Coherence Between Attentional and Memory Biases in Sad and Formerly Depressed Individuals
Cognitive Therapy and Research
EEG Coherence between prefrontal and posterior cortical regions is related to negative personality traits
FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE
The psychophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder: 2. Effects of applied relaxation
2008; 45 (3): 377-388
The psychophysiology of generalized anxiety disorder: 1. Pretreatment characteristics
2008; 45 (3): 366-376
Muscle relaxation therapy assumes that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients lack the ability to relax but can learn this in therapy. We tested this by randomizing 49 GAD patients to 12 weeks of Applied Relaxation (AR) or waiting. Before, during, and after treatment participants underwent relaxation tests. Before treatment, GAD patients were more worried than healthy controls (n=21) and had higher heart rates and lower end-tidal pCO2, but not higher muscle tension (A. Conrad, L. Isaac, & W.T. Roth, 2008). AR resulted in greater symptomatic improvement than waiting. However, 28% of the AR group dropped out of treatment and some patients relapsed at the 6-week follow-up. There was little evidence that AR participants learned to relax in therapy or that a reduction in anxiety was associated with a decrease in activation. We conclude that the clinical effects of AR in improving GAD symptoms are moderate at most and cannot be attributed to reducing muscle tension or autonomic activation.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00644.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000254792100006
View details for PubMedID 18221441
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients have been reported to have more muscle tension than controls, which has provided a rationale for treating them with muscle relaxation therapies (MRT). We tested this rationale by comparing 49 GAD patients with 21 controls. Participants underwent 5-min relaxation tests, during which they either just sat quietly (QS) or sat quietly and tried to relax (R). GAD patients reported themselves to be more worried during the assessment than the controls, had higher heart rates and lower end-tidal pCO2, but not higher muscle tension as measured by multiple EMGs. QS and R did not differ on most psychological and physiological measures, indicating that intention to relax did not affect speed of relaxation. In the GAD group, self-reported anxiety was not associated with electromyographic or autonomic measures. We conclude that GAD is not necessarily characterized by chronic muscle tension, and that this rationale for MRT should be reconsidered.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2007.00601.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000254792100005
View details for PubMedID 18221449