I began working at Stanford after obtaining my PhD in Neuroscience from the University of California, San Diego in 2011. My doctoral research investigated the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological correlates of word understanding abilities in healthy 1-2 year old infants, bilingual and hearing impaired adults. I am experienced using a range of human neuroimaging techniques including magneto and electro-encephalography as well as structural MRI techniques, including diffusion and quantitative MRI in pediatric populations.

I am most interested in studying the neural bases of language and reading skills in young children. Presently, I am applying advanced neuroimaging techniques, including diffusion and quantitative MRI, to examine how white matter structures of the brain contribute to reading and language skills in both healthy children and children born pre-term. Understanding both the neural and behavioral factors underlying these skills will help to identify children who are at greatest risk for learning difficulties. In later stages of this research, I will assist in developing and assessing interventional strategies for improving reading abilities in children at risk for delays.

Academic Appointments

  • Instructor, Pediatrics

Honors & Awards

  • Young Investigator Award, Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (2014-2015)
  • Fine Science Tools Abstract Award, University of California, San Diego (2010)
  • Honorable Mention Graduate Research Fellowship Program, National Science Foundation (2007)
  • Post-baccalaureate Internship Training Award, National Institutes of Health (2004-2005)
  • Arnold B Scheibel Neuroscience Award, Colorado College (2003)
  • Distinction in Neuroscience, Colorado College (2003)
  • First Place Research Presentation, Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Sciences (2003)
  • Phi Beta Kappa, Colorado College (2003)
  • Society for Neuroscience Travel Award, Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (2003)

Research & Scholarship

Clinical Trials

  • Listening to Mom in the NICU: Neural, Clinical and Language Outcomes Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether playing recordings of a mother's voice to her infant while in the hospital nursery is an effective treatment for promoting healthy brain and language development in infants born preterm.

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All Publications

  • White matter properties differ in 6-year old Readers and Pre-readers BRAIN STRUCTURE & FUNCTION Travis, K. E., Adams, J. N., Kovachy, V. N., Ben-Shachar, M., Feldman, H. M. 2017; 222 (4): 1685-1703
  • White matter properties differ in 6-year old Readers and Pre-readers. Brain structure & function Travis, K. E., Adams, J. N., Kovachy, V. N., Ben-Shachar, M., Feldman, H. M. 2016: -?


    Reading, an essential life skill in modern society, is typically learned during childhood. Adults who can read show white matter differences compared to adults who never learned to read. Studies have not established whether children who can read show similar white matter differences compared to children who cannot read. We compared 6-year old children who could decode written English words and pseudowords (n = 31; Readers) and 6-year old children who could not decode pseudowords and had a standard score <100 on a task for reading single words (n = 11; Pre-readers). We employed diffusion MRI and tractography to extract fractional anisotropy (FA) along the trajectory of six bilateral intra-hemispheric tracts and two posterior subdivisions of the corpus callosum. Readers demonstrated significantly increased FA within the left anterior segment of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF-L) and the right uncinate fasciculus (UF-R) compared to Pre-readers. FA in the aSLF-L was significantly correlated with phonological awareness; FA in the UF-R was significantly correlated with language. Correlations in the UF-R but not the aSLF-L remained significant after controlling for reading ability, revealing that UF-R group differences were related to both children's language and reading abilities. Taken together, these findings demonstrate new evidence showing that individual differences in white matter structure relate to whether children have begun to read.

