- The Role of Causal Inference, Study Design, & Outcomes in Community Research
CHPR 225 (Aut)
Independent Studies (10)
- Community Health and Prevention Research Master's Thesis Writing
CHPR 399 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Community-based Research Internship
CHPR 299 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Directed Reading
CHPR 298 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Directed Reading in Medicine
MED 299 (Win, Spr)
- Early Clinical Experience in Medicine
MED 280 (Win, Spr)
- Graduate Research
MED 399 (Win, Spr)
HUMBIO 194 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Medical Scholars Research
MED 370 (Win, Spr)
- Research in Human Biology
HUMBIO 193 (Aut, Win, Spr)
- Undergraduate Research
MED 199 (Aut, Win, Spr, Sum)
- Community Health and Prevention Research Master's Thesis Writing
Prior Year Courses
- Obesity in America: Clinical and Public Health Implications
CHPR 223, HUMBIO 123 (Win)
- The Role of Causal Inference, Study Design, & Outcomes in Community Research
CHPR 225 (Aut)
- The Role of Causal Inference, Study Design, & Outcomes in Community Research
CHPR 225 (Aut)
- The Role of Causal Inference, Study Design, and Outcomes in Community Research
CHPR 125 (Aut)
- Obesity in America: Clinical and Public Health Implications
HUMBIO 123 (Win)
- Obesity in America: Clinical and Public Health Implications
A Latino Patient-Centered, Evidence-Based Approach to Diabetes Prevention
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN BOARD OF FAMILY MEDICINE
2018; 31 (3): 364–74
Cultural tailoring of evidence-based diabetes prevention program (DPP) interventions is needed to effectively address obesity and its related chronic diseases among Latinos in primary care. This article describes the patient-centered process used to adapt the DPP and reports cultural adaptations.We used a 2-stage formative research process to culturally adapt an evidence-based DPP intervention in the context of primary care. The first stage involved 5 focus groups of Latino patients and interviews with 5 stakeholders (3 with primary care physicians and 2 with medical directors) to inform a first round of adaptations. The second stage included pretesting the stage I-adapted intervention with a Latino patient advisory board to complete a second round of adaptations.Key stakeholders involved in this 2-stage adaptation process included 34 Latino patients who participated in 5 focus groups and 5 physicians and medical directors who participated in key informant interviews during stage I and 11 patients who attended the 16 advisory board meetings and their family members who attended 1 of the meetings during stage II. Using this patient-centered stakeholder-engaged approach, we found the original intervention was largely congruent with the cultural values of the study population. To further strengthen the cultural relevance of the intervention, salient cultural values emphasized by patients and stakeholders underscored the importance of family and community support for behavior change. Accordingly, key adaptations were made to (1) invite family members to the orientation session and at 2 other key timepoints to facilitate family support, (2) provide participants support from the coach and each other via smartphone applications, and (3) provide healthy, easy, low-cost culturally appropriate meals at each group session.The 2-stage approach actively engaging patients, family members, providers, and health care system leaders reinforced the cultural congruence of the existing intervention while further strengthening it with adaptations promoting Latino family and community support.
View details for DOI 10.3122/jabfm.2018.03.170280
View details for Web of Science ID 000431813600010
View details for PubMedID 29743220
EVALUATION OF PROMIS SLEEP MEASURES IN ETHNICALLY DIVERSE OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE PRIMARY CARE PATIENTS WITH AND WITHOUT DEPRESSION
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2018: S215
View details for Web of Science ID 000431185200508
UNDERSTANDING HISTORICAL TRAUMA AMONG INDIGENOUS ADULTS AT RISK FOR DIABETES TO INFORM BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2018: S219
View details for Web of Science ID 000431185200516
UNDERSTANDING TREATMENT RESPONSE TO INTEGRATED BEHAVIOR THERAPY FOR COMORBID OBESITY AND DEPRESSION IN PRIMARY CARE
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2018: S129
View details for Web of Science ID 000431185200292
A framework for examining the function of digital health technologies for weight management
TRANSLATIONAL BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE
2018; 8 (2): 280–94
Research is rapidly extending its focus to develop and evaluate weight management interventions that incorporate eHealth technologies. Comparative effectiveness of eHealth interventions is partly limited by the extensive heterogeneity in intervention design, variation in use of eHealth tools, and expanding development of novel tools to promote weight management. We closely examined, characterized, and categorized the use and function of eHealth tools across a wide range of eHealth interventions for weight management in order to first create a novel schematic framework for eHealth interventions and, second, to evaluate eHealth interventions using this framework. We examined 49 randomized controlled trials from two systematic reviews evaluating the effectiveness of eHealth interventions for weight loss. Further characterization of each intervention identified common use and function of eHealth tools represented within interventions and thus important to include in the proposed framework. This resulted in six descriptive domains. We then categorized each eHealth intervention within the context of the newly developed framework. Last, we examined efficacious interventions in the context of the framework. Twenty-five randomized controlled trials reported significantly more weight loss between the intervention group utilizing eHealth, compared to a non-eHealth control intervention and/or within an eHealth intervention group. Of these 25 interventions, 15 (60%) used automated feedback (Domain 1), 13 (52%) used non-eHealth tailored feedback by a health care provider (Domain 5), and 8 (32%) used tailored feedback from a health care professional through an electronic channel (Domain 2). The proposed schematic framework offers an alternative and novel approach for comparing across interventions and informing the development and evaluation of eHealth interventions.
View details for DOI 10.1093/tbm/ibx050
View details for Web of Science ID 000431346000013
View details for PubMedID 29385564
HOMBRE: A randomized controlled trial to compare two approaches to weight loss for overweight and obese Latino men (Hombres con Opciones para Mejorar el Bienestar y bajar el Riesgo de Enfermedades cronicas; men with choices to improve well-being and decrease chronic disease risk).
Contemporary clinical trials
2018; 68: 23–34
Latino men bear a disproportionate burden of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.However, limited behavioral lifestyle intervention research has focused on Latino men. This trial compares two approaches to weight loss for overweight and obese Latino men: 1) HOMBRE is a culturally adapted intervention that provides individual choice of either self-directed online videos, coach-facilitated in-person groups, and coach-facilitated online groups; and 2) a minimal intensity intervention that uses online videos with a coach available, if solicited by the participant.Latino men with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥27 kg/m2 and one or more cardiometabolic risk factors (n = 424) will be randomly assigned to receive one of the two approaches.The RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework guides the planned evaluations.The primary aim is to determine the effectiveness of the HOMBRE intervention (the "E" in RE-AIM) on clinically significant weight loss (≥5% of baseline weight) at 18 months. We hypothesize that a significantly higher proportion of HOMBRE participants will maintain ≥5% of weight loss compared with those in the minimal intensity intervention.Secondary aims are to determine the effectiveness of HOMBRE on cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g., blood pressure, waist circumference), health behaviors (e.g., diet and physical activity), and psychosocial well-being (e.g., quality of life and depressive symptoms) and to evaluate the other attributes of RE-AIM. These findings have real word applicability with value to clinicians, patients, and other decision makers considering effective diabetes prevention programs for Latino men in primary care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2018.02.019
View details for PubMedID 29505867
The ENGAGE study: Integrating neuroimaging, virtual reality and smartphone sensing to understand self-regulation for managing depression and obesity in a precision medicine model.
