Identification of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis by multiplex PCR.
Infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology
2012; 2012: 872169-?
The prevalence of menstrual pain and associated risk factors among Iranian women
JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY RESEARCH
2011; 37 (5): 442-451
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection. The aim of this study was to identify the species of vaginal Candida isolates by using multiplex PCR technique.191 isolates from patients admitted to Mahdieh hospital were identified. The vaginal swab specimens were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The ITS1 region between the 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes and a specific DNA fragment within the ITS2 region were amplified. The multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Spearman correlation were used to summarize the findings.C. albicans and C. glabrata were the most common species isolated from the specimens. A mix of C. glabrata and C. albicans was the most common mixed infection isolated from the samples. The analysis revealed a significant positive association between older age and infection with C. glabrata isolates (Spearman's rho = 0.89, P = 0.015).Multiplex PCR is a fast, yet reliable method to identify Candida species. C. albicans and then C. glabrata are the two most common causes of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The number of mixed fungal infections is higher among Iranian population compared to international reports.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2012/872169
View details for PubMedID 22791958
The epidemiology of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in an Iranian patient population
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY AND REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY
2011; 155 (2): 199-203
To estimate the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in Iranian women and investigate associated risk factors.In a cross-sectional study in Tehran, Iran in 2007, 381 women (81% response rate, age 16-56 years) were selected through a stratified random sample of 22 different districts and completed a questionnaire about dysmenorrhea. Descriptive statistics, spearman rank correlation statistic, and ordinal logistic regression models were used. Confounding and effect-modification were explored for each association.The prevalence of no, mild, moderate, and severe menstrual pain was 10%, 41%, 28%, and 22%, respectively. Older age and high intake of fruits and vegetables were protective factors for menstrual pain while women with family history of dysmenorrhea, higher stress and depression tended to have more severe pain. Body mass index, parity, smoking, and physical activity were not significantly associated with dysmenorrhea after controlling for potential confounding factors and effect modifiers.Menstrual pain is a common complaint in Iranian women. The inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and dysmenorrhea, and reduction of stress and depression need to be further explored and considered in terms of recommendation to reduce dysmenorrhea.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1447-0756.2010.01362.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000289689100010
View details for PubMedID 21208343
Drug-use patterns in an intensive care unit of a hospital in Iran: an observational prospective study.
The International journal of pharmacy practice
2010; 18 (6): 370-376
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection among women worldwide. According to previous epidemiological studies, Candida albicans is the most common species of Candida. The prevalence of non-Candida species, however, is increasing. Identification of Candida species among the population will not only help health professionals to choose suitable antifungal treatments, but also prevent development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to identify, using chromogenic agar medium, the Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis among a sample of the Iranian population.In a prospective cohort study during a two year period from March 2006 to March 2008, swab samples of vaginal discharge/secretion were taken from 200 patients admitted to the gynecology clinic of Mahdieh Hospital (Tehran, Iran) with a clinical presentation suggestive of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates obtained were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and chromogenic agar medium. Candida species were also identified by germ tube formation in serum, chlamydospore production on Corn Meal Agar and carbohydrate absorption using the API 20C-AUX kit. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire investigating the risk factors associated with candidiasis. An assessment of the different species of recurrent and non-recurrent candidiasis was also made. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to analyze the data.A total of 191 isolates were obtained from 175 vaginal specimens. Candida albicans accounted for 67% of the strains including single and mixed infections. The other identified species were Candida glabrata (18.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.8%), Candida krusei (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (1.6%), and Candida guilliermondii (0.5%) respectively. Mixed infection with two or more species of Candida was seen in 10.3% of patients. The most common mixed cause was the combination of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Participants who were sexually active and those who had orogenital sex were more likely to suffer recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.Candida albicans was the most common cause of recurrent and non-recurrent vulvovaginitis. The second most common species was Candida glabrata. This study suggests CHROMagar method as a convenient and cost effective yet reliable method to isolate the species of Candida especially in cases where more than one species is present.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2010.11.022
View details for Web of Science ID 000289454600018
View details for PubMedID 21194828
The Iranian Population is Graying: Are we ready?
ARCHIVES OF IRANIAN MEDICINE
2010; 13 (4): 333-339
the aim of this study was to evaluate drug-use patterns, investigate the factors influencing patient outcome, and determine the cost of drugs utilized in the intensive care unit (ICU).in an observational prospective study, drug prescriptions for 113 patients admitted to the ICU of a hospital in Iran were recorded. The cost of drugs in ICU and the entire hospital was also calculated. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were used to present the results.the mean age of patients was 50.3 years (SD = 20.4). The average ICU stay was 6 days. The mean length of stay was significantly lower in surgical patients compared to medical patients (odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.97). Mortality rate was significantly higher among medical patients (OR = 10.5, 95% CI 3.7-29.8). There was a significant positive association between the total number of prescribed drugs or antibiotics received by patients and mortality. Patients received an average of 8.2 drugs at admission, 10.1 drugs during the first 24h and an average of 14.6 drugs over their entire stay at the icu. among drug groups, antibiotics and sedatives were most ordered drugs in icu. antibiotics are responsible for the majority of ICU drug costs. Appropriate selection of antibiotics in terms of type, dose and duration of therapy could tremendously reduce the expenses in hospitals without negatively influencing the quality of healthcare.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2010.00065.x
View details for PubMedID 21054598
Fixed drug eruption resulting from fluconazole use: a case report.
Journal of medical case reports
2009; 3: 7368-?
Iran has gone through sharp demographic changes in the past three decades. Presently, in Iran, there is a lack of health promotional activities targeting the elderly which can lead to a decrease in their quality of life and an increase in their disability rates. Those most vulnerable amongst the elderly are females, who have low education and low socioeconomic status. For them and others, few social services, accessible housing options and long-term care facilities exist.Data was gathered using population projections over an 80-year period (1975 - 2055), facilitated by spectrum software prepared by the USAID/Health Policy Initiative with data source derived from projections of the United Nations, World Population Prospects. Projections derived were on the expected population, the median age of the population, population pyramids, total fertility rates, life expectancy, and dependency ratio.Projections showed that by the middle of this century approximately one fifth of the population will be over 60, with the median age of the population almost doubling from what it is today and the dependency ratio increasing steadily. Currently, the resources are not sufficient to address the special needs of an elderly population and are at risk for becoming even more strained over the 80 year span.Iran must begin to prepare itself for the impact that a massive ageing population will have in the ensuing years. Recommendations suggest developing policies supportive of accessible and affordable housing and care facilities, establishing community health programs that aid the elderly in continuing to live at home, and strengthening the availability of pension plans.
View details for Web of Science ID 000281447200012
View details for PubMedID 20597568
Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent with a possible side effect of fixed drug eruption. However, this adverse drug effect is absent from the reported list of possible side effects of fluconazole. We are presenting a rare case in our report.A 25-year-old Iranian woman developed fixed drug eruptions on different sites of her body after taking five doses of fluconazole to treat vaginal candidiasis. A positive patch test, positive oral challenge test and skin biopsy were all found to be consistent with fixed drug eruption.Fluconazole is a widely prescribed drug, used mainly to treat candidiasis. Fixed drug eruption as a possible side effect of Fluconazole is not well known and thus, the lesions may be misdiagnosed and mistreated. Based on our findings, which are consistent with a number of other practitioners, we recommend adding fixed drug eruption to the list of possible side effects of fluconazole.
View details for DOI 10.4076/1752-1947-3-7368
View details for PubMedID 19830193