The trithorax group proteins Kismet and ASH1 promote H3K36 dimethylation to counteract Polycomb group repression in Drosophila
2013; 140 (20): 4182-4192
The Drosophila Mi-2 Chromatin-Remodeling Factor Regulates Higher-Order Chromatin Structure and Cohesin Dynamics In Vivo
2012; 8 (8)
Members of the Polycomb group of repressors and trithorax group of activators maintain heritable states of transcription by modifying nucleosomal histones or remodeling chromatin. Although tremendous progress has been made toward defining the biochemical activities of Polycomb and trithorax group proteins, much remains to be learned about how they interact with each other and the general transcription machinery to maintain on or off states of gene expression. The trithorax group protein Kismet (KIS) is related to the SWI/SNF and CHD families of chromatin remodeling factors. KIS promotes transcription elongation, facilitates the binding of the trithorax group histone methyltransferases ASH1 and TRX to active genes, and counteracts repressive methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27) by Polycomb group proteins. Here, we sought to clarify the mechanism of action of KIS and how it interacts with ASH1 to antagonize H3K27 methylation in Drosophila. We present evidence that KIS promotes transcription elongation and counteracts Polycomb group repression via distinct mechanisms. A chemical inhibitor of transcription elongation, DRB, had no effect on ASH1 recruitment or H3K27 methylation. Conversely, loss of ASH1 function had no effect on transcription elongation. Mutations in kis cause a global reduction in the di- and tri-methylation of histone H3 on lysine 36 (H3K36) - modifications that antagonize H3K27 methylation in vitro. Furthermore, loss of ASH1 significantly decreases H3K36 dimethylation, providing further evidence that ASH1 is an H3K36 dimethylase in vivo. These and other findings suggest that KIS antagonizes Polycomb group repression by facilitating ASH1-dependent H3K36 dimethylation.
View details for DOI 10.1242/dev.095786
View details for Web of Science ID 000325153200008
View details for PubMedID 24004944
Drosophila Kismet Regulates Histone H3 Lysine 27 Methylation and Early Elongation by RNA Polymerase II
2008; 4 (10)
dMi-2 is a highly conserved ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor that regulates transcription and cell fates by altering the structure or positioning of nucleosomes. Here we report an unanticipated role for dMi-2 in the regulation of higher-order chromatin structure in Drosophila. Loss of dMi-2 function causes salivary gland polytene chromosomes to lose their characteristic banding pattern and appear more condensed than normal. Conversely, increased expression of dMi-2 triggers decondensation of polytene chromosomes accompanied by a significant increase in nuclear volume; this effect is relatively rapid and is dependent on the ATPase activity of dMi-2. Live analysis revealed that dMi-2 disrupts interactions between the aligned chromatids of salivary gland polytene chromosomes. dMi-2 and the cohesin complex are enriched at sites of active transcription; fluorescence-recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assays showed that dMi-2 decreases stable association of cohesin with polytene chromosomes. These findings demonstrate that dMi-2 is an important regulator of both chromosome condensation and cohesin binding in interphase cells.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002878
View details for Web of Science ID 000308529300036
View details for PubMedID 22912596
Episodes of natural selection shaped the interactions of IgA-Fc with Fc alpha RI and bacterial decoy proteins
JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY
2007; 178 (12): 7943-7954
Polycomb and trithorax group proteins regulate cellular pluripotency and differentiation by maintaining hereditable states of transcription. Many Polycomb and trithorax group proteins have been implicated in the covalent modification or remodeling of chromatin, but how they interact with each other and the general transcription machinery to regulate transcription is not well understood. The trithorax group protein Kismet-L (KIS-L) is a member of the CHD subfamily of chromatin-remodeling factors that plays a global role in transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Mutations in CHD7, the human counterpart of kis, are associated with CHARGE syndrome, a developmental disorder affecting multiple tissues and organs. To clarify how KIS-L activates gene expression and counteracts Polycomb group silencing, we characterized defects resulting from the loss of KIS-L function in Drosophila. These studies revealed that KIS-L acts downstream of P-TEFb recruitment to stimulate elongation by Pol II. The presence of two chromodomains in KIS-L suggested that its recruitment or function might be regulated by the methylation of histone H3 lysine 4 by the trithorax group proteins ASH1 and TRX. Although we observed significant overlap between the distributions of KIS-L, ASH1, and TRX on polytene chromosomes, KIS-L did not bind methylated histone tails in vitro, and loss of TRX or ASH1 function did not alter the association of KIS-L with chromatin. By contrast, loss of kis function led to a dramatic reduction in the levels of TRX and ASH1 associated with chromatin and was accompanied by increased histone H3 lysine 27 methylation-a modification required for Polycomb group repression. A similar increase in H3 lysine 27 methylation was observed in ash1 and trx mutant larvae. Our findings suggest that KIS-L promotes early elongation and counteracts Polycomb group repression by recruiting the ASH1 and TRX histone methyltransferases to chromatin.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000217
View details for Web of Science ID 000261480900012
View details for PubMedID 18846226
Donor-recipient combinations of group A and BKIR haplotypes and HLA class I ligand affect the outcome of HLA-matched, sibling donor hematopoietic cell transplantation
2007; 68 (5): 309-323
FcalphaRI, a receptor for IgA-Fc, recruits myeloid cells to attack IgA-coated pathogens. By competing with FcalphaRI for IgA, bacterial decoys, like SSL7 of Staphylococcus aureus, subvert this defense. We examined how pathogen selection has driven the diversification and coevolution of IgA and FcalphaRI. In higher primates, the IgA binding site of FcalphaRI diversified under positive selection, a strong episode occurring in hominoid ancestors about the time of the IgA gene duplication. The differential binding of SSL7 to IgA-Fc of different species correlates with substitution at seven positions in IgA-Fc, two of which were positively selected in higher primates. Two others, which reduce SSL7 binding, emerged during episodes of positive selection in the rabbit and rodent lineages. The FcalphaRI-IgA interaction evolves episodically under two types of positive selection: pressure from pathogen decoys selects for IgA escape variants which, in turn, selects for FcalphaRI variants to keep up with the novel IgA. When FcalphaRI cannot keep up, its function is lost and the gene becomes susceptible to elimination, as occurred in the mouse genome, either by chance or selection on one of the many linked, variable immune system genes. A cluster of positively selected residues presents a putative binding site for unknown IgA-binding factors.
View details for Web of Science ID 000247189500053
View details for PubMedID 17548632
The influence of donor and recipient killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotype on the outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched siblings was investigated. Transplants were divided into four groups according to the combination of group A and B KIR haplotypes in the transplant donor and recipient. Overall survival of myeloid patients varied with KIR genotype combination. Best survival was associated with the donor lacking and the recipient having group B KIR haplotypes; poorest survival was associated with the donor having and the recipient lacking group B KIR haplotypes. The latter combination was also associated with increased relapse and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, its detrimental effects were seen only for transplants where the recipient and donor were homozygous for the C1 KIR ligand and therefore lacked the C2 ligand. Presence of the Bw4 ligand was also associated with increased acute GVHD. In contrast presence of both KIR3DL1 and its cognate Bw4 ligand was associated with decreased nonrelapse mortality. Analysis of the KIR genes individually revealed KIR2DS3 as a protective factor for chronic GVHD. The results suggest how simple assessments of KIR genotype might inform the selection of donors for hematopoietic cell transplantation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.humimm.2007.01.019
View details for Web of Science ID 000246227800001
View details for PubMedID 17462498