Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Dermatopathology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (2010) CA
  • Internship:Santa Clara Valley Medical Center (2007) CA
  • Medical Education:Stanford University (2006) CA
  • Fellowship:Stanford Hospital and Clinics (2012) CA

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Localized cutaneous fibrosing disorders. Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America Yaqub, A., Chung, L., Rieger, K. E., Fiorentino, D. F. 2013; 39 (2): 347-364

    Abstract

    This article acquaints the reader with disorders of the skin that might mimic systemic sclerosis but whose pathology is localized to the skin and/or has extracutaneous manifestations that are different than systemic sclerosis. These disorders include localized scleroderma (morphea), eosinophilic fasciitis, scleredema, scleromyxedema, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Particular emphasis is placed on clinical and histopathologic features that help the clinician differentiate between these disorders. Treatment options are briefly reviewed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.rdc.2013.02.013

    View details for PubMedID 23597968

  • Reconsidering the Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of LN-2 for Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and Atypical Fibroxanthoma AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DERMATOPATHOLOGY Hollmig, S. T., Rieger, K. E., Henderson, M. T., West, R. B., Sundram, U. N. 2013; 35 (2): 176-179

    Abstract

    The topic of distinguishing atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX) from undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), formerly malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is highly controversial. Although their clinical behavior is disparate, AFX and UPS commonly appear nearly identical on routine histopathologic examination. Although conceptually useful, subcategorization of UPS into superficial (confined to the dermis and subcutaneous tissue) and deep (involvement of fascia and deeper structures) types has not improved our ability to differentiate UPS from AFX. Numerous authors have purported LN-2 (CD74) immunopositivity as able to distinguish UPS from AFX and to predict those rare AFX likely to behave aggressively, although only a single prior study has been dedicated to evaluating this marker. We performed LN-2 staining of 14 AFX, 8 superficial UPS, and 65 deep UPS specimens using an identical protocol as described by prior authors. Of the 73 total UPS specimens, only 1 (1.4%) stained strongly with LN-2, as compared with 3 of 14 (21%) AFX (P = 0.012). One of 2 (50%) clinically aggressive AFX tumors that later exhibited both local recurrence and metastasis stained strongly for LN-2, whereas 2 of 12 (17%) of the more indolent tumors stained strongly with this marker (P = 0.40). Our data do not replicate prior reports of LN-2 as a sensitive and specific marker for UPS, or as indicative of prognosis for AFX, and therefore does not support the use of LN-2 as either a diagnostic or prognostic marker.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/DAD.0b013e318265fb9e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316941200009

    View details for PubMedID 23000905

  • ALK-negative systemic intravascular anaplastic large cell lymphoma presenting in the skin JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY Rieger, K. E., POLIDORE, T., Warnke, R., Kim, J. 2011; 38 (2): 216-220

    Abstract

    Systemic cases of the CD30-positive T-cell neoplasm, anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), are typically anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive. The failure to express ALK protein has been shown to portend a worse prognosis. We describe a case of ALK-negative systemic ALCL that presented as a violaceous plaque on the scalp of a 79-year-old man. Interestingly, the neoplastic cells were confined largely within vascular spaces, a configuration that is exceedingly rare in the skin and is more typically seen with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma. In addition, bcl-2 immunohistochemical staining was strongly positive in this case, which may portend a more aggressive clinical course. To our knowledge, this report represents the first case of an ALK-negative ALCL to present intravascularly in the skin. Therefore, the recognition of systemic anaplastic T-cell lymphoma present within the intravascular spaces is important to avoid misdiagnosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-0560.2010.01528.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285754200009

    View details for PubMedID 20236372

  • Skin Nodules in a Patient With Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Neurological Deterioration - Disseminated fusariosis ARCHIVES OF DERMATOLOGY Rieger, K. E., Ridky, T. W., Sundram, U. N. 2010; 146 (9): 1037-1042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282004600028

