Bachelor of Arts, Washington University (2007)
Master of Arts, Boston University (2008)
Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington (2017)
Craig Rosen, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Importance: Little is known about the distribution of life-saving trauma resources by racial/ethnic composition in US cities, and if racial/ethnic minority populations disproportionately live in US urban trauma deserts.Objective: To examine racial/ethnic differences in geographic access to trauma care in the 3 largest US cities, considering the role of residential segregation and neighborhood poverty.Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional, multiple-methods study evaluated census tract data from the 2015 American Community Survey in Chicago, Illinois; Los Angeles (LA), California; and New York City (NYC), New York (N=3932). These data were paired to geographic coordinates of all adult level I and II trauma centers within an 8.0-km buffer of each city. Between February and September 2018, small-area analyses were conducted to assess trauma desert status as a function of neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and geospatial analyses were conducted to examine statistically significant trauma desert hot spots.Main Outcomes and Measures: In small-area analyses, a trauma desert was defined as travel distance greater than 8.0 km to the nearest adult level I or level II trauma center. In geospatial analyses, relative trauma deserts were identified using travel distance as a continuous measure. Census tracts were classified into (1) racial/ethnic composition categories, based on patterns of residential segregation, including white majority, black majority, Hispanic/Latino majority, and other or integrated; and (2) poverty categories, including nonpoor and poor.Results: Chicago, LA, and NYC contained 798, 1006, and 2128 census tracts, respectively. A large proportion comprised a black majority population in Chicago (35.1%) and NYC (21.4%), compared with LA (2.7%). In primary analyses, black majority census tracts were more likely than white majority census tracts to be located in a trauma desert in Chicago (odds ratio [OR], 8.48; 95% CI, 5.71-12.59) and LA (OR, 5.11; 95% CI, 1.50-17.39). In NYC, racial/ethnic disparities were not significant in unadjusted models, but were significant in models adjusting for poverty and race-poverty interaction effects (adjusted OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.27-2.74). In comparison, Hispanic/Latino majority census tracts were less likely to be located in a trauma desert in NYC (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.11) and LA (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.22-0.40), but slightly more likely in Chicago (OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.56-3.64).Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, black majority census tracts were the only racial/ethnic group that appeared to be associated with disparities in geographic access to trauma centers.
View details for PubMedID 30848804
People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China experience significant psychological distress, due to high rates of stigma and low availability of mental health resources. Recently diagnosed Chinese PLWHA who are men who have sex with men (MSM) are particularly vulnerable to distress, facing both HIV and sexual orientation stigma. Reducing distress and enhancing psychological resilience is critical in promoting wellbeing. However, no research to date has examined evidence-based interventions to reduce psychological symptoms and improve resilience in this population. Based on qualitative research on their mental health needs, we developed a culturally tailored, brief 3-session CBT skills-based intervention for integration into primary care [Yang, J. P., Simoni, J., Cheryan, S., Shiu, C., Chen, W., Zhao, H., & Lu, H. (2018). The development of a brief distress reduction intervention for individuals recently diagnosed with HIV in China. Cognitive Behavioral Practice, 25(2), 319-334. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpra.2017.08.002 ]. The intervention includes cognitive restructuring to address depressive thought patterns, behavioral activation to decrease isolation, and paced breathing to reduce anxiety. We conducted a pilot Type 1 hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial assessing pre-post mental health outcomes as well as feasibility, acceptability, and appropriateness information. Ten recently diagnosed MSM completed the research protocol of three individual weekly sessions. Paired-samples t tests demonstrated significant reduction in HIV-related distress, depression, problems with adjustment, as well as improvements in resilience, and perceived social support. Participants and community advisory board members found the intervention highly acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. Preliminary data from the first known study examining a psychological intervention with evidence-based components for recently diagnosed Chinese MSM suggests that this brief intervention may be useful for reducing distress and promoting resilience.
