Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Child, Adolescent and Young Adult Eating Disorders
  • Psychology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Fellowship:Stanford University School of Medicine (2007) CA
  • Internship:Nationwide Children's Hospital (2005) OH
  • Medical Education:Ohio State University College of Medicine (2005) OH

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


My current research focuses on neuropsychology and neuroimaging in eating disorders. I am particularly interested in the role of weight suppression and malnourishment on cognition, the evaluation of neuropsychological deficits in adolescents and cognitive features associated with obesity.

Teaching

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Parent-Therapist Alliance in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Forsberg, S., Lotempio, E., Bryson, S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2014; 22 (1): 53-58

    Abstract

    This study aimed to describe the role of parent alliance in Family-Based Treatment (FBT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). Differences between parent and child alliance with the therapist, mothers' and fathers' alliance, and their relationship to outcome were examined.Independent observers rated audiotapes of early therapy sessions to assess the therapeutic alliance of parents and adolescents with AN in FBT. Outcome was defined using a previously established cut-point for recovery from AN.Mothers' and fathers' alliance scores with the therapist were similar and significantly higher than adolescent alliance scores early in treatment. Combined parent alliance did not predict recovery at the end of treatment. Difference in alliance scores between mothers and fathers, and parents and their child also did not predict recovery at the end of treatment.In FBT, parents developed a strong alliance with the therapist early in treatment. These scores were consistent with the focus in FBT on parental management of eating disorder symptoms, as was the fact that alliance between adolescents and therapists was lower. Although parental therapeutic alliance was likely important in FBT, its role in treatment response remains uncertain. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.2242

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328554600008

    View details for PubMedID 23861093

  • Do in-vivo behaviors predict early response in family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa? Behaviour research and therapy Darcy, A. M., Bryson, S. W., Agras, W. S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2013; 51 (11): 762-766

    Abstract

    The aim of the study is to explore whether identified parental and patient behaviors observed in the first few sessions of family-based treatment (FBT) predict early response (weight gain of 1.8 kg by session four) to treatment. Therapy film recordings from 21 adolescent participants recruited into the FBT arm of a multi-site randomized clinical trial were coded for the presence of behaviors (length of observed behavior divided by length of session recording) in the first, second and fourth sessions. Behaviors that differed between early responders and non-early responders on univariate analysis were entered into discriminant class analyses. Participants with fewer negative verbal behaviors in the first session and were away from table during the meal session less had the greatest rates of early response. Parents who made fewer critical statements and who did not repeatedly present food during the meal session had children who had the greatest rates of early response. In-vivo behaviors in early sessions of FBT may predict early response to FBT. Adaptations to address participant resistance and to decrease the numbers of critical comments made by parents while encouraging their children to eat might improve early response to FBT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2013.09.003

    View details for PubMedID 24091274

  • Is outpatient cognitive remediation therapy feasible to use in randomized clinical trials for anorexia nervosa? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Lock, J., Agras, W. S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Bryson, S. W., Jo, B., Tchanturia, K. 2013; 46 (6): 567-575

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22134

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323436800005

  • Patients' characteristics and the quality of the therapeutic alliance in family-based treatment and individual therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa JOURNAL OF FAMILY THERAPY LoTempio, E., Forsberg, S., Bryson, S. W., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2013; 35: 29-52
  • Is outpatient cognitive remediation therapy feasible to use in randomized clinical trials for anorexia nervosa? The International journal of eating disorders Lock, J., Agras, W. S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Bryson, S. W., Jo, B., Tchanturia, K. 2013

