The potential role of vitamin D and soy in prostate cancer (PCa) prevention/treatment has gained much attention in recent years. In this study, we evaluated the anticancer activity of calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D, dietary soy, and their combinations in a mouse model of PCa.Athymic male nude mice bearing PC-3 human PCa xenografts received diets containing 10 or 20 kcal% soy, calcitriol injections, or a combination of dietary soy and calcitriol. Changes in tumor growth, serum levels of 1,25(OH)(2)D and calcium, and regulation of tumor gene expression were examined.The combination treatments resulted in substantially greater inhibition of tumor growth than either agent alone. Soy diets alone caused a modest elevation in serum 1,25(OH)(2)D, whereas the calcitriol-soy combinations led to substantially elevated serum 1,25(OH)(2) D, hypercalcemia, and in some cases lethal toxicity. The combinations enhanced calcitriol activity in regulating target gene expression, including greater up-regulation of anti-proliferative (p21, IGFBP-3) and pro-apoptotic (Bax) genes, increased inhibition of anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) and cell cycle promoting (cyclin D1) genes, and suppression of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and signaling (COX-2, 15-PGDH, PG receptors). Increases in serum calcium were accompanied by elevated expression of intestinal calcium absorption genes (TRPV6, calbindin-9k).Soy increases the bioavailability of endogenous and administered calcitriol, thereby enhancing its anticancer effects and risk of hypercalcemia. Since both agents are easily available as dietary supplements, the increased potential for hypercalcemic toxicity becomes an important factor when considering the combined use of vitamin D and soy in PCa therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1002/pros.22516
View details for Web of Science ID 000309405800004
View details for PubMedID 22457201
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3389566