Behaviour research and therapy
2018; 101: 58–70
Precision medicine models for personalizing achieving sustained behavior change are largely outside of current clinical practice. Yet, changing self-regulatory behaviors is fundamental to the self-management of complex lifestyle-related chronic conditions such as depression and obesity - two top contributors to the global burden of disease and disability. To optimize treatments and address these burdens, behavior change and self-regulation must be better understood in relation to their neurobiological underpinnings. Here, we present the conceptual framework and protocol for a novel study, "Engaging self-regulation targets to understand the mechanisms of behavior change and improve mood and weight outcomes (ENGAGE)". The ENGAGE study integrates neuroscience with behavioral science to better understand the self-regulation related mechanisms of behavior change for improving mood and weight outcomes among adults with comorbid depression and obesity. We collect assays of three self-regulation targets (emotion, cognition, and self-reflection) in multiple settings: neuroimaging and behavioral lab-based measures, virtual reality, and passive smartphone sampling. By connecting human neuroscience and behavioral science in this manner within the ENGAGE study, we develop a prototype for elucidating the underlying self-regulation mechanisms of behavior change outcomes and their application in optimizing intervention strategies for multiple chronic diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2017.09.012
View details for PubMedID 29074231
Personalized Hypertension Management Using Patient-Generated Health Data Integrated With Electronic Health Records (EMPOWER-H): Six-Month Pre-Post Study
JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH
2017; 19 (9): e311
EMPOWER-H (Engaging and Motivating Patients Online With Enhanced Resources-Hypertension) is a personalized-care model facilitating engagement in hypertension self-management utilizing an interactive Web-based disease management system integrated with the electronic health record. The model is designed to support timely patient-provider interaction by incorporating decision support technology to individualize care and provide personalized feedback for patients with chronic disease. Central to this process were patient-generated health data, including blood pressure (BP), weight, and lifestyle behaviors, which were uploaded using a smartphone.The aim of this study was to evaluate the program among patients within primary care already under management for hypertension and with uncontrolled BP.Using a 6-month pre-post design, outcome measures included office-measured and home-monitored BP, office-measured weight, intervention contacts, diet, physical activity, smoking, knowledge, and health-related quality of life.At 6 months, 55.9% of participants (N=149) achieved office BP goals (<140/90 mm Hg; P<.001) and 86.0% achieved clinically meaningful reduction in office BP (reduction in systolic BP [SBP] ≥5 mm Hg or diastolic BP [DBP] ≥3 mm Hg). At baseline, 25.2% of participants met home BP goals (<135/85 mm Hg), and this percentage significantly increased to 71.4% (P<.001) at 6 months. EMPOWER-H also significantly reduced both office and home SBP and DBP, decreased office-measured weight and consumption of high-salt and high-fat foods (all P<.005), and increased intake of fruit and vegetables, minutes of aerobic exercise, and hypertension knowledge (all P<.05). Patients with higher home BP upload frequencies had significantly higher odds of achieving home BP goals. Patients receiving more total intervention, behavioral, pharmaceutical contacts had significantly lower odds of achieving home BP goals but higher improvements in office BP (all P<.05).EMPOWER-H significantly improved participants' office-measured and home-monitored BP, weight, and lifestyle behaviors, suggesting that technologically enabled BP home-monitoring, with structured use of patient-generated health data and a personalized care-plan facilitating patient engagement, can support effective clinical management. The experience gained in this study provides support for the feasibility and value of using carefully managed patient-generated health data in the day-to-day clinical management of patients with chronic conditions. A large-scale, real-world study to evaluate sustained effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and scalability is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.2196/jmir.7831
View details for Web of Science ID 000411099600001
View details for PubMedID 28928111
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5627043
Behavioral lifestyle interventions for moderate and severe obesity: A systematic review
2017; 100: 180–93
Moderate and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) affect 15% of US adults, with a projected increase over the next two decades. This study reviews evidence of behavioral lifestyle interventions for weight loss in this population. We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, CINAHL®, and Scopus through February 2016 for experimental and quasi-experimental studies that tested a dietary and/or physical activity intervention with a behavioral modification component versus a comparator; and had ≥six-month follow-up and a weight-related primary outcome. Twelve studies representing 1862 participants (mean BMI 37.5-48.3, mean age 30-54 years) were included. Nine studies compared different behavioral interventions and three tested behavioral intervention(s) versus pharmacological or surgical treatments. Among the 25 behavioral interventions in the 12 studies, 18 reported percent of participants achieving clinically significant weight loss up to 12months (32-97% achieving 5% or 3-70% achieving 10%). Three studies measured other cardiometabolic risk factors, but showed no significant risk reduction. Seven interventions with greater effectiveness (i.e., at least 31% achieving ≥10% or 62% achieving ≥5% weight loss up to one year) included multiple components (diet, physical activity, and behavioral strategies), long duration (e.g., one year), and/or intensive contacts (e.g., inpatient stays for clinic-based interventions, weekly contacts for community-based ones). Evidence for the effectiveness of behavioral interventions versus pharmacological or surgical treatment was limited. Comprehensive and intensive behavioral interventions can result in clinically significant, albeit modest, weight loss in this obese subpopulation but may not result significant improvements in other cardiometabolic risk factors. More research on scalable and sustainable interventions is needed.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.04.022
View details for Web of Science ID 000405677000028
View details for PubMedID 28450123
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5503454
MECHANISTIC SELF-REGULATION TARGETS IN INTEGRATED BEHAVIOR THERAPY FOR OBESE AND DEPRESSED ADULTS: RAINBOW-ENGAGE STUDY
SPRINGER. 2017: S1596–S1597
View details for Web of Science ID 000398947202156
Latino Adults' Perspectives on Treating Tobacco Use Via Social Media.