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: There are limited data supporting specific treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for adults with AN are characterized by high attrition limiting the feasibility of conducting and interpreting existing studies. High dropout rates may be related to the inflexible and obsessional cognitive style of patients with AN. This study evaluated the feasibility of using cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) to reduce attrition in RCTs for AN. METHOD: Forty-six participants (mean age of 22.7 years and mean duration of AN of 6.4 years) were randomized to receive eight sessions of either CRT or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over 2 months followed by 16 sessions of CBT for 4 months. RESULTS: During the 2-month CRT vs. CBT treatment, rates of attrition were lower in CRT (13%) compared with that of CBT (33%). There were greater improvements in cognitive inefficiencies in the CRT compared with that of the CBT group at the end of 2 months. There were no differences in other outcomes. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that CRT is acceptable and feasible for use in RCTs for outpatient treatment of AN. CRT may reduce attrition in the short term. Adequately powered future studies are needed to examine CRT as an outpatient treatment for AN.

    View details for PubMedID 23625628

  • Therapeutic alliance in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Forsberg, S., Lotempio, E., Bryson, S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2013; 46 (1): 34-38

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome (remission status) in family-based treatment (FBT) and adolescent-focused therapy (AFT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN).Independent observers rated audiotapes of early therapy sessions using the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer Version (WAI-o). Outcome was defined using established cut-points for full and partial remission. To control for effects of early symptom improvement, changes in weight- and eating-related psychopathology prior to the alliance session were calculated and entered as a covariate in each analysis.Participants in AFT had significantly higher alliance scores; however, overall scores were high in both therapies. The alliance was not a predictor of full remission for either treatment, though it was a non-specific predictor for partial remission.Therapeutic alliance is achievable in adolescents with AN in both AFT and FBT, but demonstrated no relationship to full remission of the disorder.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312300000005

    View details for PubMedID 22836506

  • Set-shifting among adolescents with anorexia nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Fitzpatrick, K. K., Darcy, A., Colborn, D., Gudorf, C., Lock, J. 2012; 45 (7): 909-912

    Abstract

    Set-shifting difficulties are documented for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, AN typically onsets in adolescents and it is unclear if set-shifting difficulties are a result of chronic AN or present earlier in its course. This study examined whether adolescents with short duration AN demonstrated set-shifting difficulties compared to healthy controls (HC).Data on set-shifting collected from the Delis-Kaplan executive functioning system and Wisconsin card sort task (WCST) as well as eating psychopathology were collected from 32 adolescent inpatients with AN and compared with those from 22 HCs.There were no differences in set-shifting in adolescents with AN compared to HCs on most measures.The findings suggest that set-shifting difficulties in AN may be a consequence of AN. Future studies should explore set-shifting difficulties in a larger sample of adolescents with the AN to determine if there is sub-set of adolescents with these difficulties and determine any relationship of set-shifting to the development of a chronic from of AN.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310271600014

    View details for PubMedID 22692985

  • Set-Shifting Among Adolescents With Bulimic Spectrum Eating Disorders PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Darcy, A. M., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Colborn, D., Manasse, S., Datta, N., Aspen, V., Shields, C. S., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2012; 74 (8): 869-872

    Abstract

    Set-shifting difficulties are observed among adults with bulimia nervosa (BN). This study aimed to assess whether adolescents with BN and BN spectrum eating disorders exhibit set-shifting problems relative to healthy controls.Neurocognitive data from 23 adolescents with BN were compared with those from 31 adolescents with BN-type eating disorder not otherwise specified and 22 healthy controls on various measures of set-shifting (Trail Making Task [shift task], Color-Word Interference, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Brixton Spatial Anticipation Task).No significant differences in set-shifting tasks were found among groups (p >.35), and effect sizes were small (Cohen f < 0.17).Cognitive inflexibility may develop over time because of the eating disorder, although it is possible that there is a subset of individuals in whom early neurocognitive difficulty may result in a longer illness trajectory. Future research should investigate the existence of neurocognitive taxons in larger samples and use longitudinal designs to fully explore biomarkers and illness effects.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00879151.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31826af636

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310047800011

    View details for PubMedID 23001391

  • Anorexia nervosa. Clinical evidence Fitzpatrick, K. K., Lock, J. 2011; 2011

    Abstract

    Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and up to 0.7% of this age group may be affected. While most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, about 5% die of the condition, and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder. Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of bone fractures later in life. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review, and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in anorexia nervosa? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat complications of anorexia nervosa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: atypical antipsychotic drugs, benzodiazepines, cyproheptadine, inpatient/outpatient treatment setting, oestrogen treatment (HRT or oral contraceptives), older-generation antipsychotic drugs, psychotherapy, refeeding, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants.