View details for PubMedID 30628480
View details for Web of Science ID 000430036000012
China is experiencing a rapid increase in the number of HIV-infected women. In this study, we describe the development and preliminary evaluation of an intervention tailored for Chinese HIV-infected women and caregivers to improve their self- and family management, with goals of enhancing their physical quality of life (QOL) and decreasing their depressive symptomatology. Forty-one HIV-infected women and their caregivers were recruited from two premier Chinese hospitals from July 2014 through March 2016. Participants were randomized to either the control or intervention arm for the Self- and Family Management Intervention (SAFMI). Each study dyad in the intervention arm received three counseling sessions with a nurse interventionist. At baseline, immediate post-intervention (month 1) and follow-up (month 3), the participants were assessed by a self-reported survey. Generalized Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention. Chinese HIV-infected women in the intervention arm had significantly higher probability of higher physical QOL at month 1 and lower probability of clinically meaningful depressive symptomatology at month 3 compared with women in the control arm. In contrast, the effects of the intervention were less salient for caregivers. This study represents one of the first in China to include family caregivers in HIV management. Feasibility and acceptability were high, in that family members were willing to join the study, learn about HIV, and practice new skills to support the HIV-infected women in their lives. A larger trial is needed to fully evaluate this intervention which shows promising preliminary effects in promoting physical QOL and decreasing depressive symptomatology among Chinese HIV-infected women.
View details for PubMedID 30111163
Obtaining maximum antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is critical for maintaining a high CD4 count and strong immune function in PLWHA. Key factors for achieving optimum adherence include good medication self-efficacy, decreased medication-taking difficulties, and positive patient-healthcare provider (HCP) relationships. Limited studies have analyzed the correlation of these factors and ART adherence in Chinese population. In this paper, structural equation modeling was performed to assess the proposed model of relations between patient-HCP relationships and adherence. Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) software was used to collect data on ART adherence and patient variables among 227 PLWHA in Shanghai and Taipei. Participants completed a one-time 60-minute ACASI survey that consisted of standardized measures to assess demographics, recent CD4 counts, self-efficacy, patient-HCP relationship, adherence, and medication-taking difficulties. The data shown the relationship between patient-HCP relationships and adherence was significantly consistent with mediation by medication self-efficacy. However, patient-HCP interaction did not directly influence medication-taking difficulties, and medication-taking difficulties did not significantly affect CD4 counts. Furthermore, patient-HCP interactions did not directly impact CD4 counts; rather, the relation was consistent with mediation (by either better medication self-efficacy or better adherence) or by improved adherence alone. Future interventions should be designed to enhance self-management and provide better patient-HCP communication. This improved communication will enhance medication self-efficacy and decrease medication-taking difficulties. This in turn will improve medication adherence and immune function among PLWHA.
View details for DOI 10.1080/09540121.2017.1380778
For HIV-infected parents, deciding whether and how to disclose their illness to their children is a major stressor. In China, due to significant HIV stigma, disclosure distress is acute. Our objective was to understand HIV-infected parents' concerns regarding disclosure of their HIV status to their children. HIV-infected parents (N = 10) were recruited to attend a three-session nursing intervention. In our post hoc analysis, progress notes from each session were analyzed for themes to illuminate parental decision-making processes. By the end of the intervention, all parents had considered the importance of HIV disclosure and stated that they felt somewhat prepared to disclose. Primary themes included (a) severe stigma experienced by fathers who were sexually active with men, (b) need for both parents to agree on plans for disclosure, and (c) parents' fears about the consequences of disclosure. Parents living with HIV can benefit from nurse-delivered interventions during parental HIV disclosure decision-making.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jana.2016.09.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000396440300015
View details for PubMedID 27825559
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5183502
In China, acute stigma accompanying an HIV diagnosis can lead to self-isolation. In a cultural setting where family relationships are highly valued and contribute critically to well-being, such self-isolation can thwart HIV self-management and engagement in medical care, and so heighten risk for health disparities. To understand this phenomenon, we conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLwHA) in Shanghai and Beijing. Inductive content analysis revealed a range of forms of self-isolation motivation, beliefs, and behaviors influenced by: 1) internalized stigma and desire to avoid discrimination; 2) HIV-related factors such as HIV knowledge and disease progression; and 3) familial factors such as a sense of responsibility and family members' reactions. Based on a proposed framework centering on dialectical family influences (whereby PLwHA are pushed away from, yet pulled toward the family fold), implications for provision of multidisciplinary care in medical settings are considered, including culturally appropriate strategies to decrease health disparities.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10880-017-9513-z
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5709208
Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP) focuses on what happens in session between clients and therapists in order to create more intense and curative therapeutic relationships. FAP may be used as a standalone treatment or as an adjunct to other therapies in order to maximize therapeutic gains through strengthened alliance and differential reinforcement. When it fits within a client's case conceptualization, FAP clinicians often choose to use structured, evocative activities to progress the therapy at a faster pace. This article provides a rationale for using structured evocative activities in FAP with concrete examples to facilitate clinicians' implementation of the exercises.
