The safety and efficacy of the use of the flexible laryngeal mask airway with positive pressure ventilation in elective ENT surgery: a 15-year retrospective single-center study.
Variable Findings for Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Propofol versus Dexmedetomidine.
Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
2016; 154 (4): 765-770
The use of flexible laryngeal mask airway (FLMA) in elective ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery offers significant advantages, but is frequently considered inferior to tracheal intubation (TI) for ventilation and airway protection. We investigated the safety and success rate of intraoperative FLMA use with positive pressure ventilation (PPV), and the factors responsible for FLMA failure.A 15-year single center retrospective study. FLMA failure was defined as the need for FLMA removal and TI, either during induction (primary failure), or after turning the patient over to the surgeon (secondary failure). Strict failure criteria included the inability to achieve and/or maintain all 3 essential FLMA functions, such as ventilation (tidal volume ≥ 6 ml/kg), airway protection from above the cuff (airway sealing pressure, (ASP) > 12 cm H2O), and separation of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts (absent gastric insufflation during PPV).In 685 patients, FLMA was successfully inserted in 94%. Secondary failure rate was 1.5%, with half of failures observed intraoperatively. The inability to seat FLMA during induction or FLMA dislodgment were the most common reasons for failures. The number of FLMA insertion attempts and low ASP were associated with FLMA primary failure and the need for TI. There were no complications.The results suggest an acceptably low failure rate of use of FLMA with PPV in selected ENT surgical procedures. True intraoperative FLMA failure is uncommon. We advocate observing strict criteria for adequacy of FLMA placement, and close monitoring of FLMA function intraoperatively at all times.
View details for DOI 10.23736/S0375-9393.17.11403-3
View details for PubMedID 28358175
Chondronecrosis of the Larynx Following Use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway
2015; 125 (4): 946-949
To compare VOTE classification findings (velum, oropharyngeal-lateral walls, tongue base, and epiglottis) for drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using 2 sedation protocols.Case series with chart review.Single tertiary institution.Patients with OSA who underwent DISE.A total of 216 patients underwent DISE between November 23, 2011, and May 1, 2015. DISE findings based on VOTE classification were compared between patients receiving the propofol- and dexmedetomidine-based sedation protocols.Patients with OSA (N = 216; age, 44.3 ± 11.7 years; body mass index, 27.9 ± 4.8 kg/m(2)) underwent DISE with intravenous administration of propofol (n = 52) or dexmedetomidine (n = 164). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in baseline apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index, Mallampati score, tonsil size, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score, peripheral oxygen saturation nadir, age, sex, or body mass index. Patients in the propofol group had a significantly increased likelihood of demonstrating complete tongue base obstruction (75%, 39 of 52) versus partial or no obstruction (25%, 13 of 52) in the anterior-posterior dimension, as compared with the dexmedetomidine group (complete obstruction: 42.7%, 70 of 164; partial or no obstruction: 57.3%, 94 of 164; odds ratio: 4.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.0-8.1; P = .0001). Obstruction of other airway subsites was not significantly different.Use of propofol versus dexmedetomidine to induce sedation may have a significant effect on the pattern of upper airway obstruction observed during DISE. Randomized prospective studies are indicated to confirm these initial findings.
View details for DOI 10.1177/0194599815625972
View details for PubMedID 26814208
The effectiveness of preemptive sphenopalatine ganglion block on postoperative pain and functional outcomes after functional endoscopic sinus surgery
56th Annual Fall Scientific Meeting of the American-Rhinologic-Society (ARS)
WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2011: 212–18
This case describes the development of laryngeal chondronecrosis after use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA). A 69-year-old male with prior laryngeal irradiation underwent total knee replacement with general anesthesia via LMA. Postoperatively, he developed laryngeal chondronecrosis, bilateral vocal fold immobility, and aspiration, necessitating tracheostomy and gastrostomy placement. He improved with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, intravenous antibiotics, and endoscopic repair of a residual fistula. Vocal fold motion returned and he was decannulated. Chondronecrosis of the larynx may occur with the use of the LMA, and caution should be used in patients with a history of prior laryngeal irradiation. Laryngoscope, 2014.
