Bio

Bio


Dr. Jonathan Shaw received a B.A. in Philosophy from Yale University in 1999 and an MD from Harvard Medical School in 2006. While completing his internship and residency in family medicine at the Oregon Health and Science University from 2006-2009, he obtained additional training as a visiting scholar in Mbabane, Swaziland via the Baylor International Pediatric AIDS Initiative. He has also provided maternal and infant care in rural Guatemala. After completing residency he has practiced in community health settings, serving primarily Latino immigrant populations, both in Oregon and now East Palo Alto. He moved to the Bay Area in 2011, joining Stanford's Center for Primary Care & Outcomes Research / VA Palo Alto, as a Health Services Research Fellow. His work and evaluation efforts during fellowship included homeless veterans outreach, and leading an interdisciplinary team (ImPACT) working to improve care coordination for the VA Palo Alto's most medically complex veterans. His research interests include psycho-social determinants of health, women's health, the impact of health policies on vulnerable and under-served populations, and research to improve primary care delivery.

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Director of Community Partnership, Division of Primary Care and Population Health (2018 - Present)
  • Medical Staff (Family Medicine), Ravenswood Family Health Center, East Palo Alto (2014 - Present)
  • Faculty Affiliate, Evaluation Sciences Unit, Division of Primary Care and Population Health (2015 - Present)
  • Faculty Affiliate, Center for Health Policy / Primary Care & Outcomes Research (2014 - Present)
  • Research Affiliate, Center for Innovation to Implementation (Ci2i), VA Palo Alto (2016 - Present)
  • Community Co-Chair, Community Advisory Board, Stanford Center for Clinical Research (2015 - 2018)
  • Clinical Lead - Prevention Quality Indicators Module, AHRQ Quality Indicators Enhancement Project (2014 - 2017)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Community Co-Chair, Community Advisory Board (CAB), Stanford Center for Clinical Research (2015 - Present)

Professional Education


  • BA, Yale University, Philosophy (1999)
  • MD, Harvard School of Medicine, MD (2006)
  • Residency, Oregon Health Sciences University, Family Medicine (2009)
  • MS, Stanford University, Department of Health Research & Policy, Health Services Research (2014)
  • Fellowship, Stanford CHP/PCOR and VA Palo Alto HSR&D, Health Services Research (2014)

Community and International Work


  • ImPACT: Intensive Management Patient Alligned Care Team, VA Palo Alto

    Topic

    Case Management of high cost, high need VA Patients

    Partnering Organization(s)

    VA Palo Alto

    Populations Served

    Medically Complex Veterans

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Staff at Ravenswood Family Health Clinc, 1885 Bay Rd, East Palo Alto

    Topic

    Family Medicine

    Populations Served

    East Palo Alto / East Menlo Park

    Location

    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Primary care, psycho-social determinants of health & care, maternal-child health

Teaching

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

All Publications


  • Effect of an Intensive Outpatient Program to Augment Primary Care for High-Need Veterans Affairs Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA internal medicine Zulman, D. M., Pal Chee, C., Ezeji-Okoye, S. C., Shaw, J. G., Holmes, T. H., Kahn, J. S., Asch, S. M. 2017; 177 (2): 166-175