    View details for PubMedID 27631434

  • Case Series: Fractional Anisotropy Profiles of the Cerebellar Peduncles in Adolescents Born Preterm With Ventricular Dilation JOURNAL OF CHILD NEUROLOGY Travis, K. E., Leitner, Y., Ben-Shachar, M., Yeom, K. W., Feldman, H. M. 2016; 31 (3): 321-327


    This case series assesses white matter microstructure of the cerebellar peduncles in 4 adolescents born preterm with enlarged ventricles and reduced white matter volume in the cerebrum but no apparent injury to the cerebellum. Subjects (ages 12-17 years, gestational age 26-32 weeks, birth weight 825-2211 g) were compared to a normative sample of 19 full-term controls (9-17 years, mean gestational age 39 weeks, mean birth weight 3154 g). Tract profiles for each of the cerebellar peduncles were generated by calculating fractional anisotropy at 30 points along the central portion of each tract. One or more case subjects exhibited higher fractional anisotropy beyond the 90th percentile in the inferior, middle, and superior cerebellar peduncles. Findings demonstrate that differences in cerebellar white matter microstructure can be detected in the absence of macrostructural cerebellar abnormalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0883073815592223

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370429700008

    View details for PubMedID 26116381

  • Variations in the neurobiology of reading in children and adolescents born full term and preterm NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL Travis, K. E., Ben-Shachar, M., Myall, N. J., Feldman, H. M. 2016; 11: 555-565


    Diffusion properties of white matter tracts have been associated with individual differences in reading. Individuals born preterm are at risk of injury to white matter. In this study we compared the associations between diffusion properties of white matter and reading skills in children and adolescents born full term and preterm. 45 participants, aged 9-17 years, included 26 preterms (born < 36 weeks' gestation) and 19 full-terms. Tract fractional anisotropy (FA) profiles were generated for five bilateral white matter tracts previously associated with reading: anterior superior longitudinal fasciculus (aSLF), arcuate fasciculus (Arc), corticospinal tract (CST), uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). Mean scores on reading for the two groups were in the normal range and were not statistically different. In both groups, FA was associated with measures of single word reading and comprehension in the aSLF, AF, CST, and UF. However, correlations were negative in the full term group and positive in the preterm group. These results demonstrate variations in the neurobiology of reading in children born full term and preterm despite comparable reading skills. Findings suggest that efficient information exchange required for strong reading abilities may be accomplished via a different balance of neurobiological mechanisms in different groups of readers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nicl.2016.04.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379504500062

    View details for PubMedID 27158588

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4845391

  • Tract Profiles of the Cerebellar White Matter Pathways in Children and Adolescents CEREBELLUM Leitner, Y., Travis, K. E., Ben-Shachar, M., Yeom, K. W., Feldman, H. M. 2015; 14 (6): 613-623


    Intact development of cerebellar connectivity is essential for healthy neuromotor and neurocognitive development. To date, limited knowledge about the microstructural properties of the cerebellar peduncles, the major white matter tracts of the cerebellum, is available for children and adolescents. Such information would be useful as a comparison for studies of normal development, clinical conditions, or associations of cerebellar structures with cognitive and motor functions. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the variability in diffusion measures of the cerebellar peduncles within individuals and within a normative sample of healthy children. Participants were 19 healthy children and adolescents, aged 9-17 years, mean age 13.0 ± 2.3. We analyzed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data with deterministic tractography. We generated tract profiles for each of the cerebellar peduncles by extracting four diffusion properties (fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean, radial, and axial diffusivity) at 30 equidistant points along each tract. We were able to identify the middle cerebellar peduncle and the bilateral inferior and superior cerebellar peduncles in all participants. The results showed that within each of the peduncles, the diffusion properties varied along the trajectory of the tracts. However, the tracts showed consistent patterns of variation across individuals; the coefficient of variation for FA across individual profiles was low (≤20 %) for each tract. We observed no systematic variation of the diffusion properties with age. These cerebellar tract profiles of the cerebellar peduncles can serve as a reference for future studies of children across the age range and for children and adolescents with clinical conditions that affect the cerebellum.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12311-015-0652-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364576900001

    View details for PubMedID 25648754

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4524802

  • Cerebellar White Matter Pathways are Associated With Reading Skills in Children and Adolescents HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING Travis, K. E., Leitner, Y., Feldman, H. M., Ben-Shachar, M. 2015; 36 (4): 1536-1553