JMIR mHealth and uHealth
2017; 5 (2)
Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States, and in California they outnumber non-Hispanic whites. Smoking cessation programs tailored for Latino culture, and this population's specific smoking patterns, are needed. Online social networks for smoking cessation have high potential for Latinos, but have not been tested to date.Building a research program on social media apps for cancer prevention in diverse populations, this qualitative study assessed acceptability of tobacco treatment that was distributed via social media for Latino smokers.We conducted three focus groups with Latino adults who were former and current smokers recruited from Santa Clara County, California in 2015 (N=32). We assessed participants' smoking histories, attempts to quit, social media exposure, and receptivity to a social media-based smoking cessation intervention. Audio transcripts were translated and coded for themes.Participants reported factors driving their tobacco use and motivations to quit, and emphasized the importance of community and family in influencing their smoking initiation, cravings and triggers, attempts to quit, and abstinence. Participants valued the communal aspect of social media and suggested strategically tailoring groups based on key features (eg, age, gender, language preference). Participants reported preferring visual, educational, and motivational messages that were connected with existing services.Participants generally voiced acceptability of a social media-delivered intervention to help them quit smoking, viewed the intervention as well-equipped for catering to the strong community orientation of Latinos, and suggested that the platform was able to address variation within the population through strategic group creation. As a group member reflected, "Podemos hacerlo juntos" (We can do it together).
View details for DOI 10.2196/mhealth.6684
View details for PubMedID 28179217
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5322200
Validation of Clinic Weights from Electronic Health Records Against Standardized Weight Measurements in Weight Loss Trials
2017; 25 (2): 363–69
To validate clinic weights in electronic health records against researcher-measured weights for outcome assessment in weight loss trials.Clinic and researcher-measured weights from a published trial (BE WELL) were compared using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient, Bland and Altman's limits of agreement, and polynomial regression model. Changes in clinic and researcher-measured weights in BE WELL and another trial, E-LITE, were analyzed using growth curve modeling.Among BE WELL (n = 330) and E-LITE (n = 241) participants, 96% and 90% had clinic weights (mean [SD] of 5.8 [6.1] and 3.7 [3.9] records) over 12 and 15 months of follow-up, respectively. The concordance correlation coefficient was 0.99, and limits of agreement plots showed no pattern between or within treatment groups, suggesting overall good agreement between researcher-measured and nearest-in-time clinic weights up to 3 months. The 95% confidence intervals for predicted percent differences fell within ±3% for clinic weights within 3 months of the researcher-measured weights. Furthermore, the growth curve slopes for clinic and researcher-measured weights by treatment group did not differ significantly, suggesting similar inferences about treatment effects over time, in both trials.Compared with researcher-measured weights, close-in-time clinic weights showed high agreement and inference validity. Clinic weights could be a valid pragmatic outcome measure in weight loss studies.
View details for DOI 10.1002/oby.21737
View details for Web of Science ID 000394970100019
View details for PubMedID 28059466
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5269438
Physical education policy compliance and Latino children's fitness: Does the association vary by school neighborhood socioeconomic advantage?
2017; 12 (6)
To investigate the contribution of school neighborhood socioeconomic advantage to the association between school-district physical education policy compliance in California public schools and Latino students' physical fitness.Cross-sectional Fitnessgram data for public-school students were linked with school- and district-level information, district-level physical education policy compliance from 2004-2005 and 2005-2006, and 2000 United States Census data. Multilevel logistic regression models examined whether income and education levels in school neighborhoods moderated the effects of district-level physical education policy compliance on Latino fifth-graders' fitness levels.Physical education compliance data were available for 48 California school districts, which included 64,073 Latino fifth-graders. Fewer than half (23, or 46%) of these districts were found to be in compliance, and only 16% of Latino fifth-graders attended schools in compliant districts. Overall, there was a positive association between district compliance with physical education policy and fitness (OR, 95%CI: 1.38, 1.07, 1.78) adjusted for covariates. There was no significant interaction between school neighborhood socioeconomic advantage and physical education policy compliance (p>.05): there was a positive pattern in the association between school district compliance with physical education policy and student fitness levels across levels of socioeconomic advantage, though the association was not always significant.Across neighborhoods with varying levels of socioeconomic advantage, increasing physical education policy compliance in elementary schools may be an effective strategy for improving fitness among Latino children.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0178980
View details for PubMedID 28591139
Use of a motivational interviewing-informed strategy in group orientations to improve retention and intervention attendance in a randomized controlled trial
HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH
2016; 31 (6): 729–37
High retention and treatment adherence are essential to ensure the quality of evidence from clinical trials. Strategies for improving these have been explored but actual rates in lifestyle intervention trials indicate challenges. This study examined the use of a motivational interviewing-informed strategy during interactive group orientations prior to obtaining informed consent, collecting baseline data and randomization in a healthy dietary pattern intervention trial for asthma control in adults. The themes generated from small group discussions and echoed in large group discussions during the orientation sessions helped potential participants better understand the scientific rationale of the research design and procedures and the practical implications for them to participate in the study. Potential participants reported significantly lower confidence of completing the study after the group orientation. This suggests that the group orientations helped potential participants identify challenges to completing the study, have more realistic expectations about participation and be prepared if enrolled. Both retention (92% of 90 participants at 6 months) and intervention attendance (99% of 46 intervention participants attended 80% of 11 weekly group/individual sessions) were high, suggesting the motivation interviewing-informed group orientation strategy may help improve retention and adherence in clinical trials.
View details for DOI 10.1093/her/cyw048
View details for Web of Science ID 000392938900004
View details for PubMedID 27923862
Harnessing Technology and Citizen Science to Support Neighborhoods that Promote Active Living in Mexico.
Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Middle- and low-income countries bear 80 % of the global chronic disease burden. Population-level, multi-sectoral approaches to promoting healthful lifestyles that take into local physical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural characteristics of both the environment and the population are needed. The "Nuestra Voz (Our Voice)" is one such approach that involves neighborhood residents acting as "citizen scientists" to systematically gather information on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity in their neighborhoods and then use their data to collectively advocate for local environmental- and policy-level changes to support active living. We pilot tested this approach in Cuernavaca, Mexico with adults and adolescents. This community-engaged and participatory approach is driven by residents, who utilize a GPS-enabled electronic tablet-based application with simple audio-based instructions to take photographs and record audio narratives of facets of their neighborhood that promote or hinder active living. After collecting these data, the citizen scientists come together in a community meeting and use their data to prioritize realistic, multi-level changes for promoting active living in their neighborhoods. A survey assessed participants' acceptability of the approach. Participating citizen scientists included 32 adults and 9 adolescents. The citizen scientists rated the acceptability of five of the nine acceptability survey items with an average of 4.0 or higher out of 5.0, indicating they thought it was "fun," were comfortable carrying the tablet, were likely to use it again, and would recommend it to friends and family. Items with average scores of less than 4 were all related to safety concerns. The most common barriers reported by citizen scientists using the tablet were poor sidewalk quality, presence of trash, negative characteristics of the streets, unpleasant aesthetics (e.g., graffiti), and presence of parks and recreational facilities. The Our Voice citizen scientist approach using the Discovery Tool has high potential for assisting communities in diverse settings to begin to identify both local barriers to active living as well as potentially useful strategies for promoting physical activity in culturally congruent ways that are appropriate and feasible in the local context.
