Neural Stem Cells (NSCs) and Proteomics.
Molecular & cellular proteomics
2016; 15 (2): 344-354
Disease Variant Landscape of a Large Multiethnic Population of Moyamoya Patients by Exome Sequencing
G3-GENES GENOMES GENETICS
2016; 6 (1): 41-49
Human brain arteriovenous malformations express lymphatic-associated genes.
Annals of clinical and translational neurology
2014; 1 (12): 982-995
Neural stem cells (NSCs) can self-renew and give rise to the major cell types of the CNS. Studies of NSCs include the investigation of primary, CNS-derived cells as well as animal and human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived sources. NSCs provide a means with which to study normal neural development, neurodegeneration, and neurological disease and are clinically relevant sources for cellular repair to the damaged and diseased CNS. Proteomics studies of NSCs have the potential to delineate molecules and pathways critical for NSC biology and the means by which NSCs can participate in neural repair. In this review, we provide a background to NSC biology, including the means to obtain them and the caveats to these processes. We then focus on advances in the proteomic interrogation of NSCs. This includes the analysis of posttranslational modifications (PTMs); approaches to analyzing different proteomic compartments, such the secretome; as well as approaches to analyzing temporal differences in the proteome to elucidate mechanisms of differentiation. We also discuss some of the methods that will undoubtedly be useful in the investigation of NSCs but which have not yet been applied to the field. While many proteomics studies of NSCs have largely catalogued the proteome or posttranslational modifications of specific cellular states, without delving into specific functions, some have led to understandings of functional processes or identified markers that could not have been identified via other means. Many challenges remain in the field, including the precise identification and standardization of NSCs used for proteomic analyses, as well as how to translate fundamental proteomics studies to functional biology. The next level of investigation will require interdisciplinary approaches, combining the skills of those interested in the biochemistry of proteomics with those interested in modulating NSC function.
View details for DOI 10.1074/mcp.O115.052704
View details for PubMedID 26494823
Immune response profiling identifies autoantibodies specific to Moyamoya patients
ORPHANET JOURNAL OF RARE DISEASES
Clinical Neuroproteomics and Biomarkers: From Basic Research to Clinical Decision Making
2012; 70 (3): 518-525
Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are devastating, hemorrhage-prone, cerebrovascular lesions characterized by well-defined feeding arteries, draining vein(s) and the absence of a capillary bed. The endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise AVMs exhibit a loss of arterial and venous specification. Given the role of the transcription factor COUP-TFII in vascular development, EC specification, and pathological angiogenesis, we examined human AVM tissue to determine if COUP-FTII may have a role in AVM disease biology.We examined 40 human brain AVMs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and qRT-PCR for the expression of COUP-TFII as well as other genes involved in venous and lymphatic development, maintenance, and signaling. We also examined proliferation and EC tube formation with human umbilical ECs (HUVEC) following COUP-TFII overexpression.We report that AVMs expressed COUP-TFII, SOX18, PROX1, NFATC1, FOXC2, TBX1, LYVE1, Podoplanin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, contained Ki67-positive cells and heterogeneously expressed genes involved in Hedgehog, Notch, Wnt, and VEGF signaling pathways. Overexpression of COUP-TFII alone in vitro resulted in increased EC proliferation and dilated tubes in an EC tube formation assay in HUVEC.This suggests AVM ECs are further losing their arterial/venous specificity and acquiring a partial lymphatic molecular phenotype. There was significant correlation of gene expression with presence of clinical edema and acute hemorrhage. While the precise role of these genes in the formation, stabilization, growth and risk of hemorrhage of AVMs remains unclear, these findings have potentially important implications for patient management and treatment choice, and opens new avenues for future work on AVM disease mechanisms.
View details for DOI 10.1002/acn3.142
View details for PubMedID 25574473
Potential application of hydrogen in traumatic and surgical brain injury, stroke and neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.
Medical gas research
2012; 2 (1): 11-?