    Reading is a critical life skill in the modern world. The neural basis of reading incorporates a distributed network of cortical areas and their white matter connections. The cerebellum has also been implicated in reading and reading disabilities. However, little is known about the contribution of cerebellar white matter pathways to major component skills of reading. We used diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) with tractography to identify the cerebellar peduncles in a group of 9- to 17-year-old children and adolescents born full term (FT, n = 19) or preterm (PT, n = 26). In this cohort, no significant differences were found between fractional anisotropy (FA) measures of the peduncles in the PT and FT groups. FA of the cerebellar peduncles correlated significantly with measures of decoding and reading comprehension in the combined sample of FT and PT subjects. Correlations were negative in the superior and inferior cerebellar peduncles and positive in the middle cerebellar peduncle. Additional analyses revealed that FT and PT groups demonstrated similar patterns of reading associations within the left superior cerebellar peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle, and left inferior cerebellar peduncle. Partial correlation analyses showed that distinct sub-skills of reading were associated with FA in segments of different cerebellar peduncles. Overall, the present findings are the first to document associations of microstructure of the cerebellar peduncles and the component skills of reading. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hbm.22721

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351737800023

    View details for PubMedID 25504986

  • Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. NeuroImage. Clinical Travis, K. E., Golden, N. H., Feldman, H. M., Solomon, M., Nguyen, J., Mezer, A., Yeatman, J. D., Dougherty, R. F. 2015; 9: 648-659


    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.nicl.2015.10.008

    View details for PubMedID 26740918

  • Decreased and Increased Anisotropy along Major Cerebral White Matter Tracts in Preterm Children and Adolescents PLoS One Travis, K. E., Adams, J. N., Ben-Shachar, M., Feldman, H. M. 2015
  • Decreased and Increased Anisotropy along Major Cerebral White Matter Tracts in Preterm Children and Adolescents. PloS one Travis, K. E., Adams, J. N., Ben-Shachar, M., Feldman, H. M. 2015; 10 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0142860

    View details for PubMedID 26560745

  • Spatiotemporal Neural Dynamics of Word Understanding in 12- to 18-Month-Old-Infants CEREBRAL CORTEX Travis, K. E., Leonard, M. K., Brown, T. T., Hagler, D. J., Curran, M., Dale, A. M., Elman, J. L., Halgren, E. 2011; 21 (8): 1832-1839


    Learning words is central in human development. However, lacking clear evidence for how or where language is processed in the developing brain, it is unknown whether these processes are similar in infants and adults. Here, we use magnetoencephalography in combination with high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging to noninvasively estimate the spatiotemporal distribution of word-selective brain activity in 12- to 18-month-old infants. Infants watched pictures of common objects and listened to words that they understood. A subset of these infants also listened to familiar words compared with sensory control sounds. In both experiments, words evoked a characteristic event-related brain response peaking ∼400 ms after word onset, which localized to left frontotemporal cortices. In adults, this activity, termed the N400m, is associated with lexico-semantic encoding. Like adults, we find that the amplitude of the infant N400m is also modulated by semantic priming, being reduced to words preceded by a semantically related picture. These findings suggest that similar left frontotemporal areas are used for encoding lexico-semantic information throughout the life span, from the earliest stages of word learning. Furthermore, this ontogenetic consistency implies that the neurophysiological processes underlying the N400m may be important both for understanding already known words and for learning new words.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cercor/bhq259

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293076300012

    View details for PubMedID 21209121

  • Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa NEUROIMAGE-CLINICAL Travis, K. E., Golden, N. H., Feldman, H. M., Solomon, M., Jenny Nguyen, J., Mezer, A., Yeatman, J. D., Dougherty, R. F. 2015; 9: 648-659
  • Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa Neuroimage:Clinical Travis, K. E., Golden, N. H., Feldman, H. M., Solomon, M., Nguyen, J., Mezer, A., Yeatman, J. D., Dougherty, R. F. 2015
  • Speech-Specific Tuning of Neurons in Human Superior Temporal Gyrus CEREBRAL CORTEX Chan, A. M., Dykstra, A. R., Jayaram, V., Leonard, M. K., Travis, K. E., Gygi, B., Baker, J. M., Eskandar, E., Hochberg, L. R., Halgren, E., Cash, S. S. 2014; 24 (10): 2679-2693


