Clinical Focus

  • CyberKnife Radiosurgery
  • Brain Tumors
  • Neurosurgery

Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • Anne Addington Research Award, Northwestern University School of Medicine (1979)
  • American Cancer Society, Fellowship Award (1983)
  • Who's Who of American Women, " (1985-87)
  • Who's Who of American Women, " (2005)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (1992) NY
  • Fellowship:The Hospital for Sick Children (1989) Canada
  • Fellowship:Univ of California San Francisco (1986) CA
  • Residency:University of Miami (1983) FL
  • Residency:Northwestern University Medical Center (1979) IL
  • Internship:Northwestern University Medical School (1977) IL
  • Medical Education:Northwestern University Medical School (1975) IL
  • Clinical & Research Fellow, Stanford University Medical Ctr., Spine Neurosurgery (2004)
  • Clinical Fellow, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Neurosurgery (1992)
  • Clinical Fellow, The Hospital for Sick Children, Pediatric Neurosurgery (1989)
  • Clinical & Research Fellow, University of CA, San Francisco, Neuro-Oncology (1986)
  • Research Fellow, Children's Memorial Hospital, Neurosurgery (1977)
  • MD, Northwestern University (1975)
  • BA, Northwestern University (1971)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Murovic is a member of the Stanford University Medical Center (SUMC) CyberKnife Radiosurgery (CK RS) Treatment Center at the Stanford Cancer Center and at Blake Wilbur. She helps to co-ordinate the patients' CK RS treatments. She is also Co-Protocol Director of a new Stanford Cancer Center trial which is evaluating the outcomes of patients with 1-3 versus 4 or more brain tumor metastases after treatment with CK RS. She is currently preparing a chapter on the CK RS treatment of brain tumor metastases. In the Neurosurgery Spine laboratory she has been studying the incidence of spinal “adjacent segment disease” after traditional cervical fusions.

Clinical Trials

  • Phase I Compare OS in Post-CyberKnife Radiosurgery Tx in 1-3 VS 4 or More Brain Metastases Recruiting

    The investigators will learn from this study if the CyberKnife radiosurgery (CK RS) treatment of patients with 1-3 versus 4 or more brain metastases results in the same overall survivals. The importance of this new knowledge will be to determine the treatment efficacy of CK RS with 1-3 versus 4 or more brain metastases. The outcome of this trial would give data to support either the continuation or modification of the CK RS treatment of patients with brain metastases.

    View full details


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


All Publications

  • Lower Extremity Peripheral Nerve Injuries: An LSUHSC LIterature Review with Comparison of the Operative Outcomes of 806 LSUHSC Sciatic, Common Peroneal and Tibial Nerve Lesions 2009; Murovic, J.
  • CyberKnife radiosurgery for brainstem metastases: Management and outcomes and a review of the literature JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE Liu, S., Murovic, J., Wallach, J., Cui, G., Soltys, S. G., Gibbs, I. C., Chang, S. D. 2016; 25: 105-110


    To our knowledge this paper is the first to use recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) for brainstem metastasis (BSM) patient outcomes, after CyberKnife radiosurgery (CKRS; Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA, USA); nine similar previous publications used mainly Gamma Knife radiosurgery (Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden). Retrospective chart reviews from 2006-2013 of 949 CKRS-treated brain metastasis patients showed 54BSM patients (5.7%): 35 RPA Class II (65%) and 19 Class III (35%). There were 30 women (56%) and 24 men (44%). The median age was 59years (range 36-80) and median follow-up was 5months (range 1-52). Twenty-three patients (43%) had lung carcinoma BSM and 12 (22%) had breast cancer BSM. Fifty-four RPA Class II and III BSM patients had a median overall survival (OS) of 5months, and for each Class 8 and 2months, respectively. Of 36 RPA Class II and III patients with available symptoms (n=31) and findings (n=33), improvement/stability occurred in the majority for symptoms (86%) and findings (92%). Of 35 cases, 28 (80%) achieved BSM local control (LC); 13/14 with breast histology (93%) and 10/13 with lung histology (77%). All six RPA Class II and III patients with controlled extracranial systemic disease (ESD) experienced LC. Median tumor volume was 0.14cm(3); of 34 RPA Class II and III cases, 26 LC patients had a 0,13cm(3) median tumor volume while it was 0.27cm(3) in the eight local failures. Of 35 cases, single session equivalent dosages less than the median (n=13), at the 17.9Gy median (n=5) and greater than the median (n=17) had BSM LC in 10 (77%), four (80%) and 14 cases (82%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed Karnofsky Performance Score, RPA Class and ESD-control predicted OS. CKRS is useful for RPA Class II and III BSM patients with effective clinical and local BSM control.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jocn.2015.10.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370304500020

    View details for PubMedID 26778047

  • Biomechanical Comparisons of Pull Out Strengths After Pedicle Screw Augmentation with Hydroxyapatite, Calcium Phosphate, or Polymethylmethacrylate in the Cadaveric Spine WORLD NEUROSURGERY Yi, S., Rim, D., Park, S. W., Murovic, J. A., Lim, J., Park, J. 2015; 83 (6): 976-981


    In vertebrae with low bone mineral densities pull out strength is often poor, thus various substances have been used to fill screw holes before screw placement for corrective spine surgery. We performed biomechanical cadaveric studies to compare nonaugmented pedicle screws versus hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate, or polymethylmethacrylate augmented pedicle screws for screw tightening torques and pull out strengths in spine procedures requiring bone screw insertion.Seven human cadaveric T10-L1 spines with 28 vertebral bodies were examined by x-ray to exclude bony abnormalities. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans evaluated bone mineral densities. Twenty of 28 vertebrae underwent ipsilateral fluoroscopic placement of 6-mm holes augmented with hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate, or polymethylmethacrylate, followed by transpedicular screw placements. Controls were pedicle screw placements in the contralateral hemivertebrae without augmentation. All groups were evaluated for axial pull out strength using a biomechanical loading frame.Mean pedicle screw axial pull out strength compared with controls increased by 12.5% in hydroxyapatite augmented hemivertebrae (P = 0.600) and by 14.9% in calcium phosphate augmented hemivertebrae (P = 0.234), but the increase was not significant for either method. Pull out strength of polymethylmethacrylate versus hydroxyapatite augmented pedicle screws was 60.8% higher (P = 0.028).Hydroxyapatite and calcium phosphate augmentation in osteoporotic vertebrae showed a trend toward increased pedicle screw pull out strength versus controls. Pedicle screw pull out force of polymethylmethacrylate in the insertion stage was higher than that of hydroxyapatite. However, hydroxyapatite is likely a better clinical alternative to polymethylmethacrylate, as hydroxyapatite augmentation, unlike polymethylmethacrylate augmentation, stimulates bone growth and can be revised.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2015.01.056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356138800018

    View details for PubMedID 25769482

  • Biomechanical Comparison of Cervical Fixation via Transarticular Facet Screws without Rods versus Lateral Mass Screws with Rods WORLD NEUROSURGERY Yi, S., Rim, D., Nam, K., Keem, S., Murovic, J. A., Lim, J., Park, J. 2015; 83 (4): 548-552


    Transarticular facet screws restore biomechanical stability to the cervical spine when posterior cervical anatomy has been compromised. This study compares the more recent, less invasive, and briefer transarticular facet screw system without rods with the lateral mass screw system with rods.For this study, 6 human cervical spines were obtained from cadavers. Transarticular facet screws without rods were inserted bilaterally into the inferior articular facets at the C5-C6 and C5-C6-C7 levels. Lateral mass screws with rods were inserted bilaterally at the same levels using Magerl's technique. All specimens underwent range of motion (ROM) testing by a material testing machine for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation.Both fixation methods, transarticular facet screws without rods and lateral mass screws with rods, reduced all ROM measurements and increased spinal stiffness. No statistically significant differences between the 2 stabilization methods were found in ROM measurements for 1-level insertions. However, in 2-level insertions, ROM for the nonrod transarticular facet screw group was significantly increased for flexion-extension and lateral bending.Transarticular facet screws without rods and lateral mass screws with rods had similar biomechanical stability in single-level insertions. For 2-level insertions, transarticular facet screws without rods are a valid option in cervical spine repair.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2014.12.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000353039500032

  • The pathophysiology of cerebral radiation necrosis and the role of laser interstitial thermal therapy. World neurosurgery Murovic, J. A., Chang, S. D. 2015; 83 (1): 23-26

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2014.03.015

    View details for PubMedID 24631912

  • A literature review of key molecular genetic aberrations in meningiomas: a potential role in the determination of radiosurgery outcomes. World neurosurgery Murovic, J. A., Chang, S. D. 2014; 81 (5-6): 714-716

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2013.08.048

    View details for PubMedID 24012470

  • A critical analysis of the literature review in "Stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal pain secondary to benign skull base tumors" by Tanaka et al. and presentation of an algorithm for management of these tumors. World neurosurgery Murovic, J. A., Chang, S. D. 2013; 80 (3-4): 287-289

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2012.04.027

    View details for PubMedID 22548891

  • Pituitary stalk Langerhans cell histiocytosis treated with CyberKnife radiosurgery CLINICAL NEUROLOGY AND NEUROSURGERY Hong, W., Murovic, J. A., Gibbs, I., Vogel, H., Chang, S. D. 2013; 115 (5): 573-577


    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare idiopathic disease that is characterized by clonal proliferation of Langerhans histiocytes in various parts of the body. These atypical cells have been found to infiltrate single or multiple organs, including bone, lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and skin. Central nervous system invasion in LCH patients has rarely been reported, especially in the adult population.We describe three histopathologically confirmed cases of adult LCH that involves both the pituitary stalk and hypothalamus, and report our limited experience of such cases in this location that has been treated with CyberKnife radio surgery.The treatment goal of controlling lesion growth is achieved by CyberKnife radiosurgery in this case series. All patients tolerated the treatment well without obvious complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.07.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318318100013

