Development of video otoscopy quiz using a smartphone adaptable otoscope.
Journal of otology
2021; 16 (2): 80–84
Background: Otoscopy examination can be challenging. Traditional teaching uses still image illustrations. Newer attempts use video samples to simulate the otoscopy exam which is a dynamic process.Aims/Objective: To assess whether recorded otoscopy videos from a smartphone adaptable otoscope can be used to develop a video-based otoscopy quiz which may be used for instructing and familiarizing participants to normal anatomy and pathologic ear conditions. To use this quiz to assess current pediatric residents' competency of common otoscopy diagnosis.Method and materials: This study was conducted in 2018. Video samples of ear pathology were collected at the Albany Medical Center using a smartphone adaptable otoscope- Cellscope. The videos were used to create a video otoscopy quiz (VOQ) without clinical vignettes. 45 pediatric residents from 3 academic institutions were evaluated with the quiz.Results: The weighted mean for the VOQ was 66.90% (95%CI 58.89%-68.42%). The breakdown by questions are: myringosclerosis 72.88%, retraction pocket 80.65%, cholesteatoma 42.22%, hemotympanum 75.04%, tympanic membrane perforation 79.62%, cerumen impaction 95.46%, otitis externa 52.54%, otitis media with effusion 63.30%, acute otitis media 75.55%, normal ear 36.39%.Conclusion: We found that videos of otoscopy exams can be obtained with a smartphone adaptable otoscope and validated to develop a video-based quiz, which may be used to supplement otoscopic instruction. Following our testing process, we found pediatric residents are relatively well equipped to identify ear pathology on VOQ.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joto.2020.08.001
View details for PubMedID 33777119
Assessment of Inter- and Intra-Rater Reliability of Tablet-Based Software to Measure Cochlear Duct Length.
Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to build upon previous work validating a tablet-based software to measure cochlear duct length (CDL). Here, we do so by greatly expanding the number of cochleae (n = 166) analyzed, and examined whether computed tomography (CT) slice thickness influences reliability of CDL measurements.STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review study.SETTING: Tertiary referral center.PATIENTS: Eighty-three adult cochlear implant recipients were included in the study. Both cochleae were measured for each patient (n = 166).INTERVENTIONS: Three raters analyzed the scans of 166 cochleae at 2 different time points. Each rater individually identified anatomical landmarks that delineated the basal turn diameter and width. These coordinates were applied to the elliptic approximation method (ECA) to estimate CDL. The effect of CT scan slice thickness on the measurements was explored.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure is the strength of the inter- and intra-rater reliability.RESULTS: The mean CDL measured was 32.84 ± 2.03 mm, with a range of 29.03 to 38.07 mm. We observed no significant relationship between slice thickness and CDL measurement (F1,164 = 3.04; p = 0.08). The mean absolute difference in CDL estimations between raters was 1.76 ± 1.24 mm and within raters was 0.263 ± 0.200 mm. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) between raters was 0.54 and ranged from 0.63 to 0.83 within raters.CONCLUSIONS: This software produces reliable measurements of CDL between and within raters, regardless of CT scan thickness.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003015
View details for PubMedID 33492059
The risk of ergonomic injury across surgical specialties.
2021; 16 (2): e0244868
Lack of ergonomic training and poor ergonomic habits during the operation leads to musculoskeletal pain and affects the surgeon's life outside of work. The objective of the study was to evaluate the severity of ergonomic hazards in the surgical profession across a wide range of surgical subspecialties. We conducted intraoperative observations using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) score system to identify ergonomic hazards. Additionally, each of the ten surgical subspecialty departments were sent an optional 14 question survey which evaluated ergonomic practice, environmental infrastructure, and prior ergonomic training or education. A total of 91 surgeons received intraoperative observation and were evaluated on the REBA scale with a minimum score of 0 (low ergonomic risk <3) and a maximum score of 10 (high ergonomic risk 8-10). And a total of 389 surgeons received the survey and 167 (43%) surgeons responded. Of the respondents, 69.7% reported suffering from musculoskeletal pain. Furthermore, 54.9% of the surgeons reported suffering from the highest level of pain when standing during surgery, while only 14.4% experienced pain when sitting. Importantly, 47.7% stated the pain impacted their work, while 59.5% reported pain affecting quality of life outside of work. Only 23.8% of surgeons had any prior ergonomic education. Both our subjective and objective data suggest that pain and disability induced by poor ergonomics are widespread among the surgical community and confirm that surgeons rarely receive ergonomic training. Intraoperative observational findings identified that the majority of observed surgeons displayed poor posture, particularly a poor cervical angle and use of ergonomic setups, both of which increase ergonomic risk hazards. This data supports the need for a comprehensive ergonomic interventional program for the surgical team and offers potential targets for future intervention.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0244868
View details for PubMedID 33561117
Speech Perception Changes in the Acoustically Aided, Nonimplanted Ear after Cochlear Implantation: A Multicenter Study.
