreased following incubation with a calcineurin inhibitor.Hematopoietic and neutrophil expression of calcineurin promotes pancreatitis-associated lung inflammation, whereas pancreatic calcineurin promotes local pancreatic inflammation. The findings indicate that the protective effects of blocking or deleting calcineurin on pancreatitis are mediated by the source of its expression. This information should be used in development of strategies to inhibit calcineurin for prevention of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung inflammation.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.05.051

    View details for PubMedID 32445858

  • [Effect of electroacupuncture of acupoints on the healthy limb (opposing needling) on acute skeletal muscle contusion in rats]. Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research Zhang, A. N., Xiong, M. F., Huang, S. Q., Tang, C. L., Zhao, D. D., Luo, A., Tan, C. F., Qiu, L., Dai, N., Yu, M. 2019; 44 (5): 335–40

    Abstract

    To observe the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Zusanli" (ST36) and "Ashi"-point on the healthy side (opposing needling) on muscular injury and expression of myogenin (myoG) and fast myosin skeletal heavy chain (Fast MyHC) proteins in the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) tissues in skeletal muscle contusion rats,so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of skeletal muscle injury.A total of 54 male SD rats were divided into normal control (n = 6),model (n=24) and opposing needling (EA, n=24) groups. The latter two groups were further randomized into 3, 5, 7 and 14 d subgroups (n=6 per subgroup). The skeletal muscle contusion model of the hind-limb was established by using a self-made striking device. EA (1 Hz/3 Hz,1-2 mA) was applied to ST36 and "Ashi"-point on the uninjured side of the hind-limb for 15 min every time, once a day for 3, 5, 7 and 14 days, respectively. The injured GM was harvested on the 3rd, 5th, 7th and 14th day after muscular contusion. The morphological changes of the injured GM and the mean cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the neonatal muscle cells were observed by microscope after H.E. staining. The immunoactivity of desmin protein (myogenic marker protein of myoblast cell) of GM was detected by immunofluorescence stain on the 7th day after injury, and the expression levels of myoG (on the 3rd and 5th day after injury) and fast MyHC protein of GM tissues (on the 7thand 14th day after injury) were detected by Western blot.H.E. staining of GS tissue showed fewer neuronal myocytes with disordered arrangement at different sizes, and appearance of some collagenous fibers among the mesenchyme on day 7 and 14 after muscular contusion, which was relatively milder in the EA group. In the EA group, the CSA values of the neonatal muscle cells were significantly larger than those in the model group on the day 7th (P<0.05), 14th (P<0.001) after injury. On day 7 after muscular contusion, the desmin was found to express on the cellular membrane of GM in the normal control group, while in the model group, the desmin expressed mainly in the cellular plasma in the model group, and on the cellular membrane of neonatal myocytes in the EA group, respectively. The desmin positive myocytes showed disordered arrangement and different sizes after muscular contusion, whereas the situations of the EA group were close to those of the normal control group. Desmin expression was up-regulated in the EA group compared with the model group which was not significant difference (P>0.05). On the 3rd and 5th day after muscular contusion, the expression level of myoG protein was significantly up-regulated in the model group compared with the normal control group (P<0.001), and significantly up-regulated in the EA group than that in the model group (P<0.001). On the 7th and14th day after contusion, the expression level of fast MyHC protein was significantly down-regulated in the model group relevant to the normal control group (P<0.001), and markedly up-regulated in the EA group relevant to the model group (P<0.01)..EA of ST36 and "Ashi"-point on the contralateral limb can up-regulate the expression of myoG and fast MyHC proteins of GM in acute skeletal muscle contusion rats, which may contribute to its effect in promoting the repair of skeletal muscle injury.

    View details for DOI 10.13702/j.1000-0607.170903

    View details for PubMedID 31155865

  • Development of multiple features of antigen-induced asthma pathology in a new strain of mast cell deficient BALB/c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology Hernandez, J. D., Yu, M., Sibilano, R., Tsai, M., Galli, S. J. 2019