    View details for PubMedID 22835714

  • Literature review of various treatment plans and outcomes for brain metastases from colorectal cancer. World neurosurgery Murovic, J. A., Chang, S. D. 2013; 79 (3-4): 435-436

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.wneu.2011.12.071

    View details for PubMedID 22381286

  • Lumbar disc rehydration postimplantation of a posterior dynamic stabilization system JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY-SPINE Cho, B. Y., Murovic, J., Park, K. W., Park, J. 2010; 13 (5): 576-580


    Biological attempts at disc regeneration are promising; however, disc degeneration is closely related to other predisposing factors such as alteration of disc height, intradiscal pressure, load distribution, and motion. The restoration of the physiological status of the affected spinal segment is thus necessary prior to attempts at disc regeneration. Dynamic stabilization systems now offer the potential of a mechanical approach to intervertebral disc regeneration. The authors used decompression and placement of the BioFlex dynamic stabilization device to treat a young male patient with disc degeneration. This patient underwent follow-up, and he was found to gradually improve both neurologically and radiographically. On MR imaging performed 1 year postoperatively, he had an increase in disc height and disc rehydration. This case and the concept of disc rehydration are presented in this paper.

    View details for DOI 10.3171/2010.5.SPINE08418

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283473600005

    View details for PubMedID 21039146

  • Biomechanical comparison of single-level posterior versus transforaminal lumbar interbody fusions with bilateral pedicle screw fixation: segmental stability and the effects on adjacent motion segments Laboratory investigation JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY-SPINE Sim, H. B., Murovic, J. A., Cho, B. Y., Lim, T. J., Park, J. 2010; 12 (6): 700-708


    Both posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) have been frequently undertaken for lumbar arthrodesis. These procedures use different approaches and cage designs, each of which could affect spine stability, even after the addition of posterior pedicle screw fixation. The objectives of this biomechanical study were to compare PLIF and TLIF, each accompanied by bilateral pedicle screw fixation, with regard to the stability of the fused and adjacent segments.Fourteen human L2-S2 cadaveric spine specimens were tested for 6 different modes of motion: flexion, extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation using a load control protocol (LCP). The LCP for each mode of motion utilized moments up to 8.0 Nm at a rate of 0.5 Nm/second with the application of a constant compression follower preload of 400 N. All 14 specimens were tested in the intact state. The specimens were then divided equally into PLIF and TLIF conditions. In the PLIF Group, a bilateral L4-5 partial facetectomy was followed by discectomy and a single-level fusion procedure. In the TLIF Group, a unilateral L4-5 complete facetectomy was performed (and followed by the discectomy and single-level fusion procedure). In the TLIF Group, the implants were initially positioned inside the disc space posteriorly (TLIF-P) and the specimens were tested; the implants were then positioned anteriorly (TLIF-A) and the specimens were retested. All specimens were evaluated at the reconstructed and adjacent segments for range of motion (ROM) and at the adjacent segments for intradiscal pressure (IDP), and laminar strain.At the reconstructed segment, both the PLIF and the TLIF specimens had significantly lower ROMs compared with those for the intact state (p < 0.05). For lateral bending, the PLIF resulted in a marked decrease in ROM that was statistically significantly greater than that found after TLIF (p < 0.05). In flexion-extension and rotation, the PLIF Group also had less ROM, however, unlike the difference in lateral bending ROM, these differences in ROM values were not statistically significant. Variations in the position of the implants within the disc space were not associated with any significant differences in ROM values (p = 0.43). Analyses of ROM at the adjacent levels L2-3, L3-4, and L5-S1 showed that ROM was increased to some degree in all directions. When compared with that of intact specimens, the ROMs were increased to a statistically significant degree at all adjacent segments in flexion-extension loads (p < 0.05); however, the differences in values among the various operative procedures were not statistically significant. The IDP and facet contact force for the adjacent L3-4 and L5-S1 levels were also increased, but these values were not statistically significantly increased from those for the intact spine (p > 0.05).Regarding stability, PLIF provides a higher immediate stability compared with that of TLIF, especially in lateral bending. Based on our findings, however, PLIF and TLIF, each with posterolateral fusions, have similar biomechanical properties regarding ROM, IDP, and laminar strain at the adjacent segments.

    View details for DOI 10.3171/2009.12.SPINE09123

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278024300017

    View details for PubMedID 20515358

  • Surgical strategies for managing foraminal nerve sheath tumors: the emerging role of CyberKnife ablation EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL Murovic, J. A., Cho, S. C., Park, J. 2010; 19 (2): 242-256


    Sixteen Stanford University Medical Center (SUMC) patients with foraminal nerve sheath tumors had charts reviewed. CyberKnife radiosurgery was innovative in management. Parameters were evaluated for 16 foraminal nerve sheath tumors undergoing surgery, some with CyberKnife. Three neurofibromas had associated neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Eleven patients had one resection; others had CyberKnife after one (two) and two (three) operations. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) had prior field-radiation and adds another case. Approaches included laminotomy and laminectomies with partial (three) or total (two) facetectomies/fusions. Two cases each had supraclavicular, lateral extracavitary, retroperitoneal and Wiltze and costotransversectomy/thoracotomy procedures. Two underwent a laminectomy/partial facetectomy, then CyberKnife. Pre-CyberKnife, one of two others had a laminectomy/partial facetectomy, then total facetectomy/fusion and the other, two supraclavicular approaches. The MPNST had a hemi-laminotomy then laminectomy/total facetectomy/fusion, followed by CyberKnife. Roots were preserved, except in two. Of 11 single-operation-peripheral nerve sheath tumors, the asymptomatic case remained stable, nine (92%) improved and one (9%) worsened. Examinations remained intact in three (27%) and improved in seven (64%). Two having a single operation then CyberKnife had improvement after both. Of two undergoing two operations, one had symptom resolution post-operatively, worsened 4 years post-CyberKnife then has remained unchanged after re-operation. The other such patient improved post-operatively, had no change after re-operation and improved post-CyberKnife. The MPNST had presentation improvement after the first operation, worsened and after the second surgery \and CyberKnife, the patient expired from tumor spread. In conclusion, surgery is beneficial for pain relief and function preservation in foraminal nerve sheath tumors. Open surgery with CyberKnife is an innovation in these tumors' management.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00586-009-1160-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274545200006

    View details for PubMedID 19798517

  • Imaging correlation of the degree of degenerative L4-5 spondylolisthesis with the corresponding amount of facet fluid JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY-SPINE Cho, B. Y., Murovic, J. A., Park, J. 2009; 11 (5): 614-619


    The aim of this study was to correlate the degree of L4-5 spondylolisthesis on plain flexion-extension radiographs with the corresponding amount of L4-5 facet fluid visible on MR images.Patients underwent evaluation at the Neurosurgical Spine Clinics of Stanford University Medical Center and National Health Insurance Medical Center (Goyang, South Korea) between January 2006 and December 2007. Only patients who were diagnosed with L4-5 degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) and who had both lumbosacral flexion-extension radiographs and MR images available for review were eligible for this study. Each patient's dynamic motion index (DMI) was measured using the lateral lumbosacral plain radiograph and was the percentage of the degree of anterior slippage seen on flexion versus that seen on extension. Axial T2-weighted MR images of the L4-5 facet joints obtained in each patient was analyzed for the amount of facet fluid, using the image showing the widest portion of the facets. The facet fluid index was calculated from the ratio of the sum of the amounts of facet fluid found in the right plus left facets over the sum of the average widths of the right plus left facet joints.Fifty-four patients with L4-5 DS were included in this study. Of these 54 patients, facet fluid was noted on MR images in 29 patients (53.7%), and their mean DMI was 6.349 +/- 2.726. Patients who did not have facet fluid on MR imaging had a mean DMI of 1.542 +/- 0.820; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a positive linear association between the facet fluid index and the DMI in the group of patients who exhibited facet fluid on MR images (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.560, p < 0.01). In the subgroup of 29 patients with L4-5 DS who showed facet fluid on MR images, flexion-extension plain radiographs in 10 (34.5%) showed marked anterolisthesis, while the corresponding MR images did not.There is a linear correlation between the degree of segmental motion seen on flexion-extension plain radiography in patients with DS at L4-5 and the amount of L4-5 facet fluid on MR images. If L4-5 facet fluid in patients with DS is seen on MR images, a corresponding anterolisthesis on weight-bearing flexion-extension lateral radiographs should be anticipated. Obtaining plain radiographs will aid in the diagnosis of anterolisthesis caused by an L4-5 hypermobile segment, which may not always be evident on MR images obtained in supine patients.

