Denise Monack, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
T cell cross-reactivity ensures that diverse pathogen-derived epitopes encountered during a lifetime are recognized by the available TCR repertoire. A feature of cross-reactivity where previous exposure to one microbe can alter immunity to subsequent, non-related pathogens has been mainly explored for viruses. Yet cross-reactivity to additional microbes is important to consider, especially in HIV infection where gut-intestinal barrier dysfunction could facilitate T cell exposure to commensal/pathogenic microbes. Here we evaluated the cross-reactivity of a 'public', HIV-specific, CD8 T cell-derived TCR (AGA1 TCR) using MHC class I yeast display technology. Via screening of MHC-restricted libraries comprising ~2*108 sequence-diverse peptides, AGA1 TCR specificity was mapped to a central peptide di-motif. Using the top TCR-enriched library peptides to probe the non-redundant protein database, bacterial peptides that elicited functional responses by AGA1-expressing T cells were identified. The possibility that in context-specific settings, MHC class I proteins presenting microbial peptides influence virus-specific T cell populations in vivo is discussed.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.58128
View details for PubMedID 32716298
The intestinal microbiota provides colonization resistance against pathogens, limiting pathogen expansion and transmission. These microbiota-mediated mechanisms were previously identified by observing loss of colonization resistance after antibiotic treatment or dietary changes, which severely disrupt microbiota communities. We identify a microbiota-mediated mechanism of colonization resistance against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) by comparing high-complexity commensal communities with different levels of colonization resistance. Using inbred mouse strains with different infection dynamics and S. Typhimurium intestinal burdens, we demonstrate that Bacteroides species mediate colonization resistance against S. Typhimurium by producing the short-chain fatty acid propionate. Propionate directly inhibits pathogen growth invitro by disrupting intracellular pH homeostasis, and chemically increasing intestinal propionate levels protects mice from S.Typhimurium. In addition, administering susceptible mice Bacteroides, but not a propionate-production mutant, confers resistance to S. Typhimurium. This work provides mechanistic understanding into the role of individualized microbial communities in host-to-host variability of pathogen transmission.
View details for PubMedID 30057174
The mammalian gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a high-density polymicrobial community where bacteria compete for niches and resources. One key competition strategy includes cell contact-dependent mechanisms of interbacterial antagonism, such as the type VI secretion system (T6SS), a multiprotein needle-like apparatus that injects effector proteins into prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic target cells. However, the contribution of T6SS antibacterial activity during pathogen invasion of the gut has not been demonstrated. We report that successful establishment in the gut by the enteropathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires a T6SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island-6 (SPI-6). In an in vitro setting, we demonstrate that bile salts increase SPI-6 antibacterial activity and that S Typhimurium kills commensal bacteria in a T6SS-dependent manner. Furthermore, we provide evidence that one of the two T6SS nanotube subunits, Hcp1, is required for killing Klebsiella oxytoca in vitro and that this activity is mediated by the specific interaction of Hcp1 with the antibacterial amidase Tae4. Finally, we show that K. oxytoca is killed in the host gut in an Hcp1-dependent manner and that the T6SS antibacterial activity is essential for Salmonella to establish infection within the host gut. Our findings provide an example of pathogen T6SS-dependent killing of commensal bacteria as a mechanism to successfully colonize the host gut.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1608858113
View details for PubMedID 27503894
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5003274
Host-adapted Salmonella strains are responsible for a number of disease manifestations in mammals, including an asymptomatic chronic infection in which bacteria survive within macrophages located in systemic sites. However, the host cell physiology and metabolic requirements supporting bacterial persistence are poorly understood. In a mouse model of long-term infection, we found that S. typhimurium preferentially associates with anti-inflammatory/M2 macrophages at later stages of infection. Further, PPARδ, a eukaryotic transcription factor involved in sustaining fatty acid metabolism, is upregulated in Salmonella-infected macrophages. PPARδ deficiency dramatically inhibits Salmonella replication, which is linked to the metabolic state of macrophages and the level of intracellular glucose available to bacteria. Pharmacological activation of PPARδ increases glucose availability and enhances bacterial replication in macrophages and mice, while Salmonella fail to persist in Pparδ null mice. These data suggest that M2 macrophages represent a unique niche for long-term intracellular bacterial survival and link the PPARδ-regulated metabolic state of the host cell to persistent bacterial infection.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chom.2013.07.010
View details for PubMedID 23954156
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3785333
This study evaluated the use of Enterococcus species differentiation as a tool for microbial source tracking (MST) in recreational waters.Avian, mammalian and human faecal samples were screened for the occurrence of Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae and Enterococcus saccharolyticus using multiplex PCR. Host-specific patterns of Enterococcus species presence were observed only when data for multiple Enterococcus species were considered in aggregate.The results suggest that no single Enterococcus species is a reliable indicator of the host faecal source. However, Enterococcus species composite 'fingerprints' may offer auxiliary evidence for bacterial source identification.This study presents novel information on the enterococci species assemblages present in avian and mammalian hosts proximate to the nearshore ocean. These data will aid the development of appropriate MST strategies, and the approach used in this study could potentially assist in the identification of faecal pollution sources.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04675.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000279733700016
View details for PubMedID 20132375
Vibrio cholerae strains are capable of inhabiting multiple niches in the aquatic environment and in some cases cause disease in humans. However, the ecology and biodiversity of these bacteria in environmental settings remains poorly understood. We used the genomic fingerprinting technique enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) to profile 835 environmental isolates from waters and sediments obtained at nine sites along the central California coast. We identified 115 ERIC-PCR genotypes from 998 fingerprints, with a reproducibility of 98.5% and a discriminatory power of 0.971. When the temporal dynamics at a subset of sampling sites were explored, several genotypes provided evidence for cosmopolitan or geographically restricted distributions, and other genotypes displayed nonrandom patterns of cooccurrence. Partial Mantel tests confirmed that genotypic similarity of isolates across all sampling events was correlated with environmental similarity (0.04 < or = r < or = 0.05), temporal proximity (r = 0.09), and geographic distance (r = 0.09). A neutral community model for all sampling events explained 61% of the variation in genotype abundance. Cooccurrence indices (C-score, C-board, and Combo) were significantly different than expected by chance, suggesting that the V. cholerae population may have a competitive structure, especially at the regional scale. Even though stochastic processes are undoubtedly important in generating biogeographic patterns in diversity, deterministic factors appear to play a significant, albeit small, role in shaping the V. cholerae population structure in this system.
View details for DOI 10.1128/AEM.01304-08
View details for Web of Science ID 000263920900024
View details for PubMedID 19139224
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2655455
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