    Abstract

    Many organizations are adopting intensive outpatient care programs for high-need patients, yet little is known about their effectiveness in integrated systems with established patient-centered medical homes.To evaluate how augmenting the Veterans Affairs (VA) medical home (Patient Aligned Care Teams [PACT]) with an Intensive Management program (ImPACT) influences high-need patients' costs, health care utilization, and experience.Randomized clinical trial at a single VA facility. Among 583 eligible high-need outpatients whose health care costs or hospitalization risk were in the top 5% for the facility, 150 were randomly selected for ImPACT; the remaining 433 received standard PACT care.The ImPACT multidisciplinary team addressed health care needs and quality of life through comprehensive patient assessments, intensive case management, care coordination, and social and recreational services.Primary difference-in-difference analyses examined changes in health care costs and acute and extended care utilization over a 16-month baseline and 17-month follow-up period. Secondary analyses estimated the intervention's effect on ImPACT participants (using randomization as an instrument) and for patients with key sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. ImPACT participants' satisfaction and activation levels were assessed using responses to quality improvement surveys administered at baseline and 6 months.Of 140 patients assigned to ImPACT, 96 (69%) engaged in the program (mean [SD] age, 68.3 [14.2] years; 89 [93%] male; mean [SD] number of chronic conditions, 10 [4]; 62 [65%] had a mental health diagnosis; 21 [22%] had a history of homelessness). After accounting for program costs, adjusted person-level monthly health care expenditures decreased similarly for ImPACT and PACT patients (difference-in-difference [SE] -$101 [$623]), as did acute and extended care utilization rates. Among respondents to the ImPACT follow-up survey (n = 54 [56% response rate]), 52 (96%) reported that they would recommend the program to others, and pre-post analyses revealed modest increases in satisfaction with VA care (mean [SD] increased from 2.90 [0.72] to 3.16 [0.60]; P = .04) and communication (mean [SD] increased from 2.99 [0.74] to 3.18 [0.60]; P = .03).Intensive outpatient care for high-need patients did not reduce acute care utilization or costs compared with standard VA care, although there were positive effects on experience among patients who participated. Implementing intensive outpatient care programs in integrated settings with well-established medical homes may not prevent hospitalizations or achieve substantial cost savings.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02932228.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.8021

    View details for PubMedID 28027338

  • Social Isolation and Medicare Spending: Among Older Adults, Objective Isolation Increases Expenditures While Loneliness Does Not Journal of Aging and Health Shaw, J. G., Farid, M., Noel-Miller, C., Joseph, N., Houser, A., Asch, S. M., Bhattacharya, J., Flowers, L. 2017; 29 (7): 1119-1143

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0898264317703559

  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Shaw, J. G., Asch, S. M., Kimerling, R., Frayne, S. M., Shaw, K. A., Phibbs, C. S. 2014; 124 (6): 1111-1119
  • Deployment and Preterm Birth Among United States Army Soldiers American Journal of Epidemiology Shaw, J. G., Nelson, D. A., Shaw, K. A., Woolaway-Bickel, K., Phibbs, C. S., Kurina, L. M. 2018

    View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kwy003

  • Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and Antepartum Complications: a Novel Risk Factor for Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia PAEDIATRIC AND PERINATAL EPIDEMIOLOGY Shaw, J. G., Asch, S. M., Katon, J. G., Shaw, K. A., Kimerling, R., Frayne, S. M., Phibbs, C. S. 2017; 31 (3): 185-194

    Abstract

    Prior work shows that Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) predicts an increased risk of preterm birth, but the causal pathway(s) are uncertain. We evaluate the associations between PTSD and antepartum complications to explore how PTSD's pathophysiology impacts pregnancy.This retrospective cohort analysis of all Veterans Health Administration (VA)-covered deliveries from 2000-12 used the data of VA clinical and administration. Mothers with current PTSD were identified using the ICD-9 diagnostic codes (i.e. code present during the antepartum year), as were those with historical PTSD. Medical and administrative data were used to identify the relevant obstetric diagnoses, demographics and health, and military deployment history. We used Poisson regression with robust error variance to derive the adjusted relative risk estimates (RR) for the association of PTSD with five clinically relevant antepartum complications [gestational diabetes (GDM), preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, growth restriction, and abruption]. Secondary outcomes included proxies for obstetric complexity (repeat hospitalisation, prolonged delivery hospitalisation, and caesarean delivery).Of the 15 986 singleton deliveries, 2977 (19%) were in mothers with PTSD diagnoses (1880 (12%) current PTSD). Mothers with the complication GDM were 4.9% and those with preeclampsia were 4.6% of all births. After adjustment, a current PTSD diagnosis (reference = no PTSD) was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 1.7) and preeclampsia (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1, 1.6). PTSD also predicted prolonged (>4 day) delivery hospitalisation (RR 1.2, 95% CI 1.01, 1.4), and repeat hospitalisations (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2, 1.6), but not caesarean delivery.The observed association of PTSD with GDM and preeclampsia is consistent with our nascent understanding of PTSD as a disruptor of neuroendocrine and cardiovascular health.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ppe.12349