View details for PubMedID 27752825
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5126018
Development and evaluation of an enhanced diabetes prevention program with psychosocial support for urban American Indians and Alaska natives: A randomized controlled trial
CONTEMPORARY CLINICAL TRIALS
2016; 50: 28-36
Diabetes is highly prevalent, affecting over 25 million adults in the US, yet it can be effectively prevented through lifestyle interventions, including the well-tested Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN) adults, the majority of whom live in urban settings, are more than twice as likely to develop diabetes as non-Hispanic whites. Additionally, prevalent mental health issues and psychosocial stressors may facilitate progression to diabetes and hinder successful implementation of lifestyle interventions for AIAN adults. This 2-phased study first engaged community stakeholders to develop culturally-tailored strategies to address mental health concerns and psychosocial stressors. Pilot testing (completed) refined those strategies that increase engagement in an enhanced DPP for urban AIAN adults. Second, the enhanced DPP will be compared to a standard DPP in a randomized controlled trial (ongoing) with a primary outcome of body mass index (BMI) and a secondary outcome of quality of life (QoL) over 12months. Obese self-identified AIAN adults residing in an urban setting with one or more components of the metabolic syndrome (excluding waist circumference) will be randomized to the enhanced or standard DPP (n=204). We hypothesize that addressing psychosocial barriers within a culturally-tailored DPP will result in clinical (BMI) and superior patient-centered (QoL) outcomes as compared to a standard DPP. Exploratory outcomes will include cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g., waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose) and health behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity). Results of this trial may be applicable to other urban AIAN or minority communities or even diabetes prevention in general.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2016.06.015
View details for Web of Science ID 000385321600005
View details for PubMedID 27381232
Acceptability and feasibility of the 'DASH for Asthma' intervention in a randomized controlled trial pilot study
PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION
2016; 19 (11): 2049–59
'DASH for Asthma' (n 90) was a 6-month randomized controlled trial that demonstrated potential benefits of a DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) behavioural intervention for improving diet quality and asthma control by comparing intervention to usual care in adults with uncontrolled asthma. The present study examined acceptability and feasibility of the intervention from the perspective of intervention participants and lifestyle coaches.Grounded in Social Cognitive Theory, the 3-month intensive stage, including three individual and eight group sessions, focused on diet modifications and behavioural self-regulation. The 3-month maintenance stage contained telephone consultations. Participants and lifestyle coaches completed surveys including 5-point Likert scales and open-ended questions. We analysed data using descriptive and inductive content analyses.Forty-six intervention participants (survey response rate was 65-72 %) and two lifestyle coaches.Participants and lifestyle coaches were highly satisfied (all mean ratings >4) with individual and group sessions. Participants identified mastery of knowledge and skills (awareness, goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving), social learning (class members sharing experiences and ideas) and good coaching skills (reflective listening, empathy, motivational counselling) as important contributors to self-efficacy and programme satisfaction. Participants also valued personalized feedback received in individual sessions. Lifestyle coaches viewed participant engagement as a facilitator to effective sessions. Finally, participants and lifestyle coaches identified food tasting as beneficial for observational learning and facilitation of participant engagement. High class attendance and self-monitoring rate also reflected the high engagement among participants.The DASH behavioural intervention was feasible and highly acceptable to participants with uncontrolled asthma and lifestyle coaches.
View details for DOI 10.1017/S136898001500350X
View details for Web of Science ID 000380897300015
View details for PubMedID 26653101
Maternal Depression and Childhood Overweight in the CHAMACOS Study of Mexican-American Children
MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH JOURNAL
2016; 20 (7): 1405–14
Objective Although previous studies have examined the impact of maternal depression on child overweight and obesity, little is known about the relationship in Latino families, who suffer from high risks of depression and obesity. We prospectively investigated the association between depressive symptoms in women with young children and child overweight and obesity (overweight/obesity) at age 7 years among Latino families. Methods Participants included 332 singletons with anthropometric measures obtained at 7 years from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a birth cohort study. Maternal depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale when the children were 1, 3.5, and 7 years. Overweight and obesity was measured by body mass index (kg/m(2)) at age 7 years. Results 63 % of women had CES-D scores consistent with depression in at least one of the 3 given assessments. Compared to children whose mothers were never depressed, children whose mothers were depressed at all three assessments had 2.4 times the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity at age 7 years (95 % CI 1.1-5.6). However, a single positive maternal depression screen was not associated with child overweight/obesity and there was no difference in the odds of overweight/obesity by the age of the child when maternal depression occurred. Conclusion Chronic maternal depression during a child's early life was associated with child overweight/obesity at 7 years. Addressing maternal depression is a critical component of comprehensive obesity prevention and treatment strategies for Latino children.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10995-016-1937-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000378752000011
View details for PubMedID 27007986
Leveraging Citizen Science and Wearable Technologies for Population Physical Activity Promotion
HUMAN KINETICS PUBL INC. 2016: S99–S100
View details for Web of Science ID 000381554400254
Leveraging Citizen Science and Information Technology for Population Physical Activity Promotion.
Translational journal of the American College of Sports Medicine
2016; 1 (4): 30-44
While technology is a major driver of many of society's comforts, conveniences, and advances, it has been responsible, in a significant way, for engineering regular physical activity and a number of other positive health behaviors out of people's daily lives. A key question concerns how to harness information and communication technologies (ICT) to bring about positive changes in the health promotion field. One such approach involves community-engaged "citizen science," in which local residents leverage the potential of ICT to foster data-driven consensus-building and mobilization efforts that advance physical activity at the individual, social, built environment, and policy levels.The history of citizen science in the research arena is briefly described and an evidence-based method that embeds citizen science in a multi-level, multi-sectoral community-based participatory research framework for physical activity promotion is presented.Several examples of this citizen science-driven community engagement framework for promoting active lifestyles, called "Our Voice", are discussed, including pilot projects from diverse communities in the U.S. as well as internationally.The opportunities and challenges involved in leveraging citizen science activities as part of a broader population approach to promoting regular physical activity are explored. The strategic engagement of citizen scientists from socio-demographically diverse communities across the globe as both assessment as well as change agents provides a promising, potentially low-cost and scalable strategy for creating more active, healthful, and equitable neighborhoods and communities worldwide.
