Jamshid Ghajar MD, PhD, FACS, is a board certified neurosurgeon, Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery, Director of the Stanford Concussion and Brain Performance Center and President of the Brain Trauma Foundation in New York City and Palo Alto.

He completed the MD/PhD program at Cornell University Medical College. During his residency training in neurosurgery at New York Presbyterian Hospital, he invented and patented several neurosurgical devices that are currently used worldwide. After residency, he joined the faculty at the New York Presbyterian Hospital-Cornell Medical Center and was a founder of the Brain Trauma Foundation (BTF) in 1986. The mission of the BTF is to improve the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). He joined the neurosurgery faculty at Stanford in February 2014.

Clinical Focus

  • Neurosurgery

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Director, Stanford Concussion and Brain Performance Center (2014 - Present)
  • Clinical Professor of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical School (2014 - Present)
  • President, Brain Trauma Foundation (1995 - Present)
  • Chief of Neurosurgery, The Jamaica Hospital-Cornell Trauma Center. New York (1989 - 2014)
  • Clinical Professor of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College (2003 - 2014)

Honors & Awards

  • American Iranian Council Award, American Iranian Council (2001)
  • Ellis Island Award, Ellis Island Award Committee (2013)
  • Honorary Police Surgeon, New York Police Department (2007-2014)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • Committee on Trauma, American College of Surgeons (2012 - Present)

Professional Education

  • Board Certification: Neurosurgery, American Board of Neurological Surgery (1993)
  • Residency:New York Hospital - Cornell (1983) NY
  • Residency:New York Hospital - Cornell (1987) NY
  • Internship:New York Hospital - Cornell (1982) NY
  • Medical Education:Cornell University Medical College (1981)

Community and International Work

  • Brain Trauma Foundation, New York and Palo Alto


    Traumatic Brain Injury

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Indian Head Injury Foundation

    Populations Served

    Traumatic Brain Injury patients



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement



  • Jamshid Ghajar. "United States Patent 7,849,525 Apparatus for Reducing Brain and Cervical Spine Injury due to Rotational Movement", G-Brace, Dec 14, 2010
  • Jamshid Ghajar. "United States Patent 7,819,818 Cognition and Motor Timing Diagnosis Using Smooth Eye Pursuit Analysis", SyncThink, Oct 26, 2010
  • Jamshid Ghajar. "United States Patent 7,708,700 Method for Improving Cognition and Motor Timing", SyncThink, May 4, 2010
  • Jamshid Ghajar. "United States Patent 7,384,399 Cognition and Motor Timing Diagnosis and Training System and Method", SyncThink, Jun 8, 2008

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Principal Investigator,
“Concussion Definition Consortium – An Evidence Based Project”. Department of Defense. There are over 40 definitions of concussion but none are evidence based- i.e. come from well done studies. We will extract the most salient data from well run studies that are designed to give us a "snapshot" of what concussion is.

Principal Investigator,
“Multi-Dimensional Model for Brain Trauma”. The goal is to develop a dynamic model for concussion, validate it on a retrospective dataset, and design a second study to validate it on a prospective dataset. Department of Defense.

Principal Investigator,
“EYE-TRAC Advance”. Testing 10,000 subjects with