    View details for DOI 10.3171/2009.6.SPINE08413

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271244200023

    View details for PubMedID 19929367



    Data from three Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) publications were summarized for median, radial, and ulnar nerve injuries.Lesion types, repair techniques, and outcomes were compared for 1837 upper-extremity nerve lesions.Sharp laceration injury repair outcomes at various levels for median and radial nerves were equally good (91% each) and better than those for the ulnar nerve (73%). Secondary suture and graft repair outcomes were better for the median nerve (78% and 68%, respectively) than for the radial nerve (69% and 67%, respectively) and ulnar nerve (69% and 56%, respectively). In-continuity lesions with positive nerve action potentials during intraoperative testing underwent neurolysis with good results for the median (97%), radial (98%), and ulnar nerves (94%). For radial, median, and ulnar nerve in-continuity lesions with negative intraoperative nerve action potentials, good results occurred after suture repair in 88%, 86%, and 75% and after graft repair in 86%, 75% and 56%, respectively.Good outcomes after median and radial nerve repairs are attributable to the following factors: the median nerve's innervation of proximal, large finger, and thumb flexors; and the radial nerve's similar innervation of proximal muscles that do not perform delicate movements. This is contrary to the ulnar nerve's major nerve supply to the distal fine intrinsic hand muscles, which require more extensive innervation. The radial nerve also has a motor fiber predominance, reducing cross-motor/sensory reinnervation, and radial nerve-innervated muscles perform similar functions, decreasing the chance of innervation of muscles with opposite functions.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000339130.90379.89

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270492600004

    View details for PubMedID 19927055



    With the use of data from 3 Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) publications, various parameters for buttock/thigh-level sciatic nerve and tibial and common peroneal divisions/nerve injuries were summarized, and outcomes were compared.Data from 806 buttock/thigh-level sciatic nerve and tibial and common peroneal division/nerve injury repairs were summarized. Lesion types, repair techniques, and outcomes were compared.Acute lacerations undergoing suture repair were best for the thigh-then-buttock-level tibial (93%/73%) and then same-level common peroneal divisions (69%/30%); at the knee level, tibial outcomes (100%) were better than those for the common peroneal nerve (CPN) (84%). Secondary graft repairs for lacerations had good outcomes for the thigh-then-buttock-level tibial (80%/62%), followed by common peroneal divisions at the same levels (45%/24%). The knee/leg-level tibial nerve (94%) did better than the CPN (40%) here. In-continuity lesions with positive intraoperative nerve action potentials underwent neurolysis with better results for the thigh-then-buttock-level tibial division (95%/86%) than for same-level CPN (78%/69%). The knee/leg-level tibial nerve did better than the CPN (95%/93%).Better recovery of buttock- and thigh-level tibial division/nerve occurs because: 1) the CPN is lateral and thus vulnerable to a more severe injury; 2) the tibial nerve is more elastic at impact owing to its singular-fixation site (the CPN has a dual fixation); 3) the tibial nerve has a better blood supply and regeneration; 4) the tibial nerve has a higher force-absorbing fascicle/connective tissue count than the CPN; and 5) the tibial nerve-innervated gastrocnemius soleus requires less reinnervation for functional contraction than deep peroneal branches, which innervate long, thin extensor muscles at multiple sites and require coordinated nerve input for effective contraction.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000339123.74649.BE

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270492600005

    View details for PubMedID 19927065



    To conduct a retrospective review of outcomes in 15 patients with 18 foraminal tumors, including 17 benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors and 1 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, who underwent CyberKnife (Accuray, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) radiosurgery at Stanford University Medical Center from 1999 to 2006.Symptoms and findings, neurofibromatosis (NF) association, previous radiation, imaging, dosimetry, tumor volume, central necrosis, and the relation of these factors to outcomes were evaluated.Before treatment, 1 asymptomatic patient had radiculopathic findings, 3 patients experienced local pain with intact neurological examinations, and 7 patients had radiculopathic complaints with intact (1 patient), radiculopathic (4 patients), or radiculomyelopathic examinations (2 patients). Five patients had myelopathic complaints and findings. Three patients had NF1-associated neurofibromas, 1 patient with NF2 had a schwannoma, and 1 patient had a schwannomatosis-related lesion. Two likely radiation-induced lesions, a neurofibroma and a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, were observed. Prescribed doses ranging from 16 to 24 Gy, delivered in 1 to 3 fractions of 6 to 20 Gy, resulted in maximum tumor doses ranging from 20.9 to 30 Gy. Target volumes ranged from 1.36 to 16.9 mL. After radiosurgery, the asymptomatic case remained asymptomatic, and neurological findings improved. Thirteen of 15 symptomatic patients with (12 patients) or without (3 patients) neurological findings improved (3 cases after resection) or remained stable, and 2 patients worsened. Symptoms and examinations remained stable or improved in 8 (80%) of 10 patients with schwannomas and 3 (60%) of 5 patients with neurofibromas. Tumor volumes decreased in 12 (67%) of 18 tumors and increased in 3 tumors. Tumor volumes decreased in 8 of 10 schwannomas and 3 of 7 neurofibromas. Central necrosis developed in 8 (44%) of 18 tumors.CyberKnife radiosurgery resulted in pain relief and functional preservation in selected foraminal peripheral nerve sheath tumors and a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. Symptomatic and neurological improvements were more noticeable with schwannomas. Myelopathic symptoms may necessitate surgical debulking before radiosurgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000341632.39692.9E

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262797700010

    View details for PubMedID 19165072

  • Thoracic outlet syndrome: Part II. Management and outcomes of 133 operative neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome cases NEUROSURGERY QUARTERLY Murovic, J. A., Kim, D. H., Kim, S., Kline, D. G. 2007; 17 (1): 13-18
  • Thoracic outlet syndrome: Part I - A review of the recent literature NEUROSURGERY QUARTERLY Murovic, J. A., Kim, D. H., Kim, S., Kline, D. G. 2007; 17 (1): 1-12
  • Surgical treatment and outcomes in 15 patients with anterior interosseous nerve entrapments and injuries JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Kim, Y. Y., Kline, D. G. 2006; 104 (5): 757-765


    The authors present data obtained in 15 surgically treated patients with anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) entrapments and injuries.Fifteen patients with AIN entrapments and injuries underwent surgery between 1967 and 1997 at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) or Stanford University Medical Center. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively. The LSUHSC grading system was used to evaluate the function of muscles supplied by the AIN. Nontraumatic injuries included seven AIN compressions by bone or soft tissue. Traumatic injury mechanisms consisted of stretch or contusion (six patients), injection (one patient), and burn scar (one patient). Presentations included weakness in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscle to the index finger, FDP muscle to the middle finger, pronator quadratus muscle, and flexion of the distal phalanx of the thumb. Preoperative evaluations included electromyography and nerve conduction studies as well as elbow and forearm plain radiographs. On surgery, lesions in continuity involved seven compressions, four stretch or contusion injuries, and one injection injury, all of which demonstrated nerve action potentials (NAPs) and were treated with neurolysis. Among the seven compression and four stretch or contusion injury cases, six and three patients, respectively, had LSUHSC Grade 3 or better functional recoveries postoperatively. Two stretch or contusion injuries involved lesions in continuity but demonstrated negative NAPs at surgery. Thus, each was treated using a graft repair after resection of a neuroma. There was one burn scar injury, which was treated via an end-to-end suture anastomosis, leading to a functional recovery better than Grade 3.Fifteen AIN entrapments or injuries responded favorably to nerve release and/or repair.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237429800011

    View details for PubMedID 16703881

  • Surgical treatment and outcomes in 45 cases of posterior interosseous nerve entrapments and injuries JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Kim, Y. Y., Kline, D. G. 2006; 104 (5): 766-777


    The authors report data in 45 surgically treated posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) entrapments or injuries.Forty-five PIN entrapments or injuries were managed surgically between 1967 and 2004 at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) or Stanford University Medical Center. Patient charts were reviewed retrospectively. The LSUHSC grading system was used to assess PIN-innervated muscle function. Injuries were caused by nontraumatic (21 PIN entrapments and four tumors) and traumatic (nine lacerations, eight fractures, and three contusions) mechanisms. Presentations included weakness in the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, causing compromised wrist extension and radial drift; extensor digitorum, indicis, and digiti minimi muscles with paretic finger extension; extensor pollicis brevis and longus muscles with weak thumb extension; and abductor pollicis longus muscle with rare decreased thumb abduction due to substitutions of the median nerve-innervated abductor pollicis brevis muscle and, at 90 degrees, the extensor pollicis brevis and longus muscles. Preoperative evaluations consisted of electromyography and nerve conduction studies, elbow and forearm plain x-ray films, and magnetic resonance imaging for tumor detection. At surgery, in continuity lesions were found in 21 entrapments and three fracture-related and three contusion injuries; all transmitted nerve action potentials (NAPs) and were treated with neurolysis. Five fracture-related PIN injuries, one of which was a lacerating injury, were in continuity and transmitted no NAPs; graft repairs were performed in all of these cases. Among nine lacerations, three PINs appeared in continuity, although intraoperative NAPs were absent. Two of these nerves were treated with secondary end-to-end suture anastomosis repair and one with secondary graft repair. There were six transected lacerations: three were treated with primary suture anastomosis repair, two with secondary suture anastomosis, and one with graft repair. Four tumors involving the PIN were resected. Most muscles innervated by 45 PINs had LSUHSC Grade 3 or better functional outcomes.Forty-five PIN entrapments or injuries responded well to PIN release and/or repair.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237429800012

    View details for PubMedID 16703882

  • Endoscopic harvesting of the sural nerve graft: technical note. Neurosurgery Park, S., Cheshier, S., Michaels, D., Murovic, J. A., Kim, D. H. 2006; 58 (1): ONS-E180


    The sural nerve is the donor nerve most commonly used for peripheral nerve reconstruction. The objective of this paper is to present an endoscopic technique for harvesting these sural nerve grafts, using the Guidant VasoView Uniport Plus device (Guidant Corp., Indianapolis, IN), originally designed to obtain the saphenous vein. The importance of this technique is its use of a small, 12-mm incision for removing the entire sural nerve, which is an improvement over the two, three, or one 3-cm incisions(s) for sural nerve harvesting described in other publications. Endoscopic techniques, in general, replace the former open technique requiring a longitudinal incision along the entire posterior lower leg, which is a distinct advantage.Two cases of patients with lesions requiring sural nerve grafts are presented. Nerve action potential recordings showed no transmission in each case and nerve grafts were required for repair of these lesions after their resection to healthy-appearing tissue.The first patient had a stretch contusion injury extending from the right C5 and C6 roots to the upper trunk (UT) and UT outflow to the suprascapular nerve (SSN). This patient required a sural nerve graft 20 cm in length, which was harvested by the described endoscopic technique within 20 minutes. The second patient had in continuity lesions involving the C5 and C6 roots to the UT including the SSN and the C7-middle trunk to posterior spinal cord. These lesions required a 31-cm sural nerve graft harvested via the endoscopic technique in 25 minutes.When compared with the open techniques, the endoscopic method using the Guidant VasoView Uniport Plus device has the advantages of being fast, less traumatic, safer, and resulting in a more aesthetic technique.