    Abstract

    Mast cell-deficient mice are widely used to identify and quantify contributions of mast cells to diverse biological responses in vivo, including allergic inflammation. However, despite the fact that scores of genes have been identified as modifiers of allergic inflammation, most mast cell-deficient models have been available only on a single genetic background. We transferred the KitW-sh allele onto the BALB/c background to generate BALB/c mast cell-deficient mice (BALB/c-KitW-sh/W-sh). BALB/c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice have dramatically reduced mast cell numbers (0-2% of wild type) in all tissues examined, as well as subtle hematologic differences from the corresponding wild type mice, including splenomegaly with evidence of increased splenic hematopoiesis. We examined in BALB/c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice models of allergic inflammation that are substantially diminished in C57BL/6-KitW-sh/W-sh mast cell-deficient mice. In a model of acute allergic inflammation, i.e., IgE-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, both ear swelling and leukocyte infiltration were largely or entirely absent in BALB/c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. In contrast, in two different models of allergic airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, lung inflammation, and airway remodeling developed robustly in mast cell-deficient BALB/c-KitW-sh/W-sh mice. These results support the conclusion that the importance of mast cell contributions in various models of allergic inflammation may be at least partially determined by genetic background.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41374-019-0354-2

    View details for PubMedID 31857699

  • Thirdhand smoke component can exacerbate a mouse asthma model through mast cells. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology Yu, M., Mukai, K., Tsai, M., Galli, S. J. 2018

    Abstract

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) represents the accumulation of secondhand smoke on indoor surfaces and in dust, which, over time, can become more toxic than secondhand smoke. Although it is well known that children of smokers are at increased risk for asthma or asthma exacerbation if the disease is already present, how exposure to THS can influence the development or exacerbation of asthma remains unknown.We investigated whether epicutaneous exposure to an important component of THS, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), can influence asthma pathology in a mouse model elicited by means of repeated intranasal challenge with cockroach antigen (CRA).Wild-type mice, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)- or mast cell (MC)-deficient mice, and mice with MCs that lacked α7 nAChRs or were the host's sole source of α7 nAChRs were subjected to epicutaneous NNK exposure, intranasal CRA challenge, or both, and the severity of features of asthma pathology, including airway hyperreactivity, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling, was assessed.We found that α7 nAChRs were required to observe adverse effects of epicutaneous NNK exposure on multiple features of CRA-induced asthma pathology. Moreover, MC expression of α7 nAChRs contributed significantly to the ability of epicutaneous NNK exposure to exacerbate airway hyperreactivity to methacholine, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling in this model.Our results show that skin exposure to NNK, a component of THS, can exacerbate multiple features of a CRA-induced model of asthma in mice and define MCs as key contributors to these adverse effects of NNK.

    View details for PubMedID 29678746

  • [Effects of acupuncture at opposite acupoints on expression of hepatocyte growth factor in rats with skeletal muscle contusion]. Zhongguo zhen jiu = Chinese acupuncture & moxibustion Zhang, A., Huang, S., Tang, C., Luo, A., Zhao, D., Gao, R., Tan, C., An, H., Wu, M., Yu, M. 2018; 38 (1): 59–64

    Abstract

    To observe the effects of acupuncture at opposite acupoints on expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in rats with skeletal muscle contusion, and to explore the mechanism of acupuncture at opposite acupoints on skeletal muscle contusion.Fifty-four Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a blank group (6 rats), a model group (24 rats) and an opposing needling group (24 rats). The model group and opposing needling group were further divided into 1-day subgroup, 3-day subgroup, 5-day subgroup and 7-day subgroup, 6 rats in each one. No intervention was given in the blank group, while the model of skeletal muscle contusion was established in the model group and opposing needling group by self-made contusion device. 24 hours after contusion, electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at "Zusanli" (ST 36) and the corresponding points of ashi points at health side for 15 min, once a day. The subgroups of opposing needling group were treated for 1 day, 3 days, 5 days and 7 days, respectively. No treatment was given in the model group. Samples were collected in the subgroups 1 day, 3 days, 5 days and 7 days after treatment. The morphological change of injured gastrocnemius muscle was observed by using microscope after HE staining. The positive cell rate of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of HGF protein and PCNA protein were observed by Western blot.① The results of HE staining showed that, 1 day after contusion, the inflammatory cells of gastrocnemius muscle in the opposing needling group were less than those in the model group; 3 days and 5 days after contusion, myoblasts and myotubes in the opposing needling group were more than those in the model group; 7 days after contusion, the neonatal muscle cells in the opposing needling group were more than those in the model group. ② The results of immunohistochemistry showed that, 1 day, 3 days and 5 days after contusion, the positive cell rate of PCNA in the opposing needling group was significantly higher than that in the model group (all P<0.001); 7 days after contusion, the positive cell rate of PCNA in the opposing needling group was significantly less than that in the model group (P<0.001). ③ The results of Western blot showed that, 1 day, 3 days and 5 days after contusion, the expression of HGF protein and PCNA protein in the opposing needling group was significantly higher than that in the model group (all P<0.05); 7 days after contusion, the expression of HGF protein and PCNA protein in the opposing needling group was significantly lower than that in the model group (all P<0.05).Acupuncture at opposite acupoints could regulate the expression of HGF and promote the activation, proliferation, migration and differentiation of muscle satellite cells in rats with skeletal muscle contusion, which could speed up the process of skeletal muscle injury repair.