Clinical neuroproteomics aims to advance our understanding of disease and injury affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems through the study of protein expression and the discovery of protein biomarkers to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. The general premise of the biomarker field is that in vivo factors present in either tissue or circulating biofluids, reflect pathological changes, and can be identified and analyzed. This approach offers an opportunity to illuminate changes occurring at both the population and patient levels toward the realization of personalized medicine. This review is intended to provide research-driven clinicians with an overview of protein biomarkers of disease and injury for clinical use and to highlight methodology and potential pitfalls. We examine the neuroproteomic biomarker field and discuss the hallmarks and the challenges of clinically relevant biomarker discovery relating to central nervous system pathology. We discuss the issues in the maturation of potential biomarkers from discovery to Food and Drug Administration approval and review several platforms for protein biomarker discovery, including protein microarray and mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We describe the application of microfluidic technologies to the evolution of a robust clinical test. Finally, we highlight several biomarkers currently in use for cancer, ischemia, and injury in the central nervous system. Future efforts using these technologies will result in the maturation of existing and the identification of de novo biomarkers that could guide clinical decision making and advance diagnostic and therapeutic options for the treatment of neurological disease and injury.
View details for DOI 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182333a26
View details for Web of Science ID 000300781700008
View details for PubMedID 21866062
Untangling the cortex: Advances in understanding specification and differentiation of corticospinal motor neurons
2010; 32 (3): 197-206
This article summarized findings of current preclinical studies that implemented hydrogen administration, either in the gas or liquid form, as treatment application for neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI), surgically induced brain injury (SBI), stroke, and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain insult (HI). Most reviewed studies demonstrated neuroprotective effects of hydrogen administration. Even though anti-oxidative potentials have been reported in several studies, further neuroprotective mechanisms of hydrogen therapy remain to be elucidated. Hydrogen may serve as an adjunct treatment for neurological disorders.
View details for DOI 10.1186/2045-9912-2-11
View details for PubMedID 22515516
Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Murine Embryonic and Postnatal Cortical Neural Progenitors
2010; 5 (2)
The mature cerebral cortex contains a staggering variety of projection neuron subtypes, and a number of complementary studies have recently begun to define their identity and embryonic origin. Among the different types of cortical projection neurons, subcerebral projection neurons, including corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN), have been extensively studied and some of the molecular controls over their differentiation have been elucidated. Here, we first provide an overview of the approaches used to purify and molecularly profile neuronal populations of the neocortex and, more broadly, of the central nervous system (CNS). Next, we specifically review recent progress in understanding the genes that define and control development of the CSMN population. Finally, we briefly discuss the relevance of this work to current questions regarding the mechanisms of the establishment of projection neuron subtype identity in the neocortex and its implications to direct the differentiation of CSMN for therapeutic benefit.
View details for DOI 10.1002/bies.200900114
View details for Web of Science ID 000275508900003
View details for PubMedID 20108227
Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase is a key regulator of the proliferation of malignant brain tumors, including brain tumor stem cells
JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH
2008; 86 (1): 48-60
The central nervous system (CNS) develops from a heterogeneous pool of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPC), the underlying differences among which are poorly understood. The study of NSPC would be greatly facilitated by the identification of additional proteins that mediate their function and that would distinguish amongst different progenitor populations.To identify membrane and membrane-associated proteins expressed by NSPC, we used a proteomics approach to profile NSPC cultured as neurospheres (NS) isolated from the murine cortex during a period of neurogenesis (embryonic day 11.5, E11.5), as compared to NSPC isolated at a peak of gliogenesis (postnatal day 1, P0) and to differentiated E11.5 NS. 54 proteins were identified with high expression in E11.5 NS, including the TrkC receptor, several heterotrimeric G proteins, and the Neogenin receptor. 24 proteins were identified with similar expression in E11.5 and P0 NS over differentiated E11.5 NS, and 13 proteins were identified with high expression specifically in P0 NS compared to E11.5 NS. To illustrate the potential relevance of these identified proteins to neural stem cell biology, the function of Neogenin was further studied. Using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) analysis, expression of Neogenin was associated with a self-renewing population present in both E11.5 and adult subventricular zone (SVZ) NS but not in P0 NS. E11.5 NS expressed a putative Neogenin ligand, RGMa, and underwent apoptosis when exposed to a ligand-blocking antibody.There are fundamental differences between the continuously self-renewing and more limited progenitors of the developing cortex. We identified a subset of differentially expressed proteins that serve not only as a set of functionally important proteins, but as a useful set of markers for the subsequent analysis of NSPC. Neogenin is associated with the continuously self-renewing and neurogenic cells present in E11.5 cortical and adult SVZ NS, and the Neogenin/RGMa receptor/ligand pair may regulate cell survival during development.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0009121
View details for Web of Science ID 000274442600019
View details for PubMedID 20161753
Disease Variant Landscape of a Large Multiethnic Population of Moyamoya Patients by Exome Sequencing.