View details for PubMedID 27525309
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4978140
- Precision Lifestyle Medicine A New Frontier in the Science of Behavior Change and Population Health AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE 2016; 50 (3): 395–97
Pilot randomised trial of a healthy eating behavioural intervention in uncontrolled asthma
EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL
2016; 47 (1): 122-132
Rigorous research on the benefit of healthy eating patterns for asthma control is lacking.We randomised 90 adults with objectively confirmed uncontrolled asthma and a low-quality diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores <6 out of 9) to a 6-month DASH behavioural intervention (n=46) or usual-care control (n=44). Intention-to-treat analyses used repeated-measures mixed models.Participants were middle-aged, 67% female and multiethnic. Compared with controls, intervention participants improved on DASH scores (mean change (95% CI) 0.6 (0, 1.1) versus -0.3 (-0.8, 0.2); difference 0.8 (0.2, 1.5)) and the primary outcome, Asthma Control Questionnaire scores (-0.2 (-0.5, 0) versus 0 (-0.3, 0.3); difference -0.2 (-0.5, 0.1)) at 6 months. The mean group differences in changes in Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire overall and subdomain scores consistently favoured the intervention over the control group: overall 0.4 (95% CI 0, 0.8), symptoms 0.5 (0, 0.9), environment 0.4 (-0.1, 1.0), emotions 0.4 (-0.2, 0.9) and activities 0.3 (0, 0.7). These differences were modest, but potentially clinical significant.The DASH behavioural intervention improved diet quality with promising clinical benefits for better asthma control and functional status among adults with uncontrolled asthma. A full-scale efficacy trial is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1183/13993003.00591-2015
View details for Web of Science ID 000367443900018
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5136475
Service-Based Learning for Residents: A Success for Communities and Medical Education.
2015; 47 (10): 803-806
Community-based service-learning opportunities could support residents' acquisition of Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies, but this concept has not been tested, and such programs are difficult to find. The objective of this work was to assess the value and the ACGME competency relevance of a service-learning program for residents that could be easily replicated nationally.Forty-one family medicine residents from three training programs participated in the Stanford Youth Diabetes Coaches Program at six high schools in California and Georgia serving minority students of low socioeconomic status. Residents completed online surveys to provide qualitative feedback and assess the program's impact on their acquisition of residency program competencies and self-management support proficiencies, including prior use and planned use of action plans-a key self-management support strategy.Ninety-five percent of residents indicated that the program was a valuable experience that contributed to acquisition of residency program competencies, including interpersonal and communication skills and communication with teens. Compared with baseline, significantly more residents reported intention to use action plans with patients following participation. Themes from qualitative feedback included: valuing the overall experience, increasing opportunities to practice teaching, enhancing their ability to communicate with adolescents, contributing to the health of the community, recognizing the potential of action plans, and increasing intent to use action plans.This pilot demonstrated that a brief service-learning program can enhance standard residency curriculum by encouraging acquisition of ACGME competencies and promoting utilization of self-management support in clinical practice.
View details for PubMedID 26545059
Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.
Journal of immigrant and minority health
2015; 17 (5): 1496-1503
Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, heterogeneity was attenuated (p = 0.05) with BMI among all US-born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10903-014-0096-6
View details for PubMedID 25192818
Pica during pregnancy among Mexican-born women: a formative study.
Maternal and child nutrition
2015; 11 (4): 550-558
Although pica, the craving and purposive consumption of non-food substances, is common among many populations, especially during pregnancy, the health consequences are not well understood. Further, very little is known about pica among Mexican populations in the United States and Mexico. Therefore, we conducted formative research to understand pica in this understudied population. Our objectives were to identify the frequency and types of pica behaviours, to understand perceived aetiologies and consequences of pica and to ascertain if the behaviour was common enough to warrant a larger study. We held nine focus group discussions (three in the Salinas Valley, California; six in Xoxocotla, Morelos, Mexico) with 76 Mexican-born women who were currently pregnant or had delivered within the past 2 years. Earth, adobe, bean stones and ice were the most commonly reported pica substances. Twenty-eight of the 76 participants (37%) reported ever engaging in pica; 22 participants (29%) reported doing so during pregnancy. The proportion of women reporting pica in the United States and Mexico was 43% and 34%, respectively. Women attributed pica to the overwhelming organoleptic appeal of pica substances (especially smell and texture) and to micronutrient deficiencies. Perceived consequences of unfulfilled pica cravings were birthmarks or fetal loss; fulfilled pica cravings were also thought to be generally harmful to the mother or child, with several women specifying toxic lead, pesticides or 'worms'. In sum, pica among Mexican women is common enough to warrant a larger epidemiologic study of its sociodemographic correlates and physiological consequences.
View details for DOI 10.1111/mcn.12120
View details for PubMedID 24784797
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4216644
Applying the Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary Model in a Primary Care-Based Lifestyle Intervention Trial
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
2015; 49 (3): S208-S214
The majority of adults in the U.S. can be classified as overweight or obese (68%), putting them at risk for Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and other adverse health outcomes. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that providers offer or refer obese adults to intensive, multicomponent lifestyle interventions. However, there is a critical need for interventions that have been shown to be pragmatic and effective among diverse populations, scalable across different clinical settings and systems, and sustainable over time. The Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (PRECIS) tool can be used to assess the degree to which trials of behavioral lifestyle interventions provide evidence to support this need. We used our recently completed trial, Evaluation of Lifestyle Interventions to Treat Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in Primary Care (E-LITE), as a case study and assessed the domains of PRECIS to explore the degree to which we felt it achieved its intended pragmatic design (completed in December 2014). Overall, the systematic assessment using the PRECIS tool revealed that the E-LITE trial design was very pragmatic in nature. Its results and the subsequent adoption of the intervention into actual practice also suggest high potential for implementation of primary care interventions.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amepre.2015.05.011
View details for Web of Science ID 000359878100011
Research aimed at improving both mood and weight (RAINBOW) in primary care: A type 1 hybrid design randomized controlled trial.