    View details for DOI 10.13703/j.0255-2930.2018.01.015

    View details for PubMedID 29354938

  • Exposure to tobacco smoke increases bone loss in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Inhalation toxicology Xu, J., Qiu, X., Liang, Z., Smiley-Jewell, S., Lu, F., Yu, M., Pinkerton, K. E., Zhao, D., Shi, B. 2018; 30 (6): 229–38

    Abstract

    To define if exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) could induce reduction of bone mass and impairment of bone architecture, features observed in osteoporosis in normotensive rats and the influence of TS exposure on the osteoporotic features exhibited in the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats.Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and SH rats were exposed to filtered air or TS for 8 weeks, then their proximal femurs were extracted for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) assessment, histological and immune-histological examinations to quantify the adverse influence of TS exposure on the bone mass and density, as well as bone architecture.We found that TS exposure not only induced significant decreases in bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume (BV), cortical and trabecular thickness (Ct.Th and Tb.Th), trabecular surface area (Tb.Ar), expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the trabecular marrow, delayed ossification of cartilage, as well as statistical increases in trabecular separation (Tb.SP) and the number of trabecular marrow adipocytes in both WKY and SH rats, but also exacerbated multiple features of osteoporosis exhibited in SH rats, including decreased BMD, Ct.Th, Tb.Ar, HIF-1α expression, delayed cartilage ossification, and increased Tb.SP.Our results show that TS exposure can reduce bone mass and impair bone architecture and exacerbate multiple features of osteoporosis exhibited in SH rats.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/08958378.2018.1506838

    View details for PubMedID 30257116

  • A TNFRSF14-Fc epsilon RI-mast cell pathway contributes to development of multiple features of asthma pathology in mice NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Sibilano, R., Gaudenzio, N., DeGorter, M. K., Reber, L. L., Hernandez, J. D., Starkl, P. M., Zurek, O. W., Tsai, M., Zahner, S., Montgomery, S. B., Roers, A., Kronenberg, M., Yu, M., Galli, S. J. 2016; 7

    Abstract

    Asthma has multiple features, including airway hyperreactivity, inflammation and remodelling. The TNF superfamily member TNFSF14 (LIGHT), via interactions with the receptor TNFRSF14 (HVEM), can support TH2 cell generation and longevity and promote airway remodelling in mouse models of asthma, but the mechanisms by which TNFSF14 functions in this setting are incompletely understood. Here we find that mouse and human mast cells (MCs) express TNFRSF14 and that TNFSF14:TNFRSF14 interactions can enhance IgE-mediated MC signalling and mediator production. In mouse models of asthma, TNFRSF14 blockade with a neutralizing antibody administered after antigen sensitization, or genetic deletion of Tnfrsf14, diminishes plasma levels of antigen-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies, airway hyperreactivity, airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Finally, by analysing two types of genetically MC-deficient mice after engrafting MCs that either do or do not express TNFRSF14, we show that TNFRSF14 expression on MCs significantly contributes to the development of multiple features of asthma pathology.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms13696

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389853400001

    View details for PubMedID 27982078

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5171877

  • Identification of an IFN-gamma/mast cell axis in a mouse model of chronic asthma JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Yu, M., Eckart, M. R., Morgan, A. A., Mukai, K., Butte, A. J., Tsai, M., Galli, S. J. 2011; 121 (8): 3133-3143

