A Convergence of Ophthalmic and Life-threatening Emergencies: Acute Angle Closure Glaucoma and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.
Journal of glaucoma
Characterizing the impact of 2D and 3D culture conditions on the therapeutic effects of human mesenchymal stem cell secretome on corneal wound healing in vitro and ex vivo.
A novel platform for isotype-specific testing of autoantibodies.
2019; 14 (2): e0211596
The therapeutic effects of secreted factors (secretome) produced by bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were evaluated as a function of their growth in 2D culture conditions and on 3D electrospun fiber scaffolds. Electrospun fiber scaffolds composed of polycaprolactone and gelatin were fabricated to provide a 3D microenvironment for MSCs, and their mechanical properties were optimized to be similar to corneal tissue. The secretome produced by the MSCs cultured on 3D fiber matrices versus 2D culture dishes were analyzed by Luminex immunoassay, and the secretome of MSCs cultured on the 3D versus 2D substrates showed substantial compositional differences. Concentrations of factors such as HGF and ICAM-1 were increased over 5 times in 3D cultures compared to 2D cultures. In vitro proliferation and scratch-based wound healing assays were performed to compare the effects of the secretome on corneal fibroblast cells (CFCs) when delivered synchronously from co-cultured MSCs through a trans-well co-culture system versus asynchronously after harvesting the factors separately and adding them to the media. Cell viability of CFCs was sustained for 6 days when co-cultured with MSCs seeded on the fibers but decreased with time under other conditions. Scratch assays showed 95% closure at 48 hr when CFCs were co-cultured with MSCs seeded on fibers, while the control group only exhibited 50% closure at 48 hr. Electrospun fibers seeded with MSCs were then applied to a wounded rabbit corneal organ culture system, and MSCs seeded on fibers promoted faster epithelialization and less scarring. Corneas were fixed and stained for alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and then analyzed by confocal microscopy. Immunostaining showed that expression of alpha-SMA was lower in corneas treated with MSCs seeded on fibers, suggesting suppression of myofibroblastic transformation. MSCs cultured on electrospun fibers facilitate wound healing in CFCs and on explanted corneas through differential secretome profiles compared to MSCs cultured on 2D substrates. Future work is merited to further understand the nature and basis of these differences and their effects in animal models. Statement of Significance: Previous studies have shown that the secretome of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is beneficial to corneal wound healing by facilitating improved wound closure rates and reduction of scarring and neovascularization. The present research is significant because it provides evidence for the modulation of the secretome as a function of the MSC culture environment. This leads to differential expression of therapeutic factors secreted, which can impact corneal epithelial and stromal healing after severe injury. In addition, this article shows that the co-continuous delivery of the MSC secretome improves cell migration and proliferation over aliquoted delivery, and that MSCs grown on three-dimensional electrospun fiber constructs may provide a favorable microenvironment for cultured MSCs and as a carrier to deliver their secreted factors to the ocular surface.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.actbio.2019.09.022
View details for PubMedID 31539656
The objective of this study was to test if a novel platform could be used for isotype-specific autoantibody testing in humans. Further, we evaluated if testing with this novel platform enables earlier detection of insulin autoantibodies in individuals that have first-degree relatives with type-1 diabetes than currently used approaches. Longitudinal serum samples from participants were collected before and after they converted to become positive for insulin autoantibodies by the current standardly used assays. Using a novel plasmonic gold chip platform, we tested these samples for IgM isotype-specific autoantibodies. Serial serum samples from individuals without diabetes were also tested as a comparison control cohort. Our results demonstrate proof-of-concept that a plasmonic gold chip can specifically detect the IgM insulin autoantibody. Five out of the six individuals that converted to being positive for insulin autoantibodies by standard testing had significant IgM autoantibodies on the plasmonic chip platform. The plasmonic chip platform detected IgM autoantibodies earlier than standard testing by up to 4 years. Our results indicate that the plasmonic gold platform can specifically detect the IgM isotype autoantibodies and suggest that combining isotype-specific testing with currently used approaches enables earlier detection of insulin autoantibodies in individuals that have first-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0211596
View details for PubMedID 30730939