Contemporary clinical trials
2015; 43: 260-278
Effective interventions targeting comorbid obesity and depression are critical given the increasing prevalence and worsened outcomes for patients with both conditions. RAINBOW is a type 1 hybrid design randomized controlled trial. The objective is to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness and implementation potential of an integrated, technology-enhanced, collaborative care model for treating comorbid obesity and depression in primary care. Obese and depressed adults (n=404) will be randomized to usual care enhanced with the provision of a pedometer and information about the health system's services for mood or weight management (control) or with the Integrated Coaching for Better Mood and Weight (I-CARE) program (intervention). The 12-month I-CARE program synergistically integrates two proven behavioral interventions: problem-solving therapy with as-needed intensification of pharmacotherapy for depression (PEARLS) and standardized behavioral treatment for obesity (Group Lifestyle Balance™). It utilizes traditional (e.g., office visits and phone consults) and emerging care delivery modalities (e.g., patient web portal and mobile applications). Follow-up assessments will occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24months. We hypothesize that compared with controls, I-CARE participants will have greater improvements in weight and depression severity measured by the 20-item Depression Symptom Checklist at 12months, which will be sustained at 24months. We will also assess I-CARE's cost-effectiveness and use mixed methods to examine its potential for reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. This study offers the potential to change how obese and depressed adults are treated-through a new model of accessible and integrative lifestyle medicine and mental health expertise-in primary care.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2015.06.010
View details for PubMedID 26096714
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4537656
The Effectiveness of Two Community-Based Weight Loss Strategies among Obese, Low-Income US Latinos
JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
2015; 115 (4): 537-U300
Latino immigrants have high rates of obesity and face barriers to weight loss.To evaluate the effectiveness of a case-management (CM) intervention with and without community health workers (CHWs) for weight loss.This was a 2-year, randomized controlled trial comparing two interventions with each other and with usual care (UC).Eligible participants included Latinos with a body mass index of 30 to 60 and one or more heart disease risk factors. The 207 participants recruited during 2009-2010 had a mean age of 47 years and were mostly women (77%). At 24 months, 86% of the sample was assessed.The CM+CHW (n=82) and CM (n=84) interventions were compared with each other and with UC (n=41). Both included an intensive 12-month phase followed by 12 months of maintenance. The CM+CHW group received home visits.Weight change at 24 months.Generalized estimating equations using intent-to-treat.At 6 months, mean weight loss in the CM+CHW arm was -2.1 kg (95% CI -2.8 to -1.3) or -2% of baseline weight (95% CI -1% to -2%) compared with -1.6 kg (95% CI -2.4 to -0.7; % weight change, -2%, -1%, and -3%) in CM and -0.9 kg (95% CI -1.8 to 0.1; % weight change, -1%, 0%, and -2%) in UC. By 12 and 24 months, differences narrowed and CM+CHW was no longer statistically distinct. Men achieved greater weight loss than women in all groups at each time point (P<0.05). At 6 months, men in the CM+CHW arm lost more weight (-4.4 kg; 95% CI -6.0 to -2.7) compared with UC (-0.4 kg; 95% CI -2.4 to 1.5), but by 12 and 24 months differences were not significant.This study demonstrated that incorporation of CHWs may help promote initial weight loss, especially among men, but not weight maintenance. Additional strategies to address social and environmental influences may be needed for Latino immigrant populations.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jand.2014.10.020
View details for Web of Science ID 000351779000008
View details for PubMedID 25578925
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4380577
Randomized Trial Of Healthy Eating Pattern In Adults With Uncontrolled Asthma
AMER THORACIC SOC. 2015
View details for Web of Science ID 000377582807269
Process Evaluation Of The "dash For Asthma" Intervention In A Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot Study
AMER THORACIC SOC. 2015
View details for Web of Science ID 000377582801114
Training at-risk youth to become diabetes self-management coaches for family members: partnering family medicine residents with underserved schools.
2014; 40 (6): 786-796
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a school-based health program in which family medicine residents trained healthy at-risk adolescents to become diabetes self-management coaches for family members with diabetes.A mixed methods study included 97 adolescents from 3 San Francisco Bay Area high schools serving primarily ethnic minority youth of low socioeconomic status. Physicians came to schools once a week for 8 weeks and trained 49 adolescents to become coaches. Student coaches and 48 nonparticipant students completed pre- and posttest intervention questionnaires, and 15 student coaches and 9 family members with diabetes gave in-depth interviews after participation. Linear regression was used to determine differences in knowledge and psychosocial assets on pre- and posttests between student coaches and nonparticipant students, and NVIVO was used to analyze interview transcripts.After controlling for initial score, sex, grade, and ethnicity, student coaches improved from pre- to posttest significantly compared to nonparticipants on knowledge, belonging, and worth scales. Student coaches reported high satisfaction with the program. Articulated program benefits included improvement in diet, increased physical activity, and improved relationship between student coach and family member.Overall, this program can increase diabetes knowledge and psychosocial assets of at-risk youth, and it holds promise to promote positive health behaviors among at-risk youth and their families.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0145721714549676
View details for PubMedID 25208725
Acceptability of health information technology aimed at environmental health education in a prenatal clinic
PATIENT EDUCATION AND COUNSELING
2014; 97 (2): 244-247
To describe the acceptability of an interactive computer kiosk that provides environmental health education to low-income Latina prenatal patients.A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the acceptability of the Prenatal Environmental Health Kiosk pregnant Latina women in Salinas, CA (n=152). The kiosk is a low literacy, interactive touch-screen computer program with an audio component and includes graphics and an interactive game.The majority had never used a kiosk before. Over 90% of women reported that they learned something new while using the kiosk. Prior to using the kiosk, 22% of women reported their preference of receiving health education from a kiosk over a pamphlet or video compared with 57% after using the kiosk (p<0.01). Qualitative data revealed: (1) benefit of exposure to computer use; (2) reinforcing strategy of health education; and (3) popularity of the interactive game.The Prenatal Environmental Health Kiosk is an innovative patient health education modality that was shown to be acceptable among a population of low-income Latino pregnant women in a prenatal care clinic.This pilot study demonstrated that a health education kiosk was an acceptable strategy for providing Latina prenatal patients with information on pertinent environmental exposures.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pec.2014.07.018
View details for Web of Science ID 000344824800014
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4520806
Community Resource Utilization, Psychosocial Health, and Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Diet and Physical Activity among Low-Income Obese Latino Immigrants
JOURNAL OF THE ACADEMY OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS
2014; 114 (2): 257-265
Low-socioeconomic-status (SES) Latinos are disproportionately represented among the 78 million obese Americans. Tailored behavioral weight-loss interventions show promise, but there is limited adaptation to lower-SES Latino immigrants. This study provides guidance for tailoring obesity-reduction strategies for this population by evaluating food security, educational community resource utilization, education level, depression, sex, and length of US residence as predictors of diet and physical activity. The cross-sectional study used baseline data collected in July 2009 through September 2010 for a weight-loss trial among lower-SES obese (body mass index 30 to 55) Latino immigrants who were enrolled at a community health clinic (n=207). Physical activity was measured using 7-day pedometer recording. Dietary intake was measured using an interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire. Factors assessed by questionnaire included education community resource use (nutrition and physical activity classes), education level, US residence (years), food security, and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using multivariate-adjusted linear regression models. More than one third of participants were sedentary (<5,000 steps/day), and 41% had low fruit and vegetable intake (<5 servings/day). In multivariate-adjusted models, educational community resource use, male sex, less education, fewer depressive symptoms, and shorter US residence time were associated with more physical activity (all, P ≤ 0.05). Educational community resource use was positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake (P=0.05). Male sex was associated with more sweet-beverage intake (P=0.02) and fast-food intake (P=0.04). Fewer depressive symptoms were associated with lower sweet-beverage intake (P=0.05). In conclusion, obesity-reduction strategies among low-SES Latino immigrants might effectively emphasize educational community resource use and interventions tailored for psychosocial and sociodemographic characteristics.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jand.2013.07.025
View details for Web of Science ID 000331853100012
View details for PubMedID 24119533
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3947013
Short-term weight loss patterns, baseline predictors, and longer-term follow-up within a randomized controlled trial
2014; 22 (1): 45-51
OBJECTIVE: To examine weight loss patterns and predictors among participants in a primary care-based translation study of the Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cluster analysis identified short-term (12-week) weight loss patterns among 72 intervention participants. Analysis of variance assessed cluster differences in weight loss maintenance at 15-month follow-up. Discriminant analysis identified baseline characteristics that best differentiated between clusters. RESULTS: Participants had baseline mean (SD) age of 55.0 (10.8) years and BMI of 31.9 (5.2) kg/m(2) . Cluster analysis identified three short-term weight loss patterns: modest (n=15; 21%), moderate-and-steady (n=43; 60%), and substantial-and-early (n=14; 19%). Only participants with the latter two patterns achieved clinically significant (≥ 5%) short-term weight loss and maintained it at 15 months. On discriminant analysis, the modest cluster was most differentiated from other clusters by high friend encouragement for dietary change, high obesity-related problems, and low physical well-being. The moderate-and-steady cluster was differentiated by lower physical activity, family encouragement, and depression symptoms. CONCLUSION: Results provide insight into the heterogeneity of response to an effective lifestyle intervention by identifying short-term weight loss patterns and their baseline predictors and relationship to 15-month success. If replicated, results may help tailor strategies for participant subgroups in weight loss programs.