    How the brain extracts words from auditory signals is an unanswered question. We recorded approximately 150 single and multi-units from the left anterior superior temporal gyrus of a patient during multiple auditory experiments. Against low background activity, 45% of units robustly fired to particular spoken words with little or no response to pure tones, noise-vocoded speech, or environmental sounds. Many units were tuned to complex but specific sets of phonemes, which were influenced by local context but invariant to speaker, and suppressed during self-produced speech. The firing of several units to specific visual letters was correlated with their response to the corresponding auditory phonemes, providing the first direct neural evidence for phonological recoding during reading. Maximal decoding of individual phonemes and words identities was attained using firing rates from approximately 5 neurons within 200 ms after word onset. Thus, neurons in human superior temporal gyrus use sparse spatially organized population encoding of complex acoustic-phonetic features to help recognize auditory and visual words.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cercor/bht127

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343408200014

    View details for PubMedID 23680841

  • Age-related Changes in Tissue Signal Properties Within Cortical Areas Important for Word Understanding in 12-to 19-Month-Old Infants CEREBRAL CORTEX Travis, K. E., Curran, M. M., Torres, C., Leonard, M. K., Brown, T. T., Dale, A. M., Elman, J. L., Halgren, E. 2014; 24 (7): 1948-1955
  • Independence of Early Speech Processing from Word Meaning CEREBRAL CORTEX Travis, K. E., Leonard, M. K., Chan, A. M., Torres, C., Sizemore, M. L., Qu, Z., Eskandar, E., Dale, A. M., Elman, J. L., Cash, S. S., Halgren, E. 2013; 23 (10): 2370-2379


    We combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) with magnetic resonance imaging and electrocorticography to separate in anatomy and latency 2 fundamental stages underlying speech comprehension. The first acoustic-phonetic stage is selective for words relative to control stimuli individually matched on acoustic properties. It begins ∼60 ms after stimulus onset and is localized to middle superior temporal cortex. It was replicated in another experiment, but is strongly dissociated from the response to tones in the same subjects. Within the same task, semantic priming of the same words by a related picture modulates cortical processing in a broader network, but this does not begin until ∼217 ms. The earlier onset of acoustic-phonetic processing compared with lexico-semantic modulation was significant in each individual subject. The MEG source estimates were confirmed with intracranial local field potential and high gamma power responses acquired in 2 additional subjects performing the same task. These recordings further identified sites within superior temporal cortex that responded only to the acoustic-phonetic contrast at short latencies, or the lexico-semantic at long. The independence of the early acoustic-phonetic response from semantic context suggests a limited role for lexical feedback in early speech perception.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cercor/bhs228

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325760200009

    View details for PubMedID 22875868

  • Signed Words in the Congenitally Deaf Evoke Typical Late Lexicosemantic Responses with No Early Visual Responses in Left Superior Temporal Cortex JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE Leonard, M. K., Ramirez, N. F., Torres, C., Travis, K. E., Hatrak, M., Mayberry, R. I., Halgren, E. 2012; 32 (28): 9700-9705


    Congenitally deaf individuals receive little or no auditory input, and when raised by deaf parents, they acquire sign as their native and primary language. We asked two questions regarding how the deaf brain in humans adapts to sensory deprivation: (1) is meaning extracted and integrated from signs using the same classical left hemisphere frontotemporal network used for speech in hearing individuals, and (2) in deafness, is superior temporal cortex encompassing primary and secondary auditory regions reorganized to receive and process visual sensory information at short latencies? Using MEG constrained by individual cortical anatomy obtained with MRI, we examined an early time window associated with sensory processing and a late time window associated with lexicosemantic integration. We found that sign in deaf individuals and speech in hearing individuals activate a highly similar left frontotemporal network (including superior temporal regions surrounding auditory cortex) during lexicosemantic processing, but only speech in hearing individuals activates auditory regions during sensory processing. Thus, neural systems dedicated to processing high-level linguistic information are used for processing language regardless of modality or hearing status, and we do not find evidence for rewiring of afferent connections from visual systems to auditory cortex.