    View details for PubMedID 16462616

  • Gunshot wounds involving the brachial plexus: Surgical techniques and outcomes JOURNAL OF RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2006; 22 (2): 67-72


    This paper presents the management and outcomes for two consecutive operative series of gunshot wounds (GSWs) involving the brachial plexus. The cases were from Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) and were obtained by retrospective chart reviews. Series 1 includes patients with injuries managed between 1968 and 1980 and series 2, from 1981 to 1998. Pre- and postoperative motor function was assessed using the LSUHSC grading system. The outcomes for each surgical technique for each series are presented. Fewer cases of brachial plexus elements injured by GSWs in series 2 may be due to decreased firearm-related injuries between 1993-1997, i.e., 39,595 versus 32,436 deaths, respectively. The graft repair increase in series 2 may have been the result of more severe injuries, since documented trends between 1971 and 1997 show the use of larger caliber bullets. This paper shows that with the outlined management and surgical techniques, surgery on certain GSWs of the brachial plexus is worthwhile.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235569400001

    View details for PubMedID 16456765

  • Neurofibromatosis-associated nerve sheath tumors. Case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgical focus Murovic, J. A., Kim, D. H., Kline, D. G. 2006; 20 (1): E1-?


    In this paper the authors describe a patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) who presented with sequelae of this disease. They also review the current literature on NF1 and NF2 published between 2001 and 2005. The method used to obtain information for the case report consisted of a family member interview and a review of the patient's chart. For the literature review the authors used the search engine Ovid Medline to identify papers published on the topic between 2001 and 2005. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 appears in approximately one in 2500 to 4000 births, is caused by a defect on 17q11.2, and results in neurofibromin inactivation. The authors reviewed the current literature with regard to the following aspects of this disease: 1) diagnostic criteria for NF1; 2) criteria for other NF1-associated manifestations; 3) malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs); 4) the examination protocol for a patient with an NF1-related NST; 5) imaging findings in patients with NF1; 6) other diagnostic studies; 7) surgical and adjuvant treatment for NSTs and malignant PNSTs; and 8) hormone receptors in NF1-related tumors. Pertinent illustrations are included. Neurofibromatosis Type 2 occurs much less frequently than NF1, that is, in one in 33,000 births. Mutations in NF2 occur on 22q12 and result in inactivation of the tumor suppressor merlin. The following data on this disease are presented: 1) diagnostic criteria for NF2; 2) criteria for other NF2 manifestations; 3) malignant PNSTs in patients with NF2; 4) examination protocol for the patient with NF2 who has an NST; and 5) imaging findings in patients with NF2. Relevant illustrations are included. It is important that neurosurgeons be aware of the sequelae of NF1 and NF2, because they may be called on to treat these conditions.

    View details for PubMedID 16459989

  • Lacerations to the brachial plexus: Surgical techniques and outcomes JOURNAL OF RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2005; 21 (7): 435-440


    The charts of patients with 201 brachial plexus elements sustaining operative lacerations and managed at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC) were reviewed retrospectively. Results for elements injured by sharp transections and undergoing suture repairs performed within 72 hr, as well as secondary suture and secondary graft repairs are documented. Similarly, results for secondary end-to-end suture anastomosis and secondary graft repairs for elements sustaining blunt transections are reviewed. Results for neurolysis, end-to-end suture anastomosis, and graft repairs for plexus elements in continuity despite the laceration injury are reviewed. Outcomes for the LSUHSC series of brachial plexus lacerations are one of the best of all LSUHSC plexus injuries, even for elements generally viewed as unfavorable for repair. Lesions in continuity with positive nerve action potentials (NAPs) had the best outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232167500002

    View details for PubMedID 16254807

  • Management and outcomes of 42 surgical suprascapular nerve injuries and entrapments NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2005; 57 (1): 120-126


    Retrospective chart reviews of 42 patients with surgical suprascapular nerve (SSN) injury/entrapment were performed. Presenting symptoms, findings, operative approach, and results are documented.Forty-two patients with SSN injuries/entrapments underwent operations between 1970 and 2002. Charts were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of shoulder pain; spinati muscle function was evaluated with the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center grading system. Side of lesion and sex were equally represented; mean follow-up was 18 months (range, 12-48 mo). SSN injuries/entrapments were associated with occupational overuse, sports-related injury, direct trauma and ganglion cysts. Thirty-one (79%) of 39 patients with suprascapular notch SSN injuries/entrapments, excluding ganglion cysts, presented with mild to moderate shoulder pain and spinati weakness.Motor function for these 31 patients was graded on a scale of 0 to 5. Preoperatively, patients had supraspinatus function Grades 0 to 2 and infraspinatus function Grades 0 to 2. Supraspinatus function improved postoperatively to Grade 4 or better in 28 patients (90%) and to Grades 2 to 3 in 3 patients (10%). Infraspinatus function improved to better than Grade 3 in 10 patients (32%), to Grades 2 to 3 in 14 patients (45%), and to Grade 1 in 7 patients (23%). Preoperatively, eight (21%) of 39 patients presenting with persistent severe pain had Grade 3 spinati strength. Of these eight patients, seven (88%) had an improvement in pain postoperatively. Strength in this group remained the same or improved to Grade 4. Postoperatively, three patients with ganglion cysts had good improvement in spinati function.Although SSN injury/entrapment is rare, 42 patients are presented who responded well to SSN release. Supraspinatus muscle improvement was as good as or better than that achieved in the infraspinatus.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000163406.14384.4F

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230321800034

    View details for PubMedID 15987547

  • Surgical management of 33 ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric neuralgias at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2005; 56 (5): 1013-1019


    This is a retrospective review of 33 charts of patients with ilioinguinal and iliohypogastric neuralgias who underwent a neurectomy at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center between 1967 and 2000. Operations associated with neuralgias and postoperative pain outcomes were analyzed.There were 23 ilioinguinal and 10 combined ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric neuralgias, and the side of the lesion and sex of the patient were found to be evenly distributed in this group. Nerve blocks must have resulted in a complete or substantial decrease in pain before a neurectomy was recommended. Twenty-nine (88%) of 33 neuralgia patients had injuries from iatrogenic causes, and 4 (12%) injuries were caused by blunt trauma. In the 23 isolated ilioinguinal neuralgias, the operation associated with neuralgias in 13 (57%) of 23 patients was a herniorrhaphy. This was followed by 4 (17%) neuralgias after an appendectomy and 3 (13%) after a hysterectomy. Three (13%) patients had neuralgias resulting from blunt trauma. Nine (90%) of 10 ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric lesions were caused by iatrogenic causes, and 1 (10%) neuralgia resulted from blunt trauma. A neurectomy was performed in all patients.The neurectomy resulted in considerable pain relief in 21 (91%) of 23 patients with ilioinguinal lesions and 9 (90%) of 10 patients with ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric lesions. Postoperative side effects were persistent numbness below the resected nerve and loss of the cremasteric reflex. Minor postoperative complications consisted of two superficial skin infections.Ilioinguinal and ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric neuralgias are infrequent conditions; however, 33 patients from the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center were accrued and analyzed in this study, and most had significant pain relief after neurectomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000158320.64387.F8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229054300043

    View details for PubMedID 15854249

  • A series of 397 peripheral neural sheath tumors: 30-year experience at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Moes, G., Kline, D. G. 2005; 102 (2): 246-255


    This is a retrospective review of 397 benign and malignant peripheral neural sheath tumors (PNSTs) that were surgically treated between 1969 and 1999 at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC). The surgical techniques and adjunctive treatments are presented, the tumors are classified with respect to type and prevalence at each neuroanatomical location, and the management of malignant PNSTs is reviewed.There were 361 benign PNSTs (91%). One hundred forty-one benign lesions were brachial plexus tumors: 54 schwannomas (38%) and 87 neurofibromas (62%), of which 55 (63%) were solitary neurofibromas and 32 (37%) were neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1)-associated neurofibromas. Among the brachial plexus lesions supraclavicular tumors predominated with 37 (69%) of 54 schwannomas; 34 (62%) of 55 solitary neurofibromas; and 19 (59%) of 32 NF1-associated neurofibromas. One hundred ten upper-extremity benign PNSTs consisted of 32 schwannomas (29%) and 78 neurofibromas (71%), of which 45 (58%) were sporadic neurofibromas and 33 (42%) were NF1-associated neurofibromas. Twenty-five benign PNSTs were removed from the pelvic plexus. Lower-extremity PNSTs included 32 schwannomas (38%) and 53 neurofibromas (62%), of which 31 were solitary neurofibromas and 22 were NF1-associated neurofibromas. There were 36 malignant PNSTs: 28 neurogenic sarcomas and eight other sarcomas (fibro-, spindle cell, synovial, and perineurial sarcomas).The majority of tumors were benign PNSTs from the brachial plexus region. Most of the benign PNSTs in all locations were neurofibromas, with sporadic neurofibromas predominating. Similar numbers of schwannomas were found in the upper and lower extremities, whereas neurofibromas were more prevalent in the upper extremities. Despite aggressive limb-ablation or limb-sparing surgery plus adjunctive therapy, malignant PNSTs continue to be associated with high morbidity and mortality rates.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227043200010