    Abstract

    Asthma is considered a Th2 cell–associated disorder. Despite this, both the Th1 cell–associated cytokine IFN-γ and airway neutrophilia have been implicated in severe asthma. To investigate the relative contributions of different immune system components to the pathogenesis of asthma, we previously developed a model that exhibits several features of severe asthma in humans, including airway neutrophilia and increased lung IFN-γ. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that IFN-γ regulates mast cell function in our model of chronic asthma. Engraftment of mast cell–deficient KitW(-sh/W-sh) mice, which develop markedly attenuated features of disease, with wild-type mast cells restored disease pathology in this model of chronic asthma. However, disease pathology was not fully restored by engraftment with either IFN-γ receptor 1–null (Ifngr1–/–) or Fcε receptor 1γ–null (Fcer1g–/–) mast cells. Additional analysis, including gene array studies, showed that mast cell expression of IFN-γR contributed to the development of many FcεRIγ-dependent and some FcεRIγ-independent features of disease in our model, including airway hyperresponsiveness, neutrophilic and eosinophilic inflammation, airway remodeling, and lung expression of several cytokines, chemokines, and markers of an alternatively activated macrophage response. These findings identify a previously unsuspected IFN-γ/mast cell axis in the pathology of chronic allergic inflammation of the airways in mice.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI43598

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293495500024

    View details for PubMedID 21737883

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3148724

  • Perinatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure alters the immune response and airway innervation in infant primates JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Yu, M., Zheng, X., Peake, J., Joad, J. P., Pinkerton, K. E. 2008; 122 (3): 640-647

    Abstract

    Epidemiologic studies associate environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure with childhood asthma.To investigate whether specific pathophysiological alterations that contribute to asthma development in human beings can be induced in infant monkeys after perinatal ETS exposure.Rhesus macaque fetuses/infants were exposed to ETS at 1 mg/m(3) of total suspended particulate matter from 50 days gestational age to 2.5 months postnatal age. Inflammatory and neural responses to ETS exposure were measured in the infant monkeys.Perinatal ETS exposure could induce systemic and local responses, which include significant elevation of plasma levels of C5a and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, as well as significant increases in pulmonary expression of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and T(H)2 cytokine IL-5, chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and the density of substance P-positive nerves along the bronchial epithelium. Perinatal ETS exposure also significantly increased the numbers of mast cells, eosinophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in the lungs of infant monkeys. In addition, ex vivo measurements showed significantly increased levels of IL-4 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the culture supernatant of PBMCs. Interestingly, as an important component of cigarette smoke, LPS was detected in the plasma of infant monkeys subjected to perinatal exposure to ETS. In contrast, an inhibitory effect of perinatal ETS exposure was also observed, which is associated with decreased phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages and a significantly decreased level of nerve growth factor in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.Perinatal ETS exposure can induce a T(H)2-biased inflammatory response and alter airway innervation in infant monkeys.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaci.2008.04.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259234000030

    View details for PubMedID 18571708

  • Mast cells can promote the development of multiple features of chronic asthma in mice JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Yu, M., Tsai, M., Tam, S., Jones, C., Zehnder, J., Galli, S. J. 2006; 116 (6): 1633-1641

    Abstract

    Bronchial asthma, the most prevalent cause of significant respiratory morbidity in the developed world, typically is a chronic disorder associated with long-term changes in the airways. We developed a mouse model of chronic asthma that results in markedly increased numbers of airway mast cells, enhanced airway responses to methacholine or antigen, chronic inflammation including infiltration with eosinophils and lymphocytes, airway epithelial goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced expression of the mucin genes Muc5ac and Muc5b, and increased levels of lung collagen. Using mast cell-deficient (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) and/or Kit(W/W-v)) mice engrafted with FcRgamma+/+ or FcRgamma-/- mast cells, we found that mast cells were required for the full development of each of these features of the model. However, some features also were expressed, although usually at less than wild-type levels, in mice whose mast cells lacked FcRgamma and therefore could not be activated by either antigen- and IgE-dependent aggregation of Fc epsilonRI or the binding of antigen-IgG1 immune complexes to Fc gammaRIII. These findings demonstrate that mast cells can contribute to the development of multiple features of chronic asthma in mice and identify both Fc Rgamma-dependent and Fc Rgamma-independent pathways of mast cell activation as important for the expression of key features of this asthma model.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI25702

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237979700025

    View details for PubMedID 16710480

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1462940

  • The role of interleukin-6 in pulmonary inflammation and injury induced by exposure to environmental air pollutants TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES Yu, M., Zheng, X., Witschi, H., Pinkerton, K. E. 2002; 68 (2): 488-497