    View details for PubMedID 21481284

  • All Better? How Former Anorexia Nervosa Patients Define Recovery and Engaged in Treatment EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Darcy, A. M., Katz, S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Forsberg, S., Utzinger, L., Lock, J. 2010; 18 (4): 260-270

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to explore how individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in treatment and define recovery. A mixed methods design was used to triangulate the experience of 20 women with a history of AN. Interview data were analysed thematically to explore frequency of emergent themes and current eating disorder psychopathology was assessed using standardized self-report measures. Participants' mean age was 29.35 (SD = 12.11). Participants' scores were indicative of persistent psychopathology. Those with more involvement in treatment choice had better motivation to change and normalized eating. Participants' definition of recovery mapped on well to current research conceptualizations, though a substantial proportion of the group expressed some ambivalence around the concept. Results are interpreted in the context of self-determination theory of motivation and suggest that patients should be involved collaboratively in the formulation of shared goals and concepts of recovery in treatment settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.1020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280080100003

    View details for PubMedID 20589765

  • Anorexia nervosa. Clinical evidence Lock, J. D., Fitzpatrick, K. K. 2009; 2009

    Abstract

    Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and up to 0.7% of this age group may be affected. While most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, about 5% die of the condition, and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder. Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of bone fractures later in life. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review which aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for anorexia nervosa? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat complications of anorexia nervosa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anxiolytic drugs, cyproheptadine, inpatient/outpatient treatment setting, oestrogen treatment, psychotherapy, refeeding, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants.

    View details for PubMedID 19445758

  • Advances in psychotherapy for children and adolescents with eating disorders. American journal of psychotherapy Lock, J., Fitzpatrick, K. K. 2009; 63 (4): 287-303

    Abstract

    There is a significant lag in the development of evidence based approaches for eating disorders in children and adolescents despite the fact that these disorders typically onset during these developmental periods. Available studies suggest that psychotherapy is the best available approach to these disorders. Specific studies support the use of family based interventions, adolescent focused individual therapy, and developmentally adapted cognitive behavioral therapy in this age group. The current report summarizes the available evidence supportive of each of these treatment modalities, as well as, provides a description of the rationale and principle therapeutic targets and intervention types. Future directions in psychotherapy research in child and adolescent eating disorders are discussed.

    View details for PubMedID 20131739

  • Is there a relationship between parental self-reported psychopathology and symptom severity in adolescents with anorexia nervosa? Eating disorders Ravi, S., Forsberg, S., Fitzpatrick, K., Lock, J. 2009; 17 (1): 63-71

    Abstract

    The current study aimed to screen for indications of psychopathology displayed by the parents of adolescents diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and examine the relationship between severity of adolescent eating disorder symptoms and parental psychopathology. Sixty female adolescents diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR AN (restricting-type and binge-purge-type) were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and parents completed the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). As compared to established non-patient norms, both fathers and mothers of adolescents with AN reported greater levels of obsessive compulsive behaviors, hostility, depression, and anxiety as measured by the SCL-90-R. In addition, duration of AN was positively associated with hostility scores in fathers, and global EDE scores were associated with hostility in mothers. While parental scores on the SCL-90 were elevated as compared to community samples, results of this study do not support a direct influence of parental psychopathology on symptom severity of adolescent AN. Increasing rates of hostility scores in parents with increased duration of AN may represent either a response to the presence of the disorder or be a maintaining factor for AN.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10640260802570122