    View details for PubMedID 15739552

  • A series of 146 peripheral non-neural sheath nerve tumors: 30-year experience at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Moes, G., Kline, D. G. 2005; 102 (2): 256-266


    This is a retrospective review of 146 surgically treated benign and malignant peripheral non-neural sheath tumors (PNNSTs). Tumor classifications with patient numbers, locations of benign PNNSTs, and surgical techniques and adjunctive treatments are presented. The results of a literature review regarding tumor frequencies are presented.One hundred forty-six patients with 111 benign and 35 malignant PNNSTs were treated between 1969 and 1999 at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC). The benign tumors included 33 ganglion cysts, 16 cases of localized hypertrophic neuropathy, 12 lipomas, 12 tumors of vascular origin, and 11 desmoid tumors. There were four each of lipofibrohamartomas, myositis ossificans, osteochondromas, and ganglioneuromas; two each of meningiomas, cystic hygromas, myoblastoma or granular cell tumors, triton tumors, and lymphangiomas; and one epidermoid cyst. The locations of benign PNNSTs were the following: 33 in the brachial plexus region, 39 in an upper extremity, one in the pelvic plexus, and 38 in a lower extremity. The malignant PNNSTs included 35 surgically treated carcinomas, 15 of which originated in the breast and nine in the lung. There were two melanomas metastatic to nerve and one tumor each that had metastasized from the bladder, rectum, skin, head and neck, and thyroid, and from a primary Ewing sarcoma. There was a single lymphoma that had metastasized to the radial nerve and one chordoma and one osteosarcoma, each of which had metastasized to the brachial plexus.There were more benign PNNSTs than malignant ones. Benign tumors were relatively equally distributed in the brachial plexus region and upper and lower extremities, with the exception of the pelvic plexus, which had only one tumor.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227043200011

    View details for PubMedID 15739553

  • Surgical management of 10 genitofemoral neuralgias at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center NEUROSURGERY Murovic, J. A., Kim, D. H., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2005; 56 (2): 298-302


    This is a retrospective review of the charts of 10 patients with genitofemoral neuralgia who underwent neurectomy at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center between 1967 and 2000. Operations associated with these neuralgias and postoperative pain outcomes were analyzed.The charts of 10 patients with genitofemoral neuralgias were analyzed retrospectively.The distribution of the 10 genitofemoral neuralgias with regard to right or left side and sex was found to be equal. L1 and L2 nerve blocks had resulted in a complete or substantial decrease in pain before neurectomy was recommended. Of six iatrogenic injuries (60%), gynecological surgery, including two hysterectomy procedures, resulted in a total of three genitofemoral neuralgias (50%), and vasectomy procedures antedated two nerve injuries (33%). Four (40%) of the 10 patients had injury to the genitofemoral nerve after blunt abdominal trauma. Genitofemoral neurectomy was performed in all genitofemoral neuralgia patients after conservative therapy had failed. This procedure resulted in considerable pain relief in all 10 patients, whether their injury was the result of iatrogenic causes or trauma.Genitofemoral neuralgias are infrequent conditions; however, 10 patients were accrued and analyzed in this study, and most had considerable or complete pain relief after neurectomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.neu.0000148000.04592.E1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226889400023

    View details for PubMedID 15670378

  • Management and outcomes in 353 surgically treated sciatic nerve lesions JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R., Kline, D. G. 2004; 101 (1): 8-17


    This is a retrospective analysis of 353 surgically treated sciatic nerve lesions in which injury mechanisms, location, time to surgical repair, surgical techniques, and functional outcomes are reported. Results are presented to provide guidelines for management of these injuries.One hundred seventy-five patients with buttock-level and 178 with thigh-level sciatic nerve injury were surgically treated at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center between 1968 and 1999. Buttock-level injury mechanisms included injection in 64 patients, hip fracture/dislocation in 26, contusion in 22, compression in 19, gunshot wound (GSW) in 17, hip arthroplasty in 15, and laceration in 12; at the thigh level, GSW was the cause in 62 patients, femoral fracture in 34, laceration in 32, contusion in 28, compression in 12, and iatrogenic injury in 10. Patients with sciatic nerve divisions in which positive intraoperative nerve action potentials (NAPs) were found underwent neurolysis and attained at least Grade 3 functional outcomes in 108 (87%) of 124 and in 91 (96%) of 95 buttock- and thigh-level tibial divisions, respectively, compared with 84 (71%) of 119 and 75 (79%) of 95, respectively, in the peroneal divisions. For suture repair, recovery to at least Grade 3 occurred in eight (73%) of 11 buttock-level and in 27 (93%) of 29 thigh-level tibial division injuries, and in three (30%) of 10 buttock-level and 20 (69%) of 29 thigh-level peroneal division lesions. For graft repair, good recovery occurred in 21 (62%) of 34 and in 43 (80%) of 54 buttock- and thigh-level tibial divisions, respectively, even in proximal repairs requiring long grafts, and in only nine (24%) of 37 and 22 (45%) of 49 buttock- and thigh-level peroneal division lesions, respectively.Surgical exploration and neurolysis after positive NAP readings, or repair with sutures or grafts after negative NAP results are worthwhile in selected cases.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222398700002

    View details for PubMedID 15255245

  • Intrapelvic and thigh-level femoral nerve lesions: management and outcomes in 119 surgically treated cases JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2004; 100 (6): 989-996


    The authors present a retrospective analysis of 119 surgically treated femoral nerve lesions at intrapelvic and thigh levels seen at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center.Femoral nerve lesions treated between 1967 and 2000, (89 traumatic injuries and 30 tumors and cystic lesions) were evaluated for injury mechanisms, resulting lesions, surgical management, and postoperative functional outcomes by using retrospective chart reviews. The most common injury mechanism was iatrogenic (52 cases), which occurred after hernia and hip operations (10 each), followed by arterial bypass and gynecological procedures (eight each), angiography (seven), abdominal surgery (five), appendectomy (two), a laparoscopy, and a lumbar sympathectomy. Other injury mechanisms included hip or pelvic fractures (19), gunshot wounds (10), and lacerations (eight). The 30 femoral nerve tumors and cystic lesions consisted of neurofibromas (16), schwannomas (nine), ganglionic cysts (two), neurogenic sarcomas (two), and a leiomyosarcoma. Forty-four patients underwent neurolysis. Some had recordable nerve action potentials (NAPs) across their lesions in continuity, despite severe distal loss. Others with recordable NAPs had mild loss, but also experienced a pain problem, which was helped in some by neurolysis. In 36 patients, in whom repairs were performed using long sural grafts for mostly proximal pelvic-level injuries, recovery of useful function occurred. Eight of nine thigh-level suture repairs led to improvement to good functional levels. Most of the tumors and cystic lesions were resected, with preservation of preoperative function.The majority of femoral nerve injuries resulted in lesions in continuity, and intraoperative NAP recordings were essential in evaluating axonal regeneration across these lesions. Despite severe and frequently proximal injury levels requiring repairs with long grafts, femoral nerve lesion repairs resulted in good functional recovery.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221740000001

    View details for PubMedID 15200113

  • Management and outcomes in 318 operative common peroneal nerve lesions at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2004; 54 (6): 1421-1428


    This study analyzes 318 operative knee-level common peroneal nerve lesions managed at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center between 1967 and 1999.Each patient was retrospectively evaluated for injury mechanism, preoperative neurological status, electrophysiological studies, lesion type, and operative technique, i.e., neurolysis, suture, or graft repair. All lesions in continuity had intraoperative nerve action potential recordings.There were 141 stretch/contusions without fracture/dislocations (44%), 39 lacerations (12%), 40 tumors (13%), 30 entrapments (9%), 22 stretch/contusions with fracture/dislocations (7%), 21 compressions (7%), 13 iatrogenic injuries (4%), and 12 gunshot wounds (4%). After neurolysis, 107 (88%) of 121 knee-level common peroneal nerve lesions with recordable intraoperative nerve action potentials recovered useful function. Nineteen patients underwent end-to-end suture repair, and 16 (84%) of these achieved good recovery by 24 months. Graft repair was performed in 138 peroneal injuries. Thirty-six patients (26%) had grafts less than 6 cm long, of which 27 (75%) achieved Grade 3 or greater peroneal function. Twenty-four (38%) of 64 patients with 6- to 12-cm grafts, and only 6 (16%) of 38 patients with 13- to 24-cm grafts, attained good peroneal function. Longer grafts correlated with more severe injuries and thus poorer outcomes. Thirty-two (80%) of 40 tumors were resected with preservation of preoperative clinical function.Surgical exploration and repair of peroneal nerve lesions achieved good results with timely operations and thorough intraoperative evaluations. Useful function was achieved in 27 (75%) of 36 patients with grafts less than 6 cm in length and in only 88 (44%) of 202 patients with grafts greater than 6 cm in length.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000124752.40412.03

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221965900027

    View details for PubMedID 15157299

  • Mechanisms of injury in operative brachial plexus lesions. Neurosurgical focus Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2004; 16 (5): E2-?