    View details for PubMedID 20855710

  • Recurrence rates associated with incompletely excised low-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY Rieger, K. E., Linos, E., Egbert, B. M., Swetter, S. M. 2010; 37 (1): 59-67

    Abstract

    Reported recurrence rates for transected nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) vary widely, and few studies have addressed recurrence of tumors followed clinically or treated with nonsurgical modalities.Retrospective review of dermatopathology records from January 1999 to January 2005 was conducted to identify biopsies or excision specimens with histologically transected basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) which were not subsequently excised. Patient and tumor characteristics associated with recurrence were analyzed in a subgroup of patients with predominantly 'low-risk' and/or minimally transected NMSCs. Prospective follow up was performed through March 31, 2008. Data was analyzed with Chi-square and Fishers exact tests and multivariate logistic regression.Of 376 transected NMSCs, 27 (7.2%) recurred, including 20 (9%) of 223 BCCs and 7 (4.6%) SCCs in situ of 153 SCCs. The overall recurrence rate of the 124 minimally transected NMSCs was even lower (5.6%). Multivariate logistic regression identified three significant predictors of recurrence: tumor location on the head and neck (p = 0.041), tumor size (p = 0.00741) and superficial subtype of BCC (p = .035).Although surgical excision of NMSC remains the standard of care, observation or nonsurgical treatment may be acceptable in many cases of incompletely excised low-risk or minimally transected NMSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-0560.2009.01340.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272165500010

    View details for PubMedID 19615009

  • Toxicity from radiation therapy associated with abnormal transcriptional responses to DNA damage PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Rieger, K. E., Hong, W. J., Tusher, V. G., Tang, J., Tibshirani, R., Chu, G. 2004; 101 (17): 6635-6640

    Abstract

    Toxicity from radiation therapy is a grave problem for cancer patients. We hypothesized that some cases of toxicity are associated with abnormal transcriptional responses to radiation. We used microarrays to measure responses to ionizing and UV radiation in lymphoblastoid cells derived from 14 patients with acute radiation toxicity. The analysis used heterogeneity-associated transformation of the data to account for a clinical outcome arising from more than one underlying cause. To compute the risk of toxicity for each patient, we applied nearest shrunken centroids, a method that identifies and cross-validates predictive genes. Transcriptional responses in 24 genes predicted radiation toxicity in 9 of 14 patients with no false positives among 43 controls (P = 2.2 x 10(-7)). The responses of these nine patients displayed significant heterogeneity. Of the five patients with toxicity and normal responses, two were treated with protocols that proved to be highly toxic. These results may enable physicians to predict toxicity and tailor treatment for individual patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0307761101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221107900056

    View details for PubMedID 15096622

  • Portrait of transcriptional responses to ultraviolet and ionizing radiation in human cells NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH Rieger, K. E., Chu, G. 2004; 32 (16): 4786-4803

    Abstract

    To understand the human response to DNA damage, we used microarrays to measure transcriptional responses of 10 000 genes to ionizing radiation (IR) and ultraviolet radiation (UV). To identify bona fide responses, we used cell lines from 15 individuals and a rigorous statistical method, Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM). By exploring how sample number affects SAM, we rendered a portrait of the human damage response with a degree of accuracy unmatched by previous studies. By showing how SAM can be used to estimate the total number of responsive genes, we discovered that 24% of all genes respond to IR and 32% respond to UV, although most responses were less than 2-fold. Many genes were involved in known damage-response pathways for cell cycling and proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair or the stress response. However, the majority of genes were involved in unexpected pathways, with functions in signal transduction, RNA binding and editing, protein synthesis and degradation, energy metabolism, metabolism of macromolecular precursors, cell structure and adhesion, vesicle transport, or lysosomal metabolism. Although these functions were not previously associated with the damage response in mammals, many were conserved in yeast. These insights reveal new directions for studying the human response to DNA damage.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkh783

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224207500009

    View details for PubMedID 15356296

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