    View details for PubMedID 19105061

  • Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Training (ASAT): A longitudinal primary prevention program targeting cognitive vulnerability JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Schmidt, N. B., Eggleston, A. M., Woolaway-Bickel, K., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Vasey, M. W., Richey, J. A. 2007; 21 (3): 302-319

    Abstract

    Fear of arousal symptoms, often referred to as anxiety sensitivity (AS) appears to be associated with risk for anxiety pathology and other Axis I conditions. Findings from a longitudinal prevention program targeting AS are reported. Participants (n=404) scoring high on the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI) were randomly assigned to receive a brief intervention designed to reduce AS (Anxiety Sensitivity Amelioration Training (ASAT)) or a control condition. Participants were followed for up to 24 months. Findings indicate that ASAT produced greater reductions in ASI levels compared with the control condition. Moreover, reductions were specific to anxiety sensitivity relative to related cognitive risk factors for anxiety. ASAT also produced decreased subjective fear responding to a 20% CO(2) challenge delivered postintervention. Data from the follow-up period show a lower incidence of Axis I diagnoses in the treated condition though the overall group difference was not statistically different at all follow-up intervals. Overall, findings are promising for the preventative efficacy of a brief, computer-based intervention designed to decrease anxiety sensitivity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.06.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245868500004

    View details for PubMedID 16889931

  • Naturalistic evaluation of suicidal ideation: Variability and relation to attempt status BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY Witte, T. K., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Warren, K. L., Schatschneider, C., Schmidt, N. B. 2006; 44 (7): 1029-1040

    Abstract

    Suicidal ideation has been thought to have a relatively stable course across weeks and months. However, daily changes in levels of ideation have not been adequately examined despite the importance of potential variability clinically and conceptually. For example, it has been suggested that variability in suicidal ideation may become less closely tied to variability in other mood symptoms (e.g., depression, hopelessness) among individuals with multiple suicide attempts. The present report had two related goals: (1) to prospectively evaluate suicidal ideation and related mood symptoms, and (2) to determine whether suicide attempt status predicted a decreased association between ideation and other mood symptoms. Non-clinical participants (N=108) with varying levels of suicidal ideation and number of previous suicide attempts completed the beck hopelessness scale (BHS), beck depression inventory (BDI), and suicide probability scale (SPS) every day for 4 weeks. Findings suggested considerable variability in suicidal ideation, especially for multiple attempters. Multiple attempt status predicted a decreased association between suicidal ideation and depression, although the results were only marginally significant. These findings have implications for conceptual models of suicide risk as well as assessment and treatment of suicidal individuals.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2005.08.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238918500009

    View details for PubMedID 16188225

  • Clinical applications of the interpersonal-psychological theory of attempted and completed suicide JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Stellrecht, N. E., Gordon, K. H., Van Orden, K., Witte, T. K., WINGATE, L. R., Cukrowicz, K. C., Butler, M., Schmidt, N. B., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Joiner, T. E. 2006; 62 (2): 211-222

    Abstract

    This article reviews the interpersonal-psychological theory of attempted and completed suicide and describes its applications in suicide risk assessment, crisis intervention, and skills-based psychotherapies. Three components are necessary, but not sufficient, for an individual to die by suicide: (1) the acquired capability to enact lethal self-injury, (2) a sense that one is a burden on others, and (3) the sense that one does not belong to a valued social group. We suggest that therapeutic interventions should focus on ascertaining the presence of these components and work to amend the cognitive distortions, negative interpersonal response styles, and ineffective coping behaviors that serve to maintain suicidal urges.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jclp.20224

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235176300006

    View details for PubMedID 16342289

  • Discomfort intolerance: Development of a construct and measure relevant to panic disorder JOURNAL OF ANXIETY DISORDERS Schmidt, N. B., Richey, J. A., Fitzpatrick, K. K. 2006; 20 (3): 263-280