G3 (Bethesda, Md.)
2015; 6 (1): 41-49
Emerging evidence suggests that neural stem cells and brain tumors regulate their proliferation via similar pathways. In a previous study, we demonstrated that maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (Melk) is highly expressed in murine neural stem cells and regulates their proliferation. Here we describe how MELK expression is correlated with pathologic grade of brain tumors, and its expression levels are significantly correlated with shorter survival, particularly in younger glioblastoma patients. In normal human astrocytes, MELK is only faintly expressed, and MELK knockdown does not significantly influence their growth, whereas Ras and Akt overexpressing astrocytes have up-regulated MELK expression, and the effect of MELK knockdown is more prominent in these transformed astrocytes. In primary cultures from human glioblastoma and medulloblastoma, MELK knockdown by siRNA results in inhibition of the proliferation and survival of these tumors. Furthermore, we show that MELK siRNA dramatically inhibits proliferation and, to some extent, survival of stem cells isolated from glioblastoma in vitro. These results demonstrate a critical role for MELK in the proliferation of brain tumors, including their stem cells, and suggest that MELK may be a compelling molecular target for treatment of high-grade brain tumors.
View details for DOI 10.1002/jnr.21471
View details for Web of Science ID 000252521000006
View details for PubMedID 17722061
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare disorder characterized by cerebrovascular occlusion and development of hemorrhage-prone collateral vessels. Approximately 10-12% of cases are familial, with a presumed low penetrance autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Diagnosis commonly occurs only after clinical presentation. The recent identification of the RNF213 founder mutation (p.R4810K) in the Asian population has made a significant contribution, but the etiology of this disease remains unclear. To further develop the variant landscape of MMD, we performed high-depth whole exome sequencing of 125 unrelated, predominantly nonfamilial, ethnically diverse MMD patients in parallel with 125 internally sequenced, matched controls using the same exome and analysis platform. Three subpopulations were established: Asian, Caucasian, and non-RNF213 founder mutation cases. We provided additional support for the previously observed RNF213 founder mutation (p.R4810K) in Asian cases (P = 6.01×10(-5)) that was enriched among East Asians compared to Southeast Asian and Pacific Islander cases (P = 9.52×10(-4)) and was absent in all Caucasian cases. The most enriched variant in Caucasian (P = 7.93×10(-4)) and non-RNF213 founder mutation (P = 1.51×10(-3)) cases was ZXDC (p.P562L), a gene involved in MHC Class II activation. Collapsing variant methodology ranked OBSCN, a gene involved in myofibrillogenesis, as most enriched in Caucasian (P = 1.07×10(-4)) and non-RNF213 founder mutation cases (P = 5.31×10(-5)). These findings further support the East Asian origins of the RNF213 (p.R4810K) variant and more fully describe the genetic landscape of multiethnic MMD, revealing novel, alternative candidate variants and genes that may be important in MMD etiology and diagnosis.
View details for DOI 10.1534/g3.115.020321
View details for PubMedID 26530418