    The authors focus on injury mechanisms involved in 1019 operative brachial plexus injuries (BPIs) managed between 1968 and 1998 at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC).Data regarding these mechanisms of injury were obtained via retrospective chart reviews of patients who had undergone operations at LSUHSC. Five main mechanisms of injury to the brachial plexus occurred in the series. These included 509 stretch/contusion injuries (49%) with four patterns of presentation in 366 patients: 208 C5-T1 nerve injuries; 75 C5-7, 55 C5-6 injuries; and 28 involving the C8-T1 or C7-T1 nerves. Stretch/contusion injury was followed in frequency by gunshot wound (GSW), resulting in 118 injuries (12%). Most of the 293 involved plexus elements had some gross continuity when surgically exposed. Seventy-one lacerations involved the brachial plexus (7%), including 83 sharp lacerations caused by knives or glass; 61 blunt transections due to automobile metal, fan, and motor blades, chain saws, or animal bites. Nontraumatic BPIs included 160 cases of thoracic outlet syndrome or 16% of the total of 1019 BPIs. There were 161 tumors (16%) of neural sheath origin including 55 solitary neurofibromas (34%), 32 neurofibromas associated with von Recklinghausen disease (20%), 54 schwannomas (34%), and 20 malignant nerve sheath tumors (20%) removed. Obstetrical BPI was not included in the original series; however, the current literature is reviewed in this paper.The conclusion of this study is that the brachial plexus can be injured by multiple mechanisms of which stretch/contusion injury is the most frequently encountered, followed by GSWs.

    View details for PubMedID 15174822

  • Penetrating injuries due to gunshot wounds involving the brachial plexus. Neurosurgical focus Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2004; 16 (5): E3-?


    The authors review 118 operative brachial plexus gunshot wounds (GSWs), causing 293 element injuries that were managed over a 30-year period at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center (LSUHSC). Retrospective chart reviews were performed. Using the LSUHSC grading system for motor sensory function, each element's grades were combined and averaged. Most of the 293 injured elements were found to have gross continuity at operation and of 202 elements with complete neurological loss, only 16 (8%) exhibited total disruption. Of 293 injuries, 128 elements with complete or incomplete loss were not only in continuity when explored but also had positive intraoperative nerve action potentials (NAPs). After neurolysis, 120 of 128 elements in continuity (94%) improved to greater than or equal to Grade 3 function. Elements not regenerating early usually required repair. One hundred fifty-six of 202 completely or incompletely injured elements (77%) required resection and suture or graft repair based on intraoperative NAPs. Neurolysis achieved greater than or equal to Grade 3 results in 42 (91%) of 46 elements with complete loss. Suture repair resulted in good outcomes in 14 (67%) of 21 and in 73 (54%) of 135 undergoing graft repairs (1 to 3.5 cm length) and presenting with complete loss. Of 91 incomplete elements, intraoperative NAPs were positive in 82 (90%) and 78 of 82 had good results. Nine had negative NAPs and six elements required suture repair. Three required grafts with results of greater than or equal to Grade 3 in five (83%) of six and two (67%) of three, respectively. Based on 118 patient results with 293 injured elements, guidelines for the management of GSWs were established as described in this paper.

    View details for PubMedID 15174823

  • Infraclavicular brachial plexus stretch injury. Neurosurgical focus Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2004; 16 (5): E4-?


    The authors report the surgery-related results obtained in 143 patients with stretch-induced infraclavicular brachial plexus injuries (BPIs). The entire series comprised 1019 operative BPIs managed at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center between 1968 and 1998.Infraclavicular lesions represented 143 (28%) of the total of 509 stretch injuries involving both the infra- and supraclavicular brachial plexus, of which 366 (72%) were supraclavicular lesions. The operative approach is thoroughly outlined, and common patterns and combinations of involvement of nerves peculiar to the infraclavicular area are presented. Overall, the results of suture and graft repair were favorable for the lateral and posterior cord and their outflows. Repair of medial cord-median nerve also yielded acceptable results. The results of medial cord and medial cord-ulnar nerve, however, were poor. The incidence of associated injuries in the infraclavicular as opposed to the supraclavicular area, including shoulder dislocation and fracture and humeral fractures as well as vascular injuries including axillary artery injury was higher. Results of a literature search supported the finding that vascular injuries were increased due to the juxtaposition of vessels among the brachial plexus elements.Thus, although less common than their supraclavicular counterpart, infraclavicular stretch injury lesions when they occur are technically more difficult to treat and are associated with a higher incidence of vascular and dislocation/fraction injuries. Favorable results were obtained for lateral and posterior cord lesions and their outflows, with acceptable outcome after medial cord-median nerve stretch injury repair. The results of medial cord and medial cord to ulnar nerve, however, were poor.

    View details for PubMedID 15174824

  • Operative outcomes of 546 Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center peripheral nerve tumors NEUROSURGERY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Kim, D. H., Murovic, J. A., Tiel, R. L., Kline, D. G. 2004; 15 (2): 177-?


    The surgical management of benign PNSTs and some other benign tumors can result in successful outcomes. Schwannomas and nonplexiform neurofibromas can be resected with minimal deficit by sparing all but the fascicles entering and exiting the tumor. These fascicles, if not functional by NAP testing, can be resected, and the tumor can be removed. Surgery to remove other benign lesions, such as intraneural ganglion cysts, hemangiomas,and ganglioneuromas, has become more timely. The desmoid tumor, although microscopically benign, is locally and regionally invasive, and chemotherapy and radiation therapy may need to be used as adjunctive therapy. Neurogenic sarcomas and other malignancies have high morbidity and mortality despite aggressive limb ablation or limb-sparing surgery with adjunctive therapy. Thus, surgery involving decompression as well as the most complete resection possible remains the essential initial step in the management of most malignancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221962900008

    View details for PubMedID 15177317

  • Brachial Plexus Injury: Mechanisms, Surgical Treatment Outcomes. Kim DH, Murovic JA, Kline DG 2004; 36 (3): 177-185
  • Surgical techniques for total sacrectomy and spinopelvic reconstruction. Neurosurgical focus Zhang, H., Thongtrangan, I., Balabhadra, R. S., Murovic, J. A., Kim, D. H. 2003; 15 (2): E5-?


    The surgical management of sacral tumors requires partial or total sacrectomy and spinopelvic reconstruction. These lesions present a great surgical challenge, because most spine surgeons are unfamiliar with the techniques required for these procedures. The authors describe a step-by-step operative technique and provide several illustrations. Total sacrectomy is performed by sequential anterior and posterior approaches that involve a rectus abdominis pullthrough pedicle flap reconstruction. The anterior procedure is an intraperitoneal approach used to expose the anterior aspect of the tumor, to ligate the main tumor vessels, and to conduct an anterior partial sacrectomy. After this, the rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, based on the inferior epigastric vessel, is prepared, and a posterior sacrectomy is performed, dividing all sacral nerve roots in the thecal sac. After complete en bloc extirpation of the sacrum with tumor, spinopelvic reconstruction and closure with a myocutaneous flap are performed. Spinopelvic reconstruction is undertaken using a modified Galveston technique or double iliac screw fixation combined with posterior lumbar segmental fixation. These provide a long lever arm within the ilium to counteract the forces exerted by the lumbar spine. Understanding the nature of the disease as well as the biomechanics of the lumbosacral pelvic area and spinopelvic fixation will help surgeons select the appropriate treatment for sacral tumors.

    View details for PubMedID 15350036

  • Surgical outcomes of 654 ulnar nerve lesions JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Kim, D. H., Han, K., Tiel, R. L., Murovic, J. A., Kline, D. G. 2003; 98 (5): 993-1004


    In this article the authors present a retrospective analysis of 654 surgical outcomes in patients with ulnar nerve entrapments, injuries, and tumors during a 30-year period.Data were gathered between 1968 and 1998 at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center. Mechanisms of injuries or lesions included 460 entrapments at the elbow level (70%), 76 lacerations (12%), 52 stretches/contusions (8%), 34 fractures/dislocations (5%), 12 gunshot wounds (2%), two injection-induced injuries (0.3%), and 13 nerve sheath tumors (2%). In cases of entrapment, direct operative recordings uniformly demonstrated a slowing of conduction at the elbow, even in cases in which preoperative noninvasive studies had been nondiagnostic. Intraoperative electrical "inching" studies also demonstrated significant conduction abnormalities that lie just proximal to and through the olecranon notch rather than distal, beneath the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle. There were only eight exceptions to this. Lesions not in continuity due to the injury required primary or secondary end-to-end sutures or graft repair. Aided by intraoperative nerve action potential recording, lesions in continuity received either external or internal neurolysis and split repair or resection followed by end-to-end suture or graft repair. Functional recoveries of Grade 3 or better were seen in 81 (92%) of 88 patients who underwent neurolysis, 42 (72%) of 58 patients who received suture repair, and 24 (67%) of 36 patients who received graft repair. Nevertheless, fewer Grade 4 or 5 recoveries were reached than those seen in patients with radial or median nerve injuries. Nerve sheath tumors were resected with preservation of preoperative function in five of seven patients.Although difficult to obtain, useful functional recovery can be achieved with proper surgical management of ulnar nerve entrapments and injuries.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182619000015

    View details for PubMedID 12744359

  • NEUROLOGICAL RECOVERY AFTER CRANIOPLASTY NEUROSURGERY Segal, D. H., Oppenheim, J. S., Murovic, J. A. 1994; 34 (4): 729-731


    A patient who sustained a gunshot wound to the head was successfully treated with acute neurosurgical intervention. Six months after the injury, cranioplasty was used to repair a large skull defect. After cranioplasty, the patient developed significant improvement in motor function in his left upper extremity, which had been plegic after his injury. Although the mechanism of neurological recovery after cranioplasty is controversial, the occurrence of such improvement may be a sufficient indication for cranioplasty in certain patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NC63300068

