Clinical Focus

  • Sleep Medicine

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Residency:Yale - New Haven Hospital (1992) CT
  • Fellowship:Stanford University School of Medicine (1994) CA
  • Board Certification: Sleep Medicine, American Board of Sleep Medicine (1994)
  • Internship:Yale - New Haven Hospital (1989) CT
  • Medical Education:University of Utah School of Medicine (1988) UT

Research & Scholarship

Clinical Trials

  • Xyrem(Sodium Oxybate) and Ambien(Zolpidem Tartrate) in the Treatment of Chronic Insomnia. Not Recruiting

    The primary purpose of the study is to evaluate the long term efficacy of sodium oxybate (Xyrem®) and zolpidem tartrate (Ambien®) in treating chronic insomnia. We will compare the efficacy of sodium oxybate with zolpidem tartrate (Ambien®), and compare the efficacy of each of these two medications with placebos.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Paul Stowers, (650) 498 - 6294.

    View full details


2010-11 Courses


Journal Articles

  • Conditions of primary excessive daytime sleepiness NEUROLOGIC CLINICS Black, J. E., Brooks, S. N., Nishino, S. 2005; 23 (4): 1025-?


    Excessive daytime somnolence is a prevalent problem in medical practice and in society. It exacts a great toll in quality of life, personal and public safety, and productivity. The causes of EDS are myriad, and careful evaluation is needed to determine the cause in each case. Although much progress has been made in discovering the pathophysiology of narcolepsy, much more remains to be understood, and far less is known about other primary conditions of EDS. Several methods have been developed to assess EDS, although each of them has limitations. Treatment is available for the great majority of cases.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ncl.2005.08.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233258100006

    View details for PubMedID 16243614

  • Modafinil for treatment of residual excessive sleepiness in nasal continuous positive airway pressure-treated obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome SLEEP Black, J. E., Hirshkowitz, M. 2005; 28 (4): 464-471


    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) usually reduces sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. However, even with regular use of nCPAP, some patients experience residual excessive sleepiness. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the wake-promoting agent modafinil for treating residual excessive sleepiness in nCPAP-treated patients.12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial.Patients aged 18 to 70 years diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and having residual excessive sleepiness during nCPAP therapy were eligible.Once-daily modafinil, 200 mg or 400 mg, or placebo.Assessments included the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Clinical Global Impression of Change, and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire. Both doses of modafinil significantly improved mean (SD) sleep latency on the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test at weeks 4, 8, and 12 compared with placebo (week 12: modafinil 400 mg, 15.0 [5.3] minutes; 200 mg, 14.8 [5.3] minutes; placebo, 12.6 [5.8] minutes; P < .0001). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale score decreased more in patients taking modafinil compared with those in the placebo group (week 12: modafinil 400 mg, -4.5 [4.3]; 200 mg, -4.5 [4.7]; placebo, -1.8 [3.5]; P < .0001). At week 12, overall clinical condition improved for 61% and 68% of patients treated with modafinil 200 mg and 400 mg, respectively, versus 37% of placebo-treated patients (P < .001). Modafinil was generally well tolerated and did not adversely affect nighttime sleep or nCPAP use.These results confirm previous shorter-term controlled trials, indicating modafinil is a useful adjunct therapy for improving wakefulness in patients with residual excessive sleepiness associated with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome who were treated with nCPAP.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228134900012

    View details for PubMedID 16171291

  • Upper airway resistance syndrome - Central electroencephalographic power and changes in breathing effort AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Black, J. E., Guilleminault, C., Colrain, I. M., Carrillo, O. 2000; 162 (2): 406-411


    Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is defined by excessive daytime sleepiness and tiredness, and is associated with increased breathing effort. Its polygraphic features involve progressive increases in esophageal pressure (Pes), terminated by arousal (AR) as defined by the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA). With the arousal there is an abrupt decrease in Pes, called Pes reversal. However, Pes reversal can be seen without the presence of an AR. We performed spectral analysis on electroencephalographic data from a central lead for both AR and nonarousal (N-AR) events obtained from 15 UARS patients (eight men and seven women). Delta band activity was increased before and surrounding Pes reversal regardless of the presence or absence of AR. In the period after Pes reversal, alpha, sigma, and beta activity showed a greater increase in AR events than in N-AR events. The Pes measures were identical leading up to the point of reversal, but showed a longer-lasting and significantly greater decrease in respiratory effort after an AR. The data indicate that substantial electroencephalographic changes can be identified in association with Pes events, even when ARs cannot be detected according to standard criteria; however, visually identifiable electroencephalographic arousals clearly have a greater impact on ongoing inspiratory effort.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088829200012

    View details for PubMedID 10934061

  • [The upper airway high resistance (or abnormal resistance) syndrome]. Revue des maladies respiratoires Guilleminault, C., Black, J. E., Palombini, L. 2000; 17: S43-50

    View details for PubMedID 10939103

  • A clinical investigation of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) patients. Sleep medicine Guilleminault, C., Black, J. E., Palombini, L., Ohayon, M. 2000; 1 (1): 51-56


    Objective: (i) Evaluation of the clinical differences and similarities presented by patients diagnosed as OSAS and UARS subjects. (ii) Evaluation of the ability of a sleep disorders specialist to dissociate the two syndromes based upon clinical evaluation.Population: 314 subjects were included. They were referred to a sleep disorders clinic with complaints of loud snoring during a 3 month period.Method: The evaluation consisted of: (i) Clinical interview and evaluation. (ii) Administration of validated questionnaires (Sleep Disorders Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale). (iii) Establishment of clinical diagnostic and results of polygraphic recording.Results: After clinical evaluation and polygraphic recordings (performed within 3 weeks of initial evaluation) patients were subdivided into two groups: 176 OSAS and 128 UARS. The misclassification of patients by specialists correlated with body mass index (BMI) measurement, with an over classification of patient as OSAS when a high BMI was noted and vice-versa for UARS. The only significant difference between OSAS and UARS patients was an older age and a wider neck circumference in the OSAS group than in UARS patients.Conclusion: Clinical presentation including daytime sleepiness complaint and ESS score is similar for patients with and without drop of oxygen saturation below 90% during sleep. There was always a male predominance within both syndromes, but more women were diagnosed with UARS than with OSAS.

    View details for PubMedID 10733620

  • High (or abnormal) upper airway resistance REVUE DES MALADIES RESPIRATOIRES Guilleminault, C., Black, J. E., Palombini, L. 1999; 16 (2): 173-180

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080017800007

    View details for PubMedID 10339760

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