Doctor of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin Madison (2009)
C Fathman, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
Until recently ubiquitination of a protein was thought to simply serve the mundane task of targeting a protein for proteasomal degradation. Accumulating evidence over the past decade has demonstrated the importance of ubiquitination in non-degradative functions including regulating cellular signaling, that highlight its role in human disease and thus potential development of novel therapeutics. Much has been written about ubiquitination in the immune system, in this review we will outline our current knowledge of ubiquitination with respect to T cell tolerance. Specifically, we will provide on overview of E3 ubiquitin ligases and their role in various states of CD4+ T cell tolerance: central and peripheral.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.smim.2007.02.010
View details for Web of Science ID 000247466200007
View details for PubMedID 17403607
GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes) is an ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase (E3) ubiquitin ligase necessary for the induction of CD4(+) T cell anergy in vivo. We have extended our previous studies to characterize the expression pattern of GRAIL in other murine CD4(+) T cell types with a described anergic phenotype. These studies revealed that GRAIL expression is increased in naturally occurring (thymically derived) CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells (mRNA levels 10-fold higher than naive CD25(-) T cells). Further investigation demonstrated that CD25(+) Foxp3(+) antigen-specific T cells were induced after a "tolerizing-administration" of antigen and that GRAIL expression correlated with the CD25(+) Foxp3(+) antigen-specific subset. Lastly, using retroviral transduction, we demonstrated that forced expression of GRAIL in a T cell line was sufficient for conversion of these cells to a regulatory phenotype in the absence of detectable Foxp3. These data demonstrate that GRAIL is differentially expressed in naturally occurring and peripherally induced CD25(+) T regulatory cells and that the expression of GRAIL is linked to their functional regulatory activity.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M604192200
View details for Web of Science ID 000245421700043
View details for PubMedID 17259178