    View details for PubMedID 8008174

  • HYDROCEPHALUS IN APERT SYNDROME - A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW PEDIATRIC NEUROSURGERY Murovic, J. A., Posnick, J. C., Drake, J. M., Humphreys, R. P., Hoffman, H. J., HENDRICKS, E. B. 1993; 19 (3): 151-155


    A retrospective evaluation was carried out to define the incidence of hydrocephalus and associated factors in 44 patients with Apert syndrome treated at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto over a 22-year period. Forty-three of these patients underwent cranioorbital decompressive procedures within 1 year of birth. Fifteen of 25 (60%) patients who had either a computed tomography scan or pneumoencephalogram had ventriculomegaly, and 3 of the 25 (12%) had associated brain anomalies. Ten of the 44 (23%) patients had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts placed, 7 lumboperitoneal and 3 ventriculoperitoneal. Six of the shunts were placed early after cranioorbital procedures (CSF leaks in 5 cases and a subgaleal fluid collection in 1 case). The average IQ of 15 patients evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale was 72.5, indicative of significant intellectual impairment. There was no correlation between IQ and ventricular size. Although hydrocephalus characterized by progressive ventricular dilatation is uncommon in Apert syndrome, postoperative problems related to impaired CSF circulation are common and may indicate an underlying CSF absorptive deficit.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LA92100006

    View details for PubMedID 7684601



    Two cases of terminal myelocystocele, a rare localized cystic dilatation of the caudal spinal central canal, are reviewed. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful diagnostic tool for its evaluation. Terminal myelocystocele consists of the following: a myelocystocele which contains a "trumpet-like" flaring of the distal spinal cord central canal and thus is partially lined by ependymal tissue; a meningocele or dilated subarachnoid space located around the myelocystocele, which bulges into the subcutaneous region; and fibrolipomatous tissue surrounding the two cysts. This condition is usually associated with abnormalities of the vertebral column and sacrum as well as compression of the spinal cord and meningocele by a fibrous band. There is a possible relationship of the myelocystocele to teratogens such as loperamide HCl and retinoic acid, although the exact etiology of this entity is not known.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U335800024

    View details for PubMedID 2709123



    The medical records of 229 consecutive patients with supratentorial malignant gliomas were reviewed with respect to histology, age at diagnosis, tumor location, and enhancement pattern on the CT obtained after the administration of contrast material at the time of operation. Nonenhancing tumors were identified in four (4%) of 93 patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GM), three (30%) of ten with gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), 23 (31%) of 74 with highly anaplastic astrocytoma (HAA), and 28 (54%) of 52 with moderately anaplastic astrocytoma (MoAA). The age-related incidence of the various glioma histiotypes (both enhancing and nonenhancing) was reflected by the median age at diagnosis: 50 years in GM, 52 years in GA, 40 years in HAA, and 34 years in MoAA. The age and CT contrast enhancement pattern were similar in patients with GM, GA, and MoAA; patients with nonenhancing HAAs tended to be younger at presentation. The tumor location and the frequency of enhancing and nonenhancing lesions were similar for all groups except MoAA, in which nonenhancing tumors were most often frontotemporal and enhancing tumors were usually frontoparietal. Our results demonstrate that it is important to obtain histologic confirmation of the diagnosis in patients with supratentorial gliomas regardless of the presence or absence of contrast enhancement of the tumor on CT, because neither of these characteristics correlates with the tumor histology.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q025700007

    View details for PubMedID 2842701

  • PEDIATRIC CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM TUMORS - A CELL KINETIC-STUDY WITH BROMODEOXYURIDINE NEUROSURGERY Murovic, J. A., Nagashima, T., Hoshino, T., Edwards, M. S., Davis, R. L. 1986; 19 (6): 900-904


    Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), 150 to 200 mg/m2, was administered at the time of operation to 20 pediatric patients with neuroectodermal tumors to label tumor cells in the S phase. Immunocytochemical techniques were used on excised tumor specimens to detect cells containing BrdU, and the BrdU labeling index (LI) was calculated as the number of BrdU-labeled cells divided by the total number of cells counted. Four medulloblastomas, three glioblastomas multiforme, and two highly anaplastic astrocytomas had average BrdU LIs of 13.0 +/- 3.0% (SE), 12.7 +/- 4.3%, and 14.6 +/- 6.7%, respectively. Three of nine moderately anaplastic astrocytomas had BrdU LIs of greater than 1% (average, 6.5 +/- 2.4%), whereas six had LIs of less than 1%. In two juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, which are considered slow-growing, the BrdU LIs were unexpectedly high, averaging 6.5 +/- 1.4%. Thus pediatric medulloblastomas, glioblastomas multiforme, highly anaplastic astrocytomas, and a minority of moderately anaplastic astrocytomas had high proliferative potentials, whereas most of the moderately anaplastic astrocytomas had low proliferative potentials. Although the number of cases in this study is still too small to yield statistically significant comparisons, the results indicate that some pediatric tumors have considerably higher LIs than histologically similar adult tumors studied previously.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986F261900003

    View details for PubMedID 3027608



    Eight patients with recurrent meningiomas (four malignant, two hemangiopericytic, and two nonmalignant) were given intravenous bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), 200 mg/sq m, at the time of surgery to label cells in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis phase; labeled cells were detected in excised tumor specimens by immunoperoxidase staining using anti-BUdR monoclonal antibody. These tumors showed a wide range of BUdR labeling indices (LI's), calculated as the percentage of BUdR-labeled cells divided by the total number of cells scored, from 0.3% to 5.4%. The tumor doubling times (Td's), estimated from serial computerized tomography scans, ranged from 8 to 440 days and showed a close inverse correlation with the BUdR LI's. A semilogarithmic linear regression analysis of these values yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.99. Tumor doubling time (Td) can be estimated using the formula: Td = 500 X Exp (-0.73 X LI), where Exp signifies the natural log base. By predicting the growth rate of meningiomas, the BUdR LI may supplement histopathological diagnosis and improve both the determination of prognosis and the design of treatment modalities in individual patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986F049400010

    View details for PubMedID 3772477



    Ninety-seven patients with supratentorial malignant gliomas who received postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1977 through 1984 showed improvement in their follow-up computerized tomography (CT) scans. Twenty-one of these 97 "CT responders" were designated "complete responders" because on serial CT scans they had complete disappearance of the tumor mass and contrast enhancement, which had been present postoperatively. In the remaining 76 patients, CT scans showed reduction in the size, but not disappearance, of the lesions, and these were designated "partial responders." Fifty-eight partial responders had glioblastoma multiforme (GM); their median survival time was 72 weeks. The median survival time for the 11 complete responders with GM has not yet been achieved, but survival at the 53rd percentile is 172 weeks. Among patients with highly anaplastic astrocytoma, the median survival time was 211 weeks for the 10 complete responders and 125 weeks for the 18 partial responders. Eleven of the 21 complete responders are alive at a median postoperative follow-up time of 163 weeks (range 114 to 470 weeks). Eighteen of these patients had subtotal resection of tumor; three patients had gross total tumor resections, but postoperative CT scans showed evidence of residual or possibly recurrent tumor within 1.5 to 4.5 months. Resolution of the tumor mass and contrast enhancement took 9 to 151 weeks; the time to resolution did not depend upon the configuration of the remaining tumor mass and contrast enhancement after surgery. In this study, patients with malignant gliomas whose CT scans eventually showed sustained complete disappearance of the tumor mass and contrast enhancement had a more favorable prognosis than did patients whose CT scans showed improvement, but not complete disappearance, of the tumor. These CT findings may prove useful in determining the prognosis of patients with malignant gliomas.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986F049400012

    View details for PubMedID 3021932

  • PHASE-II STUDY OF COMBINED CARMUSTINE, 5-FLUOROURACIL, HYDROXYUREA, AND 6-MERCAPTOPURINE (BFHM) FOR THE TREATMENT OF MALIGNANT GLIOMAS CANCER TREATMENT REPORTS Levin, V. A., Phuphanich, S., Liu, H. C., daSilva, V., Murovic, J., Choucair, A., Chamberlain, M., Berger, M., Seager, M., Davis, R. L., Silver, P., Gutin, P. H., Wilson, C. B. 1986; 70 (11): 1271-1274


    The Neuro-oncology Service of the University of California Brain Tumor Research Center conducted a nonrandomized phase II study to evaluate, in patients with recurrent malignant glioma, the benefit of a four-drug combination (BFHM) consisting of carmustine (1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea), 5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, and 6-mercaptopurine. There were 29 evaluable glioblastoma multiforme patients and 45 nonglioblastoma anaplastic glioma patients available for analysis. Tumor progression was analyzed as the primary study endpoint. Of the glioblastoma patients, 16 of 29 (55%) responded or stabilized on therapy; of the other anaplastic gliomas, 32 of 45 (71%) responded or stabilized. For patients who stabilized or responded to treatment, BFHM achieved a median time to tumor progression of 46 weeks with a 25th percentile time to tumor progression of 68 weeks for anaplastic gliomas and a median time to tumor progression of 23 weeks with a 25th percentile time to tumor progression of 36 weeks for glioblastoma multiforme patients. A Cox multivariate analysis demonstrated that age and Karnofsky score were important prognostic variables for these patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986F116600004

    View details for PubMedID 3021325



    Twenty patients with intracranial meningiomas were given a 1-hour intravenous infusion of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), 200 mg/m2, at the time of surgery to label tumor cells in the DNA synthesis phase (S phase). The excised tumor specimens were fixed with 70% ethanol, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained by an indirect immunoperoxidase method using anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody as the first antibody. The BrdU labeling index (LI), or S-phase fraction, was determined by counting the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the tissue sections. The average LIs for nonmalignant (11 cases) and histologically malignant meningiomas (seven cases) were 0.45% and 3.9% respectively (P less than 0.05). Two hemangiopericytic variants showed average LIs of 0.53% and 4.1%. Four of seven malignant meningiomas and both hemangiopericytomas were recurrent tumors. Nine of 20 meningiomas had an LI greater than 1%, and six of those nine (67%) were recurrent. Thus, meningiomas with an LI greater than 1% appear to grow faster and recur more frequently than those with LIs less than 1%; the higher LI may indicate biological malignancy. The measurement of BrdU LI in meningioma may prove valuable in establishing the diagnosis of "malignant meningioma."