    View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1002-12.2012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306526800027

    View details for PubMedID 22787055

  • Spatial Organization of Neurons in the Frontal Pole Sets Humans Apart from Great Apes CEREBRAL CORTEX Semendeferi, K., Teffer, K., Buxhoeveden, D. P., Park, M. S., Bludau, S., Amunts, K., Travis, K., Buckwalter, J. 2011; 21 (7): 1485-1497


    Few morphological differences have been identified so far that distinguish the human brain from the brains of our closest relatives, the apes. Comparative analyses of the spatial organization of cortical neurons, including minicolumns, can aid our understanding of the functionally relevant aspects of microcircuitry. We measured horizontal spacing distance and gray-level ratio in layer III of 4 regions of human and ape cortex in all 6 living hominoid species: frontal pole (Brodmann area [BA] 10), and primary motor (BA 4), primary somatosensory (BA 3), and primary visual cortex (BA 17). Our results identified significant differences between humans and apes in the frontal pole (BA 10). Within the human brain, there were also significant differences between the frontal pole and 2 of the 3 regions studied (BA 3 and BA 17). Differences between BA 10 and BA 4 were present but did not reach significance. These findings in combination with earlier findings on BA 44 and BA 45 suggest that human brain evolution was likely characterized by an increase in the number and width of minicolumns and the space available for interconnectivity between neurons in the frontal lobe, especially the prefrontal cortex.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cercor/bhq191

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291750400003

    View details for PubMedID 21098620

  • Language Proficiency Modulates the Recruitment of Non-Classical Language Areas in Bilinguals PLOS ONE Leonard, M. K., Torres, C., Travis, K. E., Brown, T. T., Hagler, D. J., Dale, A. M., Elman, J. L., Halgren, E. 2011; 6 (3)


    Bilingualism provides a unique opportunity for understanding the relative roles of proficiency and order of acquisition in determining how the brain represents language. In a previous study, we combined magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine the spatiotemporal dynamics of word processing in a group of Spanish-English bilinguals who were more proficient in their native language. We found that from the earliest stages of lexical processing, words in the second language evoke greater activity in bilateral posterior visual regions, while activity to the native language is largely confined to classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal areas. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these effects relate to language proficiency or order of language acquisition by testing Spanish-English bilingual subjects who had become dominant in their second language. Additionally, we wanted to determine whether activity in bilateral visual regions was related to the presentation of written words in our previous study, so we presented subjects with both written and auditory words. We found greater activity for the less proficient native language in bilateral posterior visual regions for both the visual and auditory modalities, which started during the earliest word encoding stages and continued through lexico-semantic processing. In classical left fronto-temporal regions, the two languages evoked similar activity. Therefore, it is the lack of proficiency rather than secondary acquisition order that determines the recruitment of non-classical areas for word processing.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0018240

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288811500031

    View details for PubMedID 21455315

  • Spatiotemporal dynamics of bilingual word processing NEUROIMAGE Leonard, M. K., Brown, T. T., Travis, K. E., Gharapetian, L., Hagler, D. J., Dale, A. M., Elman, J. L., Halgren, E. 2010; 49 (4): 3286-3294