View details for Web of Science ID 000384872800011
View details for PubMedID 28008219
Under-utilization of mental health services is a global health issue. Recognition of mental disorders, as the first step to seeking help from professional sources, has been well studied in developed countries, yet little is known about the situation in rural areas of developing countries like China. The purpose of the study is to understand the recognition of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse and its predictive factors in a Chinese rural sampleFace-to-face interviews were conducted on a representative rural adult sample in a cross-sectional study in China (N = 2052). Respondents were presented with three vignettes depicting depression, anxiety and alcohol abuse and asked to label the disorder and its cause to assess their recognition of the three mental disorders. They also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to assess their current mental health status.The alcohol abuse vignette was more frequently attributed as a mental problem than the depression vignette and anxiety vignette. The correct labeling rate was 16.1 % in the depression vignette, 15.5 % in the anxiety vignette, and 58.2 % in the alcohol vignette. Higher education is the common and also strongest factor positively predicting the recognition of all three vignettes. Beyond that, being female is an independent predictor of correct recognition of alcohol abuse, while recognition of depression and anxiety were positively predicted by younger age.Lower recognition of depression and anxiety as compared to alcohol abuse confirms the importance and need to increase the public's awareness and knowledge about common mental disorders. Recognition of common mental disorders could be improved through general public campaign and education, while paying attention to the unique predictive factors for each specific disorder and implement targeted intervention.
View details for DOI 10.1186/s12888-016-0802-0
View details for Web of Science ID 000373426000004
View details for PubMedID 27053369
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4822293
Parents who are HIV-positive confront difficult decisions regarding whether, when, and how to disclose their HIV status to their children. In China, a setting of acute HIV stigma where family harmony is culturally valued, limited research has been conducted on parental disclosure. We aimed to develop a model of parental disclosure that accounts for the cultural context in China based on a mixed-methods study. In our individual, in-depth interviews (N = 24) as well as survey data (N = 84) collected from parents living with HIV in Shanghai and Beijing, we found the primary barriers to disclosure were stigma, fear of exposing the mode by which they acquired HIV, psychologically burdening the child, rejection by the child, and negative social consequences for the family. Parents concurrently cited many motivations for disclosure, such as disease progression, ensuring safety of the child, gaining assistance, and fulfilling their parental responsibility. Most parents had not actively disclosed their HIV status (68 %); many parents reported some form of partial disclosure (e.g., sharing they have a blood disease but not labeling it HIV), unplanned disclosure, or unintentional disclosure to their children by other people. Findings informed the development of a Chinese Parental HIV Disclosure Model, with primary components accounting for distal cultural factors, decision-making (balancing approach and avoid motivations), the disclosure event, and outcomes resulting from the disclosure. This model highlights the cultural context of the Chinese parental disclosure process, and may be useful in guiding future observational research and intervention work.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10461-015-1070-6
View details for Web of Science ID 000369520800017
View details for PubMedID 25877832
We aimed to investigate mental health help-seeking intentions and preferences of rural Chinese adults and determine predictors of the intentions.A total of 2052 representative rural residents aged 18-60 completed a cross-sectional survey by face-to-face interviews. The survey included seven questions asking about respondents' help-seeking intentions and preferences, and a series of internationally validated instruments to assess self-perceived health status, depression, anxiety, alcohol abuse, mental health literacy, and attitudes towards mental illness.Nearly 80% of respondents were willing to seek psychological help if needed, and 72.4% preferred to get help from medical organizations, yet only 12% knew of any hospitals or clinics providing such help. A multivariate analysis of help-seeking intention revealed that being female, having lower education, higher social health, higher mental health knowledge, and physical causal attribution for depression were positive predictors of help-seeking intention.A huge gap exists between the relatively higher intention for help-seeking and significantly lower knowledge of helpful resources. Predictors of help-seeking intention for mental problems in the current study are consistent with previous studies. Interventions to increase help-seeking for mental problems by Chinese rural adults may be best served by focusing on increasing public awareness of help sources, as well as improving residents' mental health literacy and social health, with special focus on males and those more educated.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0141889