View details for DOI 10.1002/lary.24967
View details for Web of Science ID 000351686900041
View details for PubMedID 25345975
ED50 and ED95 of Intrathecal Bupivacaine in Morbidly Obese Patients Undergoing Cesarean Delivery
2011; 114 (3): 529-535
The sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB) with local anesthetic is used to treat facial pain and headache of various etiologies; it has been widely used during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preemptive SPGB may positively impact postoperative pain and functional outcomes after FESS.A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed. A total of 60 patients (18-70 years), undergoing general anesthesia for bilateral FESS, were randomly assigned to receive SPGB with either 2 mL 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1:100,000 (BP, treatment group) or normal saline (NS, control group). SPGB was performed preemptively 10 minutes before the start of surgery. Preoperative and postoperative (day 0, day 7, and day 30) visual analog pain scale, Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20), computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic scores were compared between the 2 groups.A total of 29 patients were enrolled in BP, and 27 were enrolled in NS. Three patients withdrew from the study, and 1 was withdrawn by the investigator due to severe hypertension after induction of anesthesia. There were no differences in patient demographic characteristics between the study groups. On day 7, the mean visual analog pain scales were 1.12 ± 0.3 in NS and 0.48 ± 0.23 in BP (p = 0.053). There were no statistical differences in other outcome measures (SNOT-20, CT and endoscopic scores) between the 2 groups.A limited trend toward reduced postoperative pain after FESS was noted with bupivacaine compared to saline, but statistical significance was not achieved. Preemptive SPGB may offer sinonasal symptomatic benefits for patients undergoing FESS, but larger studies are warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1002/alr.20040
View details for Web of Science ID 000308912700014
View details for PubMedID 22287376
Securing the airway of a 'super sized' patient: another use for the Aintree Catheter (R)
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ANAESTHESIOLOGY
2006; 23 (12): 1064-1066
Obesity and difficult intubation: Where is the evidence?
2006; 104 (3): 617-617
Nitrous oxide and laparoscopic bariatric surgery
2005; 15 (4): 494-496
It has been suggested that morbidly obese parturients may require less local anesthetic for spinal anesthesia. The aim of this study was to determine the effective dose (ED(50)/ED(95)) of intrathecal bupivacaine for cesarean delivery in morbidly obese patients.Morbidly obese parturients (body mass index equal to or more than 40) undergoing elective cesarean delivery were enrolled in this double-blinded study. Forty-two patients were randomly assigned to receive intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine in doses of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, or 11 mg (n = 6 per group) coadministered with 200 μg morphine and 10 μg fentanyl. Success (induction) was defined as block height to pinprick equal to or more than T6 and success (operation) as success (induction) plus no requirement for epidural supplementation throughout surgery. The ED(50)/ED(95) values were determined using a logistic regression model.ED(50) and ED(95) (with 95% confidence intervals) for success (operation) were 9.8 (8.6-11.0) and 15.0 (10.0-20.0), respectively, and were similar to corresponding values of a nonobese population determined previously using similar methodology. We were unable to measure ED(50)/ED(95) values for success (induction) because so few blocks failed initially, even at the low-dose range. There were no differences with regard to secondary outcomes (i.e., hypotension, vasopressor use, nausea, and vomiting).Obese and nonobese patients undergoing cesarean delivery do not appear to respond differently to modest doses of intrathecal bupivacaine. This dose-response study suggests that doses of intrathecal bupivacaine less than 10 mg may not adequately ensure successful intraoperative anesthesia. Even when the initial block obtained with a low dose is satisfactory, it will not guarantee adequate anesthesia throughout surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318209a92d
View details for Web of Science ID 000287660300012
View details for PubMedID 21307769
Laryngoscopy and morbid obesity: a comparison of the "sniff" and "ramped" positions
2004; 14 (9): 1171-1175
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is frequently used to supplement more potent anesthetic agents. One side-effect of N2O is its ability to expand an air-containing space. We investigated if N2O adversely affected operating conditions by distending normal bowel during laparoscopic bariatric procedures.50 morbidly obese patients were divided into 2 study groups. Group 1 patients were ventilated with a halogenated anesthetic/oxygen/air mixture, while Group 2 received a halogenated anesthetic/oxygen/N2O mixture. At 30, 60, and 90 min intervals during the operation, the surgeon was asked if N2O was being used.The surgeons responded correctly only 42% (30 min), 50% (60 min), and 48% (90 min) of the time. In Group 2 (N2O) patients, they incorrectly answered that N2O was not being used 88% (30 min), 68% (60 min), and 68% (90 min); and in Group 1 (air) patients, they incorrectly answered that N2O was being used 28% (30 min), 32% (60 min), and 36% (90 min) of the time.We found that using N2O did not cause noticeable bowel distention during laparoscopic bariatric procedures of relatively short duration.
View details for Web of Science ID 000228911000006
View details for PubMedID 15946427
The effect of patient position on the view obtained during laryngoscopy was investigated.60 morbidly obese patients undergoing elective bariatric were studied. Patients were randomly assigned into one of two groups. In Group 1, a conventional "sniff" position was obtained by placing a firm 7-cm cushion underneath the patient's head, thus raising the occiput a standard distance from the operating-table while the patient remained supine. In Group 2, a "ramped" position was achieved by arranging blankets underneath the patient's upper body and head until horizontal alignment was achieved between the external auditory meatus and the sternal notch. Following induction of general anesthesia, tracheal intubation was performed using a Video MacIntosh laryngoscope. The laryngoscopy and intubation sequences were recorded onto videotape. Three independent investigators, unaware as to which position the patient had been in at the time of tracheal intubation, then viewed the videotape and assigned a numerical grade to the best laryngeal view obtained.The "ramped" position improved the laryngeal view when compared to a standard "sniff" position, and this difference was statistically significant (P=0.037).The "ramped" position is superior to the standard "sniff" position for direct laryngoscopy in morbidly obese patients.
View details for Web of Science ID 000224972600005
View details for PubMedID 15527629