    Abstract

    This study was designed to examine the role of the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in environmental air pollutant-induced pulmonary inflammation, injury, and repair. IL-6 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were exposed to filtered air; aged and diluted cigarette smoke (ADSS), a surrogate for environmental tobacco smoke; ozone; or ADSS followed by ozone (ADSS/ozone). The proportion of monocytes and neutrophils recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as the level of total protein in BAL fluid were significantly increased in both IL-6 KO and WT mice following exposure to ozone or to ADSS/ozone. However, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling within terminal bronchiolar epithelium and proximal alveolar regions in IL-6 KO mice exposed to ozone or to ADSS/ozone was significantly reduced compared with IL-6 sufficient mice (WT). WT mice treated with IL-6 antibodies also demonstrated a reduction in BrdU cell labeling similar to that observed in IL-6 KO mice following exposure to ozone or ADSS/ozone. Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) abundance, a marker of Clara cell maturation and function, was markedly reduced in the terminal bronchiolar epithelium of WT mice following exposure to ADSS and/or ozone, whereas CCSP abundance was unchanged in IL-6 KO mice. We conclude that endogenous IL-6 in mice plays a critical role in the progress of lung inflammation/injury, but CCSP may also play a role to protect the lungs of mice exposed to toxic air pollutants. Data from this study further suggest that IL-6 antibody treatment modalities may be a means to attenuate pulmonary inflammation and injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177226000028

    View details for PubMedID 12151646

  • Short-term exposure to aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke enhances ozone-induced lung injury in B6C3F1 mice TOXICOLOGICAL SCIENCES Yu, M., Pinkerton, K. E., Witschi, H. 2002; 65 (1): 99-106

    Abstract

    To determine the effects of aged and diluted sidestream cigarette smoke (ADSS) as a surrogate of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on ozone-induced lung injury, male B6C3F1 mice were exposed to (1) filtered air (FA), (2) ADSS, (3) ozone, or (4) ADSS followed by ozone (ADSS/ozone). Exposure to ADSS at 30 mg/m3 of total suspended particulates (TSP) for 6 h/day for 3 days, followed by exposure to ozone at 0.5 ppm for 24 h was associated with a significant increase in the number of cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) compared with exposure to ADSS alone or ozone alone. The proportion of neutrophils and lymphocytes, as well as total protein level in BAL, was also significantly elevated following ADSS/ozone exposure, when compared with all other groups. Within the centriacinar regions of the lungs, the percentage of proliferating cells identified by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling was unchanged from control, following exposure to ADSS alone, but was significantly elevated following exposure to ozone (280% of control) and further augmented in a statistically significant manner in mice exposed to ADSS/ozone (402% of control). Following exposure to ozone or ADSS/ozone, the ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to release interleukin (IL)-6 under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation was significantly decreased, while exposure to ADSS or ADSS/ozone caused a significantly increased release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from AM under LPS stimulation. We conclude that ADSS exposure enhances the sensitivity of animals to ozone-induced lung injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173097400012

    View details for PubMedID 11752689

  • The effects of phenethyl isothiocyanate, N-acetylcysteine and green tea on tobacco smoke-induced lung tumors in strain A/J mice CARCINOGENESIS Witschi, H., Espiritu, I., Yu, M., Willits, N. H. 1998; 19 (10): 1789-1794

    Abstract

    Male and female strain A/J mice were exposed to a mixture of cigarette sidestream and mainstream smoke at a chamber concentration of total suspended particulates of 82.5 mg/m3. Exposure time was 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 5 months. The animals were allowed to recover for another 4 months in filtered air before sacrifice and lung tumor count. Male animals were fed either 0.2% N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or 0.05% phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) in diet AIN-76A with 5% corn oil added. Female animals received normal laboratory chow and were given a 1.25% extract of green tea in the drinking water. Corresponding control groups were fed diets without NAC or PEITC or given plain tap water. Exposure to tobacco smoke increased lung tumor multiplicity to 1.1-1.6 tumors/lung, significantly higher than control values (0.5-1.0 tumors/lung). None of the putative chemopreventive agents (NAC, PEITC or green tea extract) had a protective effect. In positive control experiments, PEITC significantly reduced both lung tumor multiplicity and incidence in mice treated with the tobacco smoke-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In mice treated with three different doses of urethan and fed NAC in the diet, a significant reduction in lung tumor multiplicity was found only at one dose level. Green tea extract did not reduce lung tumor multiplicity in animals treated with a single dose of NNK. It was concluded that successful chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-induced lung tumorigenesis might require administration of several chemopreventive agents rather than just a single one.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076511800012

    View details for PubMedID 9806160

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