View details for Web of Science ID 000364398700059
View details for PubMedID 26545095
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4636424
The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS-CM) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Mainland China.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 200 Chinese PLWHA. They completed the MOS-SSS-CM along with the Chinese version of the Beck Depression Inventory Revised (BDI-II) scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) scale.Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) was 0.97 for the overall MOS-SSS-CM and 0.82-0.91 for the five subscales originally proposed. However, 11 of the 19 items demonstrated unsatisfactory item discriminant validity. An exploratory factor analysis yielded a two-factor solution with tangible and social-emotional dimensions, which demonstrated satisfactory reliability and better discrimination between different subscales than did the original five-factor model. The concurrent validity of the two-factor scale was further confirmed by its significant negative correlations with the BDI-II (r=-0.41, p<0.01); the SAS (r=-0.27, p<0.01); and the PSS-10 (r=-0.30, p<0.01), and significant positive correlation with the WHOQOL-BREF scale (r=0.61, p<0.01).We found a two-factor solution for the MOS-SSS-CM, which demonstrated good reliability and validity when applied to Chinese PLWHA. This was consistent with results from a study of Taiwanese caregivers. Further validation in other populations and disease states is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.apnr.2015.03.006
View details for Web of Science ID 000366148700013
View details for PubMedID 26608434
China faces a growing HIV epidemic; psychosocial needs of HIV-positive individuals remain largely unaddressed. Research is needed to consider the gap between need for mental healthcare and lack of sufficiently trained professionals, in a culturally acceptable manner. This study assessed explicit and implicit forms of social support and mental health symptoms in 120 HIV-positive Chinese. Explicit social support refers to interactions involving active disclosure and discussion of problems and request for assistance, whereas implicit social support refers to the emotional comfort one obtains from social networks without disclosing problems. We hypothesized and found using multiple linear regression, that after controlling for demographics, only implicit, but not explicit social support positively predicted mental health. Future research is warranted on the effects of utilizing implicit social support to bolster mental health, which has the potential to circumvent the issues of both high stigma and low professional resources in this population.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10461-015-1041-y
View details for Web of Science ID 000359014800015
View details for PubMedID 25801475
Evaluation and comparison of the factor structure of the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) using both confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) with two samples of people living with HIV/AIDS in China.Secondary analyses were conducted with data from two comparable samples of 320 people living with HIV/AIDS from the same hospital using the same inclusion criteria. The first sample of 120 was collected in 2006, and the second sample of 200 was collected in 2012. For each sample, CFA was first performed on the original four-factor structure to check model fit, followed by EFA to explore other factor structures and a subsequent CFA for model fit statistics to be compared to the original four-factor CFA.In both samples, CFA on the originally hypothesized four-factor structure yielded an acceptable model fit. The EFA yielded a two-factor solution in both samples, with different items included in each factor for the two samples. Comparison of CFA on the a priori four-factor structure and the new two-factor structure in both samples indicated that both factor structures were of acceptable model fit, with the four-factor model performing slightly better than the two-factor model.Factor structure of the MOS-SSS is method-dependent, with CFA supporting a four-factor structure, while EFA yielded a two-factor structure in two separate samples. We need to be careful in selecting the analytic method when applying the MOS-SSS to various samples and choose the factor structure that best fits the theoretical model.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s11136-014-0815-4
View details for Web of Science ID 000351553300002
View details for PubMedID 25267103
