Honors & Awards
NSF Graduate Research Fellowship (GRFP) Recipient, NSF (2019)
Education & Certifications
Bachelor of Arts, UC Berkeley, Molecular and Cell Biology: Immunology & Infectious Diseases, Gender and Women's Studies (2017)
San Francisco, CA
Flaviviruses cause systemic or neurotropic-encephalitic pathology in humans. The flavivirus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a secreted glycoprotein involved in viral replication, immune evasion, and vascular leakage during dengue virus infection. However, the contribution of secreted NS1 from related flaviviruses to viral pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that NS1 from dengue, Zika, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and yellow fever viruses selectively binds to and alters permeability of human endothelial cells from lung, dermis, umbilical vein, brain, and liver in vitro and causes tissue-specific vascular leakage in mice, reflecting the pathophysiology of each flavivirus. Mechanistically, each flavivirus NS1 leads to differential disruption of endothelial glycocalyx components, resulting in endothelial hyperpermeability. Our findings reveal the capacity of a secreted viral protein to modulate endothelial barrier function in a tissue-specific manner both in vitro and in vivo, potentially influencing virus dissemination and pathogenesis and providing targets for antiviral therapies and vaccine development.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.036
View details for Web of Science ID 000457709200019
View details for PubMedID 30726741
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent, medically important mosquito-borne virus. Disease ranges from uncomplicated dengue to life-threatening disease, characterized by endothelial dysfunction and vascular leakage. Previously, we demonstrated that DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) induces endothelial hyperpermeability in a systemic mouse model and human pulmonary endothelial cells, where NS1 disrupts the endothelial glycocalyx-like layer. NS1 also triggers release of inflammatory cytokines from PBMCs via TLR4. Here, we examined the relative contributions of inflammatory mediators and endothelial cell-intrinsic pathways. In vivo, we demonstrated that DENV NS1 but not the closely-related West Nile virus NS1 triggers localized vascular leak in the dorsal dermis of wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In vitro, we showed that human dermal endothelial cells exposed to DENV NS1 do not produce inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8) and that blocking these cytokines does not affect DENV NS1-induced endothelial hyperpermeability. Further, we demonstrated that DENV NS1 induces vascular leak in TLR4- or TNF-α receptor-deficient mice at similar levels to wild-type animals. Finally, we blocked DENV NS1-induced vascular leak in vivo using inhibitors targeting molecules involved in glycocalyx disruption. Taken together, these data indicate that DENV NS1-induced endothelial cell-intrinsic vascular leak is independent of inflammatory cytokines but dependent on endothelial glycocalyx components.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006673
View details for Web of Science ID 000416888500010
View details for PubMedID 29121099
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5679539
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