Doctor of Philosophy, University of Pennsylvania (2015)
Thomas Sudhof, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Nitric oxide (NO) is a signaling intermediate during glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS). NO signaling is in part accomplished through cysteine S-nitrosylation, a posttranslational modification by which NO regulates protein function and signaling. In our investigation of the protein targets and functional impact of S-nitrosylation in the CNS under physiological conditions, we identified 269 S-nitrosocysteine residues in 136 proteins in the wild-type mouse brain. The number of sites was significantly reduced in the brains of mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS(-/-)) or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS(-/-)). In particular, nNOS(-/-) animals showed decreased S-nitrosylation of proteins that participate in the glutamate/glutamine cycle, a metabolic process by which synaptic glutamate is recycled or oxidized to provide energy. (15)N-glutamine-based metabolomic profiling and enzymatic activity assays indicated that brain extracts from nNOS(-/-) mice converted less glutamate to glutamine and oxidized more glutamate than those from mice of the other genotypes. GLT1 [also known as EAAT2 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2)], a glutamate transporter in astrocytes, was S-nitrosylated at Cys(373) and Cys(561) in wild-type and eNOS(-/-) mice, but not in nNOS(-/-) mice. A form of rat GLT1 that could not be S-nitrosylated at the equivalent sites had increased glutamate uptake compared to wild-type GLT1 in cells exposed to an S-nitrosylating agent. Thus, NO modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission through the selective, nNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation of proteins that govern glutamate transport and metabolism.
View details for DOI 10.1126/scisignal.aaa4312
View details for Web of Science ID 000357617600002
View details for PubMedID 26152695
Cysteine S-nitrosylation is a posttranslational modification by which nitric oxide regulates protein function and signaling. Studies of individual proteins have elucidated specific functional roles for S-nitrosylation, but knowledge of the extent of endogenous S-nitrosylation, the sites that are nitrosylated, and the regulatory consequences of S-nitrosylation remains limited. We used mass spectrometry-based methodologies to identify 1011 S-nitrosocysteine residues in 647 proteins in various mouse tissues. We uncovered selective S-nitrosylation of enzymes participating in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation, indicating that this posttranslational modification may regulate metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics. S-nitrosylation of the liver enzyme VLCAD [very long chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase] at Cys(238), which was absent in mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase, improved its catalytic efficiency. These data implicate protein S-nitrosylation in the regulation of β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria.
View details for DOI 10.1126/scisignal.2003252
View details for PubMedID 23281369
A biochemical pathway by which nitric oxide accomplishes functional diversity is the specific modification of protein cysteine residues to form S-nitrosocysteine. This post-translational modification, S-nitrosylation, impacts protein function, interactions and location. However, comprehensive studies exploring protein signaling pathways or interrelated protein clusters that are regulated by S-nitrosylation have not been performed on a global scale.To provide insights to these important biological questions, sensitive, validated and quantitative proteomic approaches are required. This review summarizes current approaches for the global identification of S-nitrosylated proteins.The application of novel methods for identifying S-nitrosylated proteins, especially when combined with mass-spectrometry based proteomics to provide site-specific identification of the modified cysteine residues, promises to deliver critical clues for the regulatory role of this dynamic posttranslational modification in cellular processes.Though several studies have established S-nitrosylation as a regulator of protein function in individual proteins, the biological chemistry and the structural elements that govern the specificity of this modification in vivo are vastly unknown. Additionally, a gap in knowledge exists concerning the potential global regulatory role(s) this modification may play in cellular physiology. By further studying S-nitrosylation at a global scale, a greater appreciation of nitric oxide and protein S-nitrosylation in cellular function can be achieved. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Regulation of Cellular Processes by S-nitrosylation.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbagen.2011.05.009
View details for Web of Science ID 000304288600003
View details for PubMedID 21651963