The present study aims to assess mental health literacy (MHL) using a standardised multifaceted 20-item instrument called Mental Health Knowledge Questionnaire (MHKQ) developed by the Chinese Ministry of Health, among a rural Chinese population.Four villages in Liuyang county of Hunan province, China.This was a cross-sectional study. A multistage cluster-sampling method was adopted, leading to a final sampling frame of 2377 residents aged 18-60 years from four villages of Liuyang county. Included in the study were residents aged 18-60 years living in their village for at least half a year; excluded were those not living in the areas during the research period, those with difficulty in communication due to serious physical or mental illness and those who were cognitively impaired or actively psychotic. Finally, 2052 participants completed the survey.Primary outcome was correct response rate of the MHKQ; secondary outcome measures were association between sociodemographics and MHL, and association between MHL and health outcomes.Correct response rates for the 20 MHKQ items ranged from 19% to 94%, with a mean rate of 58%. Younger age (r=-0.02, p<0.01), higher education (r: 1.38-2.69, p<0.01) and higher income (r=0.41, p<0.01), were independently associated with higher MHL. MHL was independently associated with self-rated general health (r=2.31, p<0.01), depression (r=-0.09, p<0.01) and anxiety (r=-0.07, p<0.05).MHL in the rural areas of Liuyang is lower than that reported in urban areas of China. There is much room for improvement with regard to MHL promotion in rural areas of China. Younger age, higher education and higher income are the three robust factors related to higher MHL, so cohort-specific educational intervention efforts may be indicated.
View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009054
View details for Web of Science ID 000365467600098
View details for PubMedID 26438139
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4606438
National health initiatives emphasize the importance of eliminating health disparities among historically disadvantaged populations. Yet, few studies have examined the range of health outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. To stimulate more inclusive research in the area, we present the Health Equity Promotion Model-a framework oriented toward LGBT people reaching their full mental and physical health potential that considers both positive and adverse health-related circumstances. The model highlights (a) heterogeneity and intersectionality within LGBT communities; (b) the influence of structural and environmental context; and (c) both health-promoting and adverse pathways that encompass behavioral, social, psychological, and biological processes. It also expands upon earlier conceptualizations of sexual minority health by integrating a life course development perspective within the health-promotion model. By explicating the important role of agency and resilience as well as the deleterious effect of social structures on health outcomes, it supports policy and social justice to advance health and well-being in these communities. Important directions for future research as well as implications for health-promotion interventions and policies are offered.
View details for DOI 10.1037/ort0000030
View details for Web of Science ID 000346924100008
View details for PubMedID 25545433
Over the past two decades, men who have sex with men (MSM) have engaged in increasing consumption of MSM-specific sexually explicit online media (i.e., online pornography). Furthermore, the amount of MSM-specific sexually explicit online media portraying unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) has increased, raising concerns about HIV transmission among the actors and the potential encouragement of risky sex among consumers. The influence of sexually explicit online media on sexual risk-taking, at present largely understudied, could lead to new avenues for innovative HIV-prevention strategies targeting at-risk MSM. In this preliminary assessment, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 MSM in the Seattle area to elucidate MSM's perceptions about the influence of sexually explicit online media on their own and other MSM's sexual behaviors. Participants reported that sexually explicit online media: (1) plays an educational role, (2) increases comfort with sexuality, and (3) sets expectations about sexual behaviors. While participants overwhelmingly reported not feeling personally influenced by viewing UAI in sexually explicit online media, they believed viewing UAI increased sexual risk-taking among other MSM. Specifically, participants reported that the high prevalence of UAI in sexually explicit online media sends the message, at least to other MSM, that (1) engaging in UAI is common, (2) UAI is acceptable and "ok" to engage in, and (3) future partners will desire or expect UAI. Overall, this preliminary assessment indicates that sexually explicit online media exposure may have both positive (e.g., helping MSM become more comfortable with their sexuality) and negative (e.g., normalizing UAI) impacts on the sexual health of MSM and may be useful in the development of novel HIV-prevention interventions.
View details for DOI 10.1080/09540121.2013.871219
View details for Web of Science ID 000335118600019
View details for PubMedID 24382316
View details for DOI 10.1080/09540121.2014.936816
View details for DOI 10.4172/2155-6113.1000218
View details for DOI 10.4172/2155-6113.1000214