    Abstract

    The construct of discomfort intolerance (proposed as an individual difference in the ability to tolerate uncomfortable sensations) is introduced and psychometric properties of a measure of this trait are provided. The Discomfort Intolerance Scale (DIS), a self-report measure of discomfort intolerance, was evaluated using a variety of samples (total N approximately 1700), including patients with panic disorder, clinical controls, and nonclinical community members. Factor analyses suggest the DIS contains two factors, including a factor indexing the ability to tolerate discomfort and pain (Factor 1: alpha = .91), and a factor, which appears to measure avoidance of physical discomfort (Factor 2: alpha = .72). Cross-time reliability shows good stability across 12 weeks (Factor 1 = .63, Factor 2 = .66). Convergent and discriminant validity coefficients indicated that the DIS performed as expected against established measures of psychopathology. The DIS appears to be a sound measure of a broad individual difference variable tapping the ability to tolerate a variety of uncomfortable sensations and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.02.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236641200001

    View details for PubMedID 16564432

  • Variability in suicidal ideation: A better predictor of suicide attempts than intensity or duration of ideation? JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Witte, T. K., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Joiner, T. E., Schmidt, N. B. 2005; 88 (2): 131-136

    Abstract

    Much of the suicidology literature focuses on establishing contextual risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the study of the parameters of suicidal behavior (e.g., intensity, duration, and variability) has been somewhat neglected . Having previously established a relationship between variability in suicidal ideation and a previous history of suicide attempts [Witte, T.K, Fitzpatrick, K.K., Warren, K.L., Schatschneider, C., Schmidt, N.B., submitted for publication. Naturalistic Evaluation of Suicidal Ideation: Variability and Relation to Attempt Status], we felt it important to assess the liability conferred by a variable pattern of ideation compared to the intensity and duration of suicidal thoughts. We also examined if there was an interaction between gender and the parameters of intensity, duration, and variability.One hundred eight participants (54 non-attempters, 35 single attempters, and 19 multiple attempters) completed the Suicide Probability Scale every day for 4 weeks, allowing us to measure the parameters of interest. These variables were entered into a regression model as predictors of previous suicide attempts.Consistent with prediction, high variability of ideation was the only significant predictor of previous attempt status. In addition, an interaction between gender and variability in suicidal ideation suggested that variability appeared more critical in predicting previous attempts for males.The limited number of multiple attempters in our sample and the use of college students limit the current study.Variability appears to be the most potent predictor of attempt status among the parameters of suicidal ideation examined in the current study. This relationship appears to be particularly important in males, suggesting that fluctuating levels of suicidal ideation may confer future risk for suicide.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2005.05.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232477100002

    View details for PubMedID 16054227

  • Gender role, sexual orientation and suicide risk JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS Fitzpatrick, K. K., Euton, S. J., Jones, J. N., Schmidt, N. B. 2005; 87 (1): 35-42

    Abstract

    There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping.77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology.Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects.The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality.Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jad.2005.02.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230609800005

    View details for PubMedID 15893824

  • Four studies on how past and current suicidality relate even when "everything but the kitchen sink" is covaried JOURNAL OF ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY Joiner, T. E., Conwell, Y., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Witte, T. K., Schmidt, N. B., Berlim, M. T., Fleck, M. P., Rudd, M. D. 2005; 114 (2): 291-303

    Abstract

    T. E. Joiner's (2004, in press) theory of suicidal behavior suggests that past suicidal behavior plays an important role in future suicidality. However, the mechanism by which this risk is transferred and the causal implications have not been well studied. The current study provides evaluation of the nature and limits of this relationship across 4 populations, with varying degrees of suicidal behavior. Across settings, age groups, and impairment levels, the association between past suicidal behavior and current suicidal symptoms held, even when controlling for strong covariates like hopelessness and symptoms of various Axis I and II syndromes. Results provide additional support for the importance of past suicidality as a substantive risk factor for later suicidal behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/0021-843X.114.2.291

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229028300010

    View details for PubMedID 15869359

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