Journal of clinical medicine
2020; 9 (6)
In recent years there has been an increasing percentage of cochlear implant (CI) users who have usable residual hearing in the contralateral, nonimplanted ear, typically aided by acoustic amplification. This raises the issue of the extent to which the signal presented through the cochlear implant may influence how listeners process information in the acoustically stimulated ear. This multicenter retrospective study examined pre- to postoperative changes in speech perception in the nonimplanted ear, the implanted ear, and both together. Results in the latter two conditions showed the expected increases, but speech perception in the nonimplanted ear showed a modest yet meaningful decrease that could not be completely explained by changes in unaided thresholds, hearing aid malfunction, or several other demographic variables. Decreases in speech perception in the nonimplanted ear were more likely in individuals who had better levels of speech perception in the implanted ear, and in those who had better speech perception in the implanted than in the nonimplanted ear. This raises the possibility that, in some cases, bimodal listeners may rely on the higher quality signal provided by the implant and may disregard or even neglect the input provided by the nonimplanted ear.
View details for DOI 10.3390/jcm9061758
View details for PubMedID 32517138
What Genes Can Tell: A Closer Look at Vestibular Schwannoma.
Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
2020; 41 (4): 522–29
OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive molecular profiling of radioresistant and cystic vestibular schwannoma (VS) subtypes.STUDY DESIGN: Our study utilized whole-exome sequencing (WES), RNA-sequencing (RNAseq), and correlated clinical data from 12 samples (2 samples of solid sporadic subtype, 8 with cystic changes, and 2 previously irradiated).SETTING: Academic medical center.PATIENTS: Patients diagnosed with VS who required surgical treatment. Inclusion: Cystic and radioresistant tumors matched to age and tumor volume, with solid sporadic VS samples as control; Exclusion: NF-2 patients.INTERVENTION(S): WES using custom probes for copy number analysis. A modified version of the Agilent Human Whole Exome sequencing hybrid capture system was used to process samples. Recurrent variants were identified and compared between groups. Leukocyte-derived DNA was utilized as internal control to reduce false-positives.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Analysis of genetic landscape of VS subtypes (naive solid VS, cystic VS, and previously irradiated VS) by performing deep next-generation sequencing.RESULTS: WES data achieved a mean coverage of 202X and RNAseq generated an average of 74 million total reads. As a group, 25% of samples had 22q loss. Somatic analysis identified previously reported genes and multiple novel mutations across samples. Differential expression analysis of RNAseq data found significantly mutated genes such as COL6A3, CLMP, ART4, Lumican that were shared by both cystic VS and irradiated VS, but not seen in sporadic VS.CONCLUSIONS: Using WES we were able to demonstrate that cystic and irradiated samples are subtypes of VS with an increased mutation burden and a unique genetic fingerprint. We identified differences between the genomic and molecular profile of cystic VS and radioresistant VS. Our results help advance the understanding of the pathophysiology of these tumor subtypes and suggest possible molecular targets for novel treatment strategies.
View details for DOI 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002580
View details for PubMedID 32176142
Ambient Pressure Tympanometry Wave Patterns in Patients With Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence.