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400170000004

    View details for PubMedID 28328031

  • Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptive Placement Among Active-Duty U.S. Army Servicewomen. Obstetrics and gynecology Erickson, A. K., Nelson, D. A., Shaw, J. G., Loftus, P. D., Kurina, L. M., Shaw, K. A. 2017; 129 (5): 800-809

    Abstract

    To quantify uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC)-intrauterine devices (IUDs) and hormonal implants-among U.S. Army active-duty female soldiers and identify characteristics associated with uptake.This retrospective cohort study used the Stanford Military Data Repository, which includes all digitally recorded health encounters for active-duty U.S. Army soldiers from 2011 to 2014. We analyzed data from women aged 18-44 years to assess rates of LARC initiation using medical billing codes. We then evaluated predictors of LARC initiation using multivariable regression.Among 114,661 servicewomen, 14.5% received a LARC method; among those, 60% received an IUD. Intrauterine device insertions decreased over the study period (38.7-35.9 insertions per 1,000 women per year, β=0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.23 to -0.05, P<.05), whereas LARC uptake increased, driven by an increase in implant insertions (20.3-35.4/1,000 women per year, β=0.41, CI 0.33-0.48, P<.001). Younger age was a positive predictor of LARC uptake: 32.4% of IUD users and 62.6% of implant users were in the youngest age category (18-22 years) compared with 9.6% and 2.0% in the oldest (36-44 years). The likelihood of uptake among the youngest women (compared with oldest) was most marked for implants (adjusted relative risk 7.12, CI 5.92-8.55; P<.001). A total of 26.2% of IUD users had one child compared with 13.2% among non-LARC users (adjusted relative risk 1.94, CI 1.85-2.04, P<.001). The majority (52.2%) of those initiating IUDs were married, which was predictive of uptake over never-married women (adjusted relative risk 1.52, CI 1.44-1.59, P<.001).Among servicewomen, we observed low but rising rates of LARC insertion, driven by increasing implant use. Unmarried and childless soldiers were less likely to initiate LARC. These findings are consistent with potential underutilization and a need for education about LARC safety and reversibility in a population facing unique consequences for unintended pregnancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001971

    View details for PubMedID 28383371

  • Interpretation of epidemiologic studies very often lacked adequate consideration of confounding. Journal of clinical epidemiology Hemkens, L. G., Ewald, H., Naudet, F., Ladanie, A., Shaw, J. G., Sajeev, G., Ioannidis, J. P. 2017

    Abstract

    Confounding bias is a most pervasive threat to validity of observational epidemiologic research. We assessed whether authors of observational epidemiologic studies consider confounding bias when interpreting the findings.We randomly selected 120 cohort or case-control studies published in 2011 and 2012 by the general medical, epidemiologic, and specialty journals with the highest impact factors. We used Web of Science to assess citation metrics through January 2017.Sixty-eight studies (56.7%, 95% confidence interval: 47.8-65.5%) mentioned "confounding" in the Abstract or Discussion sections, another 20 (16.7%; 10.0-23.3%) alluded to it, and there was no mention or allusion at all in 32 studies (26.7%; 18.8-34.6%). Authors often acknowledged that for specific confounders, there was no adjustment (34 studies; 28.3%) or deem it possible or likely that confounding affected their main findings (29 studies; 24.2%). However, only two studies (1.7%; 0-4.0%) specifically used the words "caution" or "cautious" for the interpretation because of confounding-related reasons and eventually only four studies (3.3%; 0.1-6.5%) had limitations related to confounding or any other bias in their Conclusions. Studies mentioning that the findings were possibly or likely affected by confounding were more frequently cited than studies with a statement that findings were unlikely affected (median 6.3 vs. 4.0 citations per year, P = 0.04).Many observational studies lack satisfactory discussion of confounding bias. Even when confounding bias is mentioned, authors are typically confident that it is rather irrelevant to their findings and they rarely call for cautious interpretation. More careful acknowledgment of possible impact of confounding is not associated with lower citation impact.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.09.013

