Clinical Focus

  • Anesthesia for pediatric solid organ transplant
  • Anesthesia
  • Management of the pediatric difficult airway
  • Anesthesia for neonates and prematures
  • Using technology to promote humanism in medicine
  • Pediatric critical care
  • Anesthesia for children with metabolic, mitochondrial and neuromuscular disease

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Educator for CARE, Stanford School of Medicine (2012 - Present)
  • Rotation Director, Pediatric Anesthesia, Department of Anesthesia, Stanford University (2010 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Education Technology Mini-Grant: Pediatric Anesthesia iBook Education, Stanford School of Medicine, Information Resources and Technology (2012)
  • Teaching Scholar: Development of Curriculum for Pediatric Anesthesia Resident Rotation, Department of Anesthesia, Stanford School of Medicine (2011)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: Pediatric Anesthesia, American Osteo Board of Anesthesiology (2013)
  • Fellowship:Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (2008) MD
  • Residency:University of Maryland Hospital for Children (2003) MD
  • Board Certification: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (2010)
  • Board Certification: Anesthesia, American Board of Anesthesiology (2008)
  • Residency:Johns Hopkins School of Medicine (2006) MD
  • Internship:University of Maryland Hospital for Children (2001) MD
  • Medical Education:Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine (2000) IL
  • D.O., CCOM, Midwestern University, Medicine (2000)


Journal Articles

  • Off-Label Use of Medications in Children Undergoing Sedation and Anesthesia ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Smith, M. C., Williamson, J., Yaster, M., Boyd, G. J., Heitmiller, E. S. 2012; 115 (5): 1148-1154


    Many drugs used for anesthesia and analgesia in children are administered "off-label." We undertook an audit of drugs commonly used for pediatric anesthesia to determine which drugs have United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling for pediatric use, which drugs are age-restricted, and which have no labeling for pediatric use.We identified drugs administered during anesthesia to pediatric patients from the operating room pharmacy. FDA approval and indications were determined by using the Thomson Micromedex® online database. Drugs without FDA approval for pediatric use were further examined for strength of evidence and strength of recommendation for their listed indications in the database. We then examined the rate of off-label drug administration to patients younger than the age of 18 years between July 1, 2010, and August 31, 2011.One hundred six drugs were identified. Thirty-six (34%) were not FDA-labeled for use in any pediatric age group, 40 (38%) were FDA-labeled for use in all pediatric age groups, and 30 (28%) were FDA-labeled for use in only specific age groups. Drugs were administered off-label in 73.4% of cases. Of those not labeled for any pediatric age group, some were among the most commonly used drugs in pediatric anesthesia, including neostigmine, hydromorphone, and dopamine.Many drugs used for children during anesthesia continue to lack FDA labeling for pediatric use. Off-label use of these drugs is an accepted practice that is considered superior to the alternative of withholding needed medications. Studies are still needed to determine the safety and efficacy of drugs that lack FDA labeling for this vulnerable patient population.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182501b04

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310762100021

    View details for PubMedID 22451593

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