View details for DOI 10.1002/oby.20510
View details for Web of Science ID 000329613600011
View details for PubMedID 23740619
Associations between perinatal factors and adiponectin and leptin in 9-year-old Mexican-American children
2013; 8 (6): 454-463
Mexican-American children are at particularly high risk of obesity. Features of the perinatal environment, including maternal nutrition, anthropometry, glucose tolerance and growth rate during infancy are implicated in programming of obesity in the offspring.Greater rate of weight or length gain in the first 6 months of life is associated with lower 9-year child adiponectin levels, adjusting for 9-year child BMI. Nine-year-old child adipokine levels are strongly related to those of their mothers'.To (i) determine whether perinatal factors (including maternal anthropometry and nutrition and early life growth measures) are associated with adiponectin and leptin levels in 9-year-old children, and (ii) assess relationships between adiponectin, leptin and concurrent lipid profile in these children.We measured plasma adiponectin and leptin for 146 mothers-9-year-old child pairs from the ongoing longitudinal birth cohort followed by the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas. Data on perinatal factors, including sociodemographics, maternal anthropometry and nutrition, and early life child growth were collected during pregnancy, birth and 6-month visits.Greater rate of weight and length gain during the first 6 months of life were associated with lower adiponectin in 9-year-olds (β = -2.0, P = 0.04; β = -8.2, P = 0.02, respectively) adjusting for child body mass index (BMI). We found no associations between child adipokine levels and either maternal calorie, protein, total fat, saturated fat, fibre, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption during pregnancy or children's concurrent sugar-sweetened beverage and fast food intake. Lipid profile in 9-year-old children closely reflected adiponectin but not leptin levels after adjustment for child BMI. Additionally, we report that child adipokine levels were closely related to their mothers' levels at the 9-year visit.Overall, our results support the hypothesis that early life factors may contribute to altered adipokine levels in children.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00127.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000327212400008
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3633700
Translating an evidence-based lifestyle intervention program into primary care: lessons learned.
Health promotion practice
2013; 14 (4): 491-497
The E-LITE (Evaluation of Lifestyle Interventions to Treat Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in Primary Care) trial evaluated the feasibility and potential effectiveness of translating an evidence-based lifestyle intervention for the management of obesity and related risk factors in a primary care setting. Delivered by allied health care providers, the intervention promoted at least 7% weight loss and at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity through gradual, sustainable lifestyle changes. Activities included interactive group lessons, food tasting, guided physical activity, and technology-mediated self-monitoring and behavioral counseling. This article discusses insights and potential areas for improvement to strengthen program implementation for dissemination of the E-LITE program to other primary care settings. We focus on (a) the role of allied health professionals in program delivery, (b) strengthening program integration within a primary care clinic, and (c) the use of information technology to extend the reach and impact of the program. Our experience shows the feasibility of implementing an evidence-based lifestyle intervention program combining group-delivered nutrition and behavioral counseling, physical activity training, and technology-mediated follow-up in a primary care setting. Challenges remain, and we offer possible solutions to overcome them.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1524839913481604
View details for PubMedID 23539264
Pregnancy Glycemia in Mexican-American Women Without Diabetes or Gestational Diabetes and Programming for Childhood Obesity
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
2013; 177 (8): 768-775
In the present study, we estimated the association between pregnancy glucose levels and offspring body mass index (BMI) z scores at 2, 3.5, 5, and 7 years of age, as well as z score trajectories across this age range, among Mexican-American women without diabetes or gestational diabetes. Beginning in 1999-2000, the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas prospectively followed women from Monterey County, California (52 obese and 214 nonobese women) and their children. Plasma glucose values obtained 1 hour after a 50-g oral glucose load comprised the exposure. Offspring BMIs were compared with national data to calculate z scores. Increasing pregnancy glucose levels were associated with increased offspring BMI z scores at 7 years of age; a 1-mmol/L increase in glucose corresponded to an increase of 0.11 (standard deviation = 0.044) z-score units (P < 0.05). In nonobese women only, the mean z score over this age range increased with increasing glucose levels. The average BMI z score at 4.5 years of age increased by 0.12 (standard error, 0.059) units for each 1-mmol/L increase in glucose (P = 0.04). In obese women only, increasing glucose was associated with increases in BMI z score over time (P = 0.07). Whether interventions to reduce glucose values in women free of disease could mitigate childhood obesity remains unknown.
View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kws312
View details for Web of Science ID 000317435600006
View details for PubMedID 23504745
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3668427
Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention for Weight Loss Into Primary Care A Randomized Trial
JAMA INTERNAL MEDICINE
2013; 173 (2): 113-121
The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) among high-risk adults by 58%, with weight loss as the dominant predictor. However, it has not been adequately translated into primary care.We evaluated 2 adapted DPP lifestyle interventions among overweight or obese adults who were recruited from 1 primary care clinic and had pre-DM and/or metabolic syndrome. Participants were randomized to (1) a coach-led group intervention (n = 79), (2) a self-directed DVD intervention (n = 81), or (3) usual care (n = 81). During a 3-month intensive intervention phase, the DPP-based behavioral weight-loss curriculum was delivered by lifestyle coach-led small groups or home-based DVD. During the maintenance phase, participants in both interventions received lifestyle change coaching and support remotely-through secure email within an electronic health record system and the American Heart Association Heart360 website for weight and physical activity goal setting and self-monitoring. The primary outcome was change in body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) from baseline to 15 months.At baseline, participants had a mean (SD) age of 52.9 (10.6) years and a mean BMI of 32.0 (5.4); 47% were female; 78%, non-Hispanic white; and 17%, Asian/Pacific Islander. At month 15, the mean ± SE change in BMI from baseline was -2.2 ± 0.3 in the coach-led group vs -0.9 ± 0.3 in the usual care group (P < .001) and -1.6 ± 0.3 in the self-directed group vs usual care (P = .02). The percentages of participants who achieved the 7% DPP-based weight-loss goal were 37.0% (P = .003) and 35.9% (P = .004) in the coach-led and self-directed groups, respectively, vs 14.4% in the usual care group. Both interventions also achieved greater net improvements in waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose level.Proven effective in a primary care setting, the 2 DPP-based lifestyle interventions are readily scalable and exportable with potential for substantial clinical and public health impact.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00842426.