    View details for PubMedID 28943377

  • Contraception in US servicewomen: emerging knowledge, considerations, and needs Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology Harrington, L. A., Shaw, K. A., Shaw, J. G. 2017; 29 (6): 431–436
  • Medicare Spends More on Socially Isolated Older Adults Flowers, L., Houser, A., Noel-Miller, C., Shaw, J., Bhattacharya, J., Schoemaker, L., Farid, M. AARP Public Policy Institute. Washington, DC. 2017 ; Insight on the Issues (125): 1–15
  • Partnered Research in Healthcare Delivery Redesign for High-Need, High-Cost Patients: Development and Feasibility of an Intensive Management Patient-Aligned Care Team (ImPACT) JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE Zulman, D. M., Ezeji-Okoye, S. C., Shaw, J. G., Hummel, D. L., Holloway, K. S., Smither, S. F., Breland, J. Y., Chardos, J. F., Kirsh, S., Kahn, J. S., Asch, S. M. 2014; 29: S861-S869
  • Gestational Diabetes and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Among Women Veterans Deployed in Service of Operations in Afghanistan and Iraq JOURNAL OF WOMENS HEALTH Katon, J., Mattocks, K., Zephyrin, L., Reiber, G., Yano, E. M., Callegari, L., Schwarz, E. B., Goulet, J., Shaw, J., Brandt, C., Haskell, S. 2014; 23 (10): 792-800
  • To sling or not to sling at time of abdominal sacrocolpopexy: a cost-effectiveness analysis. journal of urology Richardson, M. L., Elliott, C. S., Shaw, J. G., Comiter, C. V., Chen, B., Sokol, E. R. 2013; 190 (4): 1306-1312

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the cost-effectiveness of three strategies for use of a mid-urethral sling (MUS) to prevent occult stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in those undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC). METHODS: Using decision-analysis modeling, we compared cost-effectiveness over a 1 year post-operative time period of three treatment approaches: 1) ASC alone with deferred option for MUS; 2) ASC with universal concomitant MUS; and 3) preoperative urodynamic study (UDS) for selective MUS. Using published data, we modeled probabilities of SUI after ASC with or without MUS, the predictive value of UDS to detect occult SUI, and the likelihood of complications after MUS. Costs were derived from Medicare 2010 reimbursement rates. The main outcome modeled was incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. In addition to base-case analysis, one-way sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: In our model, universally performing MUS at the time of ASC was the most cost-effective approach, with an incremental cost per QALY gained of $2867 when compared to performing ASC alone. Preoperative UDS was more costly and less effective than universally performing intraoperative MUS. The cost-effectiveness of ASC + MUS was robust to sensitivity analysis, with a cost-effectiveness ratio consistently below $20,000 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: Universal concomitant MUS is the most cost-effective prophylaxis strategy for occult SUI in women undergoing ASC. The use of pre-operative UDS to guide MUS placement at the time of ASC is not cost-effective.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.juro.2013.03.046

    View details for PubMedID 23524201

  • Attitudes of preclinical and clinical medical students toward interactions with the pharmaceutical industry ACADEMIC MEDICINE Hyman, P. L., Hochman, M. E., Shaw, J. G., Steinman, M. A. 2007; 82 (1): 94-99

    Abstract

    Medical school is a critical time for physicians in training to learn the professional norms of interacting with the pharmaceutical industry, yet little is known about how students' attitudes vary during the course of training. This study sought to determine students' opinions about pharmaceutical industry interactions with medical students and whether these opinions differ between preclinical and clinical students.The authors surveyed medical students at Harvard Medical School (HMS) from November 2003 through January 2004 using a six-question survey. The authors then analyzed how responses differed among the classes.Out of 723 questionnaires, 418 were returned--an overall response rate of 58%. A total of 107 (26%) students believed that it is appropriate for medical students to accept gifts from pharmaceutical companies, and 76 (18%) agreed that the medical school curriculum should include events sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. Many students--253 (61%)--reported that they do not feel adequately educated about pharmaceutical industry-medical professionals' interactions. Preclinical and clinical students had similar opinions for the majority of their responses. Finally, students who reported feeling better educated about pharmaceutical industry interactions tended to be less skeptical of the industry and more likely to view interactions with the industry as appropriate.Students' opinions about interactions with the pharmaceutical industry were similar between preclinical and clinical students, suggesting that the current medical school experience may have limited impact on students' views about interactions with the pharmaceutical industry.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243237200013

    View details for PubMedID 17198299