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E033700014

    View details for PubMedID 2427189

  • S-PHASE FRACTION OF HUMAN-BRAIN TUMORS INSITU MEASURED BY UPTAKE OF BROMODEOXYURIDINE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CANCER Hoshino, T., Nagashima, T., Cho, K. G., Murovic, J. A., Hodes, J. E., Wilson, C. B., Edwards, M. S., Pitts, L. H. 1986; 38 (3): 369-374


    One hundred fifty-four patients with brain tumors of various types were given an intravenous infusion of the thymidine analogue bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), 200 mg/m2, at the time of surgery but before biopsy of the tumor to label S-phase cells. Excised tumor specimens were fixed, sectioned, and stained by immunoperoxidase methods to detect BUdR. The labelling index (LI), or percentage of BUdR-labelled cells, was calculated for each tumor specimen. The LIs of glioblastomas, medulloblastomas, and most highly anaplastic astrocytomas were 5% to 20%. The majority of moderately anaplastic astrocytomas showed LIs of less than 1%, but 30% of them had LIs similar to those of highly malignant gliomas. Most pituitary adenomas and neurinomas showed LIs of less than 1%. Nonmalignant meningiomas had LIs of less than 1%, whereas malignant meningiomas had LIs higher than 2.7%. This is an important observation, because malignant meningiomas are not well-defined histopathologically and their growth rate and rate of recurrence cannot be predicted by current diagnostic procedures. By estimating the proliferative potential of individual tumors more precisely, the BUdR LI supplements histopathological diagnosis, allowing a more accurate estimate of prognosis and facilitating the design of treatment regimens for individual patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E037800010

    View details for PubMedID 3527993

  • CELL-KINETICS ANALYSIS IN A CASE OF TERATOMA OF THE THORACIC SPINE JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Murovic, J. A., DeArmond, S., Nagashima, T., Edwards, M. S., Hoshino, T. 1986; 65 (3): 331-334


    The authors report cell kinetics studies in an infant who had multiple operations for removal of a rare benign thoracic spinal teratoma with retroperitoneal extension. Before the final surgical procedure for recurrent tumor, bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), 200 mg/sq m, was administered intravenously to label tumor cells in the S (deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis) phase of the cell cycle. Histologically, the tumor was a mature teratoma consisting of components derived from all three germ-cell layers. Cells labeled with BUdR were found in the basal layer of stratified squamous epithelia, in respiratory epithelia, in the cartilage and surrounding perichondrial mesenchyme, and in loose mesenchymal tissue throughout the teratoma. In contrast to neuroectodermal tumors, which show widespread BUdR uptake throughout the tissue and which have different average labeling indices according to their histological type (range less than 1% to 15.2%), the teratoma showed BUdR labeling only in certain areas, indicating fairly organized growth patterns; the labeling indices in these areas ranged from 0.39% to 1.9%.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D717300009

    View details for PubMedID 3734884

  • THE PROLIFERATIVE POTENTIAL OF HUMAN PITUITARY-TUMORS INSITU JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Nagashima, T., Murovic, J. A., Hoshino, T., Wilson, C. B., DeArmond, S. J. 1986; 64 (4): 588-593


    At the start of transsphenoidal microsurgery for removal of various types of pituitary adenomas, 21 patients received a 1-hour intravenous infusion of 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR, 200 mg/sq m) to label tumor cells in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis phase (S-phase). Excised tumor specimens were fixed in 70% ethanol and stained by the indirect peroxidase method using anti-BUdR monoclonal antibody as the first antibody. The percentage of BUdR-labeled cells, or S-phase fraction, was calculated for each specimen. The S-phase fraction was less than 0.1% in nine cases, 0.1% to 0.5% in seven, and greater than 0.5% in five. Except in two cases of Nelson's syndrome, in which it was greater than 1%, the S-phase fraction did not correlate with any other variable, including patient age, tumor size, or the duration of signs and symptoms. The small S-phase fraction of most of the pituitary adenomas correlates well with the clinical behavior of these tumors, which grow much more slowly than other kinds of brain tumors such as gliomas. However, the S-phase fractions varied by as much as one order of magnitude. The higher S-phase fractions may reflect aggressive and invasive growth. These results indicate that immunohistochemical studies of cell kinetics using BUdR and anti-BUdR monoclonal antibodies may provide information about the biological characteristics of pituitary adenomas which could lead to the design of appropriate treatment regimens (including surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy) for individual patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A728300010

    View details for PubMedID 3950742

  • INSITU CELL-KINETICS STUDIES ON HUMAN NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS WITH BROMODEOXYURIDINE LABELING JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Hoshino, T., Nagashima, T., Murovic, J. A., Wilson, C. B., Edwards, M. S., Gutin, P. H., Davis, R. L., DeArmond, S. J. 1986; 64 (3): 453-459


    Thirty-eight patients undergoing surgical removal of neuroectodermal tumors of the central nervous system were given a 1-hour intravenous infusion of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR), 150 to 200 mg/sq m, to label tumor cells in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis phase (S-phase). The excised tumor specimens were divided into two portions: one was fixed with 70% ethanol and embedded in paraffin and the other was digested with an enzyme cocktail to make a single-cell suspension. The paraffin-embedded tissues were stained by an indirect peroxidase method using anti-BUdR monoclonal antibody (MA) as the first antibody. Single-cell suspensions were reacted with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated anti-BUdR MA's for flow cytometric analysis. S-phase cells that had incorporated BUdR into their DNA were well stained by both methods. The percentage of BUdR-labeled cells, or S-phase fraction, was calculated in tissue sections by microscopic examination and in single-cell suspensions by flow cytometric analysis. The biological malignancy of the tumors was reflected in the S-phase fractions, which were 5% to 20% for glioblastoma multiforme, medulloblastoma, and highly anaplastic astrocytoma, but less than 1% in most moderately anaplastic astrocytomas, ependymomas, and mixed gliomas. Two juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and two low-grade astrocytomas from children had high S-phase fraction despite the fairly benign and slow-growing nature of these tumors. These results indicate that the S-phase fraction obtained immunocytochemically with anti-BUdR MA's may provide useful information in estimating the biological malignancy of human central nervous system tumors in situ.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A236000015

    View details for PubMedID 3950723



    Five patients with various brain tumors received bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), 150-200 mg/m2 i.v., at the time of craniotomy. Biopsied materials were fixed in 70% ethanol, sectioned, denatured with hydrochloric acid, and reacted with monoclonal antibodies against BrdU. Immunofluorescence and immunocytochemical methods were used to visualize BrdU-labeled nuclei. Our results showed that both methods demonstrated BrdU-labeled nuclei satisfactorily in tissue sections. Thus, BrdU can be used to measure the proliferative potential of human tumors in situ.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AKG5200019

    View details for PubMedID 2992212

  • CELL KINETIC-STUDIES OF INSITU HUMAN-BRAIN TUMORS WITH BROMODEOXYURIDINE CYTOMETRY Hoshino, T., Nagashima, T., Murovic, J., Levin, E. M., Levin, V. A., Rupp, S. M. 1985; 6 (6): 627-632


    At the time of surgery, 18 patients with various brain tumors were given a 1-h i.v. infusion of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd), 150-200 mg/m2. At an infusion rate of 200 mg/m2/h, serum BrdUrd levels of 8 microM were achieved. After the infusion, tumor tissue was obtained and divided into two portions. One portion was fixed in 70% ethanol, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned; the sections were deparaffinized, denatured with 2 N HCl, and reacted with monoclonal antibodies against BrdUrd (anti-BrdUrd MAb). BrdUrd-labeled nuclei were demonstrated satisfactorily by an indirect peroxidase method. The other portion was dissociated into single cells with a DNase enzyme cocktail and reacted with FITC-conjugated anti-BrdUrd MAb to determine the percentage of BrdUrd-labeled cells or with chromomycin A3 for DNA analysis. The single-cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry. The fraction of S-phase cells in the tissue sections was similar to both the percentage of BrdUrd-labeled nuclei and the S-phase fraction determined by flow cytometric analysis. The results obtained with BrdUrd-labeled nuclei were similar to those obtained from previous autoradiographic studies of various brain tumors exposed to a pulse of 3H-thymidine. Since BrdUrd is not radioactive and is nontoxic at the dosage used, these techniques, together with the histopathological diagnosis, may help to predict the biological malignancy of individual tumors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AUS3600018

    View details for PubMedID 2998714



    A 20-month-old patient with a paraventricular and parapineal yolk-sac tumor was treated with subtotal excision and total neuraxis irradiation. She has done well in the 3 1/2 years since surgery. A comparative review of similar pineal and gonadal yolk-sac tumors suggests role for surgery combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Additional experience with these unusual germ-cell neoplasms should establish the need for aggressive extirpation, not only to determine the exact diagnosis, but also to provide the basis for subsequent adjunctive therapy. The latter may include specific combination of antineoplastic drugs in addition to radiation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LZ72000022

    View details for PubMedID 7252556