View details for DOI 10.1001/2013.jamainternmed.987
View details for Web of Science ID 000317239700008
View details for PubMedID 23229846
Baseline reach and adoption characteristics in a randomized controlled trial of two weight loss interventions translated into primary care: A structured report of real-world applicability
CONTEMPORARY CLINICAL TRIALS
2013; 34 (1): 126-135
Although the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention reduced type 2 diabetes incidence by 58% among high-risk adults at academic centers, it requires translation into typical primary care settings. Using baseline data from the Evaluation of Lifestyle Interventions to Treat Elevated Cardiometabolic Risk in Primary Care (E-LITE) randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the potential of its two DPP-based interventions to reach their target populations and be adopted into routine use.Overweight/obese adults with increased cardiometabolic risk enrolled from one primary care clinic. Using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) model, we assessed reach with data on patient identification, participation, and representativeness, and adoption with data on intervention feasibility and potential for organizational diffusion.The target population was identified by searching electronic health records. Contact was attempted for 2391 patients who completed initial screening by phone (56% uptake) or online (44%). Most (88%) of those screened ineligible were not within the target population; 12% were excluded because of research requirements. Conservatively estimated participation rate was 44%. Participants (n=241) included 54% men and had a mean (SD) age of 52.9 years (10.6) and body mass index of 32 kg/m(2) (5.4). Regarding adoption, all clinic physicians agreed to participate. The feasibility of intervention implementation and dissemination was enhanced by leveraging existing intervention, training, and primary care resources.E-LITE's lifestyle interventions had fair-to-good potential for primary care reach and adoption. Our trial evidence and structured reporting may inform real-world implementation of translational trials by health networks, physicians, and payers.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2012.10.007
View details for Web of Science ID 000314448300016
View details for PubMedID 23124047
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3645977
Pregnancy Glucose Levels in Women without Diabetes or Gestational Diabetes and Childhood Cardiometabolic Risk at 7 Years of Age
JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS
2012; 161 (6): 1016-1021
To estimate the association between pregnancy glucose values in women without recognized pregestational diabetes or gestational diabetes and cardiometabolic risk in their children.This longitudinal cohort study of 211 Mexican American mother-child pairs participating in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study used multiple logistic regression to estimate the children's risk of nonfasting total cholesterol, nonfasting triglycerides, blood pressure (BP), and waist circumference (WC) ≥75th percentile at 7 years of age associated with a 1-mmol/L (18-mg/dL) increase in maternal pregnancy glucose level, measured 1 hour after a 50-g oral glucose load.The ORs for children in the upper quartile of diastolic BP, systolic BP, and WC associated with a 1-mmol/L increase in pregnancy glucose level were 1.39 (95% CI, 1.10-1.75), 1.38 (95% CI, 1.10-1.73), and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.02-1.54), respectively. Prepregnancy obesity was independently associated with increased odds of children belonging to the upper quartile of WC; maternal sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and gestational weight gain prior to the glucose test were not independently associated with any of the cardiometabolic outcomes.In Mexican American women without recognized pregestational diabetes or gestational diabetes, we found an association between increasing pregnancy glucose values and the children's diastolic and systolic BPs and WC at 7 years of age. Whether interventions to reduce pregnancy glucose values, even if below levels diagnostic of overt disease, will mitigate high BP and abdominal obesity in late childhood remains to be determined.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.05.049
View details for Web of Science ID 000311348400011
View details for PubMedID 22790183
Practical Research Strategies for Reducing Social and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Obesity.
International journal of obesity
2012; 2012 (2): s16-s22
Adult and childhood obesity and related adverse outcomes are most common among racial/ethnic minorities and socio-economically disadvantaged populations in the United States . Research approaches to obesity developed in mainstream populations and deploying new information technologies may exacerbate existing disparities in obesity. Current obesity management and prevention research priorities will not maximally impact this critical problem unless investigators explicitly focus on discovering innovative strategies for preventing and managing obesity in the disadvantaged populations that are most affected. On the basis of our research experience, four key research approaches are needed: (1) elucidating the underlying social forces that lead to disparities; (2) directly involving community members in the development of research questions and research methods; (3) developing flexible strategies that allow tailoring to multiple disadvantaged populations; and (4) building culturally and socio-economically tailored strategies specifically for populations most affected by obesity. Our experience with a community-based longitudinal cohort study and two health center-based clinical trials illustrate these principles as a contrast to traditional research priorities that can inadvertently worsen existing social inequities. If obesity research does not directly address healthcare and health-outcome disparities, it will contribute to their perpetuation.
View details for PubMedID 23667289
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3647479
Physical Education Policy Compliance and Children's Physical Fitness
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
2012; 42 (5): 452-459
Physical education policies have received increased attention as a means for improving physical activity levels, enhancing physical fitness, and contributing to childhood obesity prevention. Although compliance at the school and district levels is likely to be critical for the success of physical education policies, few published studies have focused on this issue.This study investigated whether school district-level compliance with California physical education policies was associated with physical fitness among 5th-grade public-school students in California.Cross-sectional data from FITNESSGRAM(®) 2004-2006, district-level compliance with state physical education requirements for 2004-2006, school- and district-level information, and 2000 U.S. Census data were combined to examine the association between district-level compliance with physical education policies and children's fitness levels. The analysis was completed in 2010.Of the 55 districts with compliance data, 28 (50%) were in compliance with state physical education mandates; these districts represented 21% (216) of schools and 18% (n=16,571) of students in the overall study sample. Controlling for other student-, school-, and district-level characteristics, students in policy-compliant districts were more likely than students in noncompliant districts to meet or exceed physical fitness standards (AOR=1.29, 95% CI=1.03, 1.61).Policy mandates for physical education in schools may contribute to improvements in children's fitness levels, but their success is likely to depend on mechanisms to ensure compliance.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amepre.2012.01.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000302963300009
View details for PubMedID 22516484