    Studies with monolingual adults have identified successive stages occurring in different brain regions for processing single written words. We combined magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging to compare these stages between the first (L1) and second (L2) languages in bilingual adults. L1 words in a size judgment task evoked a typical left-lateralized sequence of activity first in ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOT: previously associated with visual word-form encoding) and then ventral frontotemporal regions (associated with lexico-semantic processing). Compared to L1, words in L2 activated right VOT more strongly from approximately 135 ms; this activation was attenuated when words became highly familiar with repetition. At approximately 400 ms, L2 responses were generally later than L1, more bilateral, and included the same lateral occipitotemporal areas as were activated by pictures. We propose that acquiring a language involves the recruitment of right hemisphere and posterior visual areas that are not necessary once fluency is achieved.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274064500039

    View details for PubMedID 20004256

  • Somatodendritic Kv7/KCNQ/M channels control interspike interval in hippocampal interneurons JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE Lawrence, J. J., Saraga, F., Churchill, J. F., Statland, J. M., Travis, K. E., Skinner, F. K., McBain, C. J. 2006; 26 (47): 12325-12338


    The M-current (I(M)), comprised of Kv7 channels, is a voltage-activated K+ conductance that plays a key role in the control of cell excitability. In hippocampal principal cells, I(M) controls action potential (AP) accommodation and contributes to the medium-duration afterhyperpolarization, but the role of I(M) in control of interneuron excitability remains unclear. Here, we investigated I(M) in hippocampal stratum oriens (SO) interneurons, both from wild-type and transgenic mice in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in somatostatin-containing interneurons. Somatodendritic expression of Kv7.2 or Kv7.3 subunits was colocalized in a subset of GFP+ SO interneurons, corresponding to oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) cells. Under voltage clamp (VC) conditions at -30 mV, the Kv7 channel antagonists linopirdine/XE-991 abolished the I(M) amplitude present during relaxation from -30 to -50 mV and reduced the holding current (I(hold)). In addition, 0.5 mM tetraethylammonium reduced I(M), suggesting that I(M) was composed of Kv7.2-containing channels. In contrast, the Kv7 channel opener retigabine increased I(M) amplitude and I(hold). When strongly depolarized in VC, the linopirdine-sensitive outward current activated rapidly and comprised up to 20% of the total current. In current-clamp recordings from GFP+ SO cells, linopirdine induced depolarization and increased AP frequency, whereas retigabine induced hyperpolarization and arrested firing. In multicompartment O-LM interneuron models that incorporated I(M), somatodendritic placement of Kv7 channels best reproduced experimentally measured I(M). The models suggest that Kv3- and Kv7-mediated channels both rapidly activate during single APs; however, Kv3 channels control rapid repolarization of the AP, whereas Kv7 channels primarily control the interspike interval.

    View details for DOI 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3521-06.2006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242387800026

    View details for PubMedID 17122058

  • Regional dendritic variation in neonatal human cortex: A quantitative Golgi study DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCE Travis, K., Ford, K., Jacobs, B. 2005; 27 (5): 277-287


    The present study quantitatively compared the basilar dendritic/spine systems of lamina V pyramidal neurons across four hierarchically arranged regions of neonatal human neocortex. Tissue blocks were removed from four Brodmann's areas (BAs) in the left hemisphere of four neurologically normal neonates (mean age=41+/- 40 days): primary (BA4 and BA3-1-2), unimodal (BA18), and supramodal cortices (BA10). Tissue was stained with a modified rapid Golgi technique. Ten cells per region (N=160) were quantified. Despite the small sample size, significant differences in dendritic/spine extent obtained across cortical regions. Most apparent were substantial differences between BA4 and BA10: total dendritic length was 52% greater in BA4 than BA10, and dendritic spine number was 67% greater in BA4 than BA10. Neonatal patterns were compared to adult patterns, revealing that the relative regional pattern of dendritic complexity in the neonate was roughly the inverse of that established in the adult, with BA10 rather than BA4 being the most complex area in the adult. Overall, regional dendritic patterns suggest that the developmental time course of basilar dendritic systems is heterochronous and is more protracted for supramodal BA10 than for primary or unimodal regions (BA4, BA3-1-2, BA18).

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000086707

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231701800001

    View details for PubMedID 16137985