Frontiers in neurology
2020; 11: 379
Importance: Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) is a treatable condition, but current diagnostic modalities have numerous limitations. Clinicians would benefit from an additional tool for diagnostic workup that is both rapid and widely available. Objective: To assess the utility of ambient pressure tympanometry (APT) in the diagnostic workup of SSCD by determining the sensitivity and specificity of APT for SSCD in comparison to other diagnostic modalities. Design: Retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent APT and temporal bone computerized tomography (CT) scans from May 2017 to July 2018. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Participants: APT was performed as part of routine audiological testing on adult patients. We retrospectively analyzed all patients who received both APT and temporal bone CT scans, and divided ears into SSCD and non-SSCD groups based on the presence or absence of radiographic SSCD. Ears with other radiographic findings that could affect tympanic membrane compliance were excluded. Exposures: All patients in this study underwent APT and temporal bone CT scans. Some patients also underwent pure tone audiometry and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, and risk ratio of APT for SSCD. Secondary outcome measures include sensitivity of VEMPs and supranormal hearing thresholds. Results: We describe 52 patients (70 ears) who underwent APT and CT imaging (mean age 47.1 years, 67.1% female). APT detected SSCD with 66.7% sensitivity and 72.1% specificity. In symptomatic patients, sensitivity was 71.4% and specificity was 75%. VEMPs performed best at detecting SSCD when defining a positive test as oVEMP amplitude >17 muV, with a sensitivity of 68.2%, similar to APT (p > 0.99). The combination of APT and VEMPs increased sensitivity to 88.9%, better than APT alone (p = 0.031) and trending toward better than VEMPs alone (p = 0.063). Conclusions and Relevance: Rhythmic wave patterns on APT are associated with SSCD and may raise suspicion for this condition in conjunction with consistent results on other diagnostic modalities. Although clinical utility requires confirmation in a larger prospective study, APT is a simple, rapid, and widely available tool warranting further study.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fneur.2020.00379
View details for PubMedID 32547469
Dye Tracking Following Posterior Semicircular Canal or Round Window Membrane Injections Suggests a Role for the Cochlea Aqueduct in Modulating Distribution.
Frontiers in cellular neuroscience
2019; 13: 471
The inner ear houses the sensory epithelium responsible for vestibular and auditory function. The sensory epithelia are driven by pressure and vibration of the fluid filled structures in which they are embedded so that understanding the homeostatic mechanisms regulating fluid dynamics within these structures is critical to understanding function at the systems level. Additionally, there is a growing need for drug delivery to the inner ear for preventive and restorative treatments to the pathologies associated with hearing and balance dysfunction. We compare drug delivery to neonatal and adult inner ear by injection into the posterior semicircular canal (PSCC) or through the round window membrane (RWM). PSCC injections produced higher levels of dye delivery within the cochlea than did RWM injections. Neonatal PSCC injections produced a gradient in dye distribution; however, adult distributions were relatively uniform. RWM injections resulted in an early base to apex gradient that became more uniform over time, post injection. RWM injections lead to higher levels of dye distributions in the brain, likely demonstrating that injections can traverse the cochlea aqueduct. We hypothesize the relative position of the cochlear aqueduct between injection site and cochlea is instrumental in dictating dye distribution within the cochlea. Dye distribution is further compounded by the ability of some chemicals to cross inner ear membranes accessing the blood supply as demonstrated by the rapid distribution of gentamicin-conjugated Texas red (GTTR) throughout the body. These data allow for a direct evaluation of injection mode and age to compare strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches.
View details for DOI 10.3389/fncel.2019.00471
View details for PubMedID 31736710
History of Cranial Nerve-Implanted Stimulators in Otolaryngology.
Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
This article aims to clearly understand the historical development of cranial nerve-implanted stimulators in otolaryngology. The authors also discuss cranial nerve history; initial theory of the functional concept of animal spirit; electrical nerve impulse theory; first electrical otolaryngology cranial nerve stimulation devices; and the development of implanted stimulators.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.otc.2019.09.012
View details for PubMedID 31699407
Ergonomic hazards in otolaryngology.
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the presence of postural-related strain and musculoskeletal discomfort, along with the level of ergonomics training and the availability of ergonomic equipment among otolaryngology surgeons.STUDY DESIGN: Intraoperative observations and survey study.METHODS: Using the Rapid Entire Body Assessment score system to identify ergonomic hazards, we conducted intraoperative observations assessing operating room personnel during different otolaryngological subspecialty procedures. Based on these findings, otolaryngology surgeons at a single academic institution in the United States were sent a survey that evaluated ergonomic practice, environmental infrastructure, and prior ergonomic training or education.RESULTS: A response rate of 69% was obtained from 70 surgeons, with 72.9% of responding surgeons suffering from some level of back pain, with cervical spine pain being the most common. Interestingly, residents were equally affected when compared to more senior surgeons both in subjective survey reports and from observational risk analysis. Furthermore, 43.8% of surgeons reported suffering from the highest level of pain when standing, whereas only 12.5% experienced pain when sitting. Importantly, 10% stated that pain impacted their work. Only 24% of surgeons had any prior ergonomic training or education.CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that pain and disability induced by poor ergonomics are widespread among the otolaryngology community and confirm that surgeons rarely receive ergonomic training in the surgical context. Additionally, intraoperative observational findings identified that the majority of observed surgeons display poor posture, particularly a poor cervical angle and use of ergonomic setups, both of which increase ergonomic risk hazard. These data provide guidance for future interventional studies.LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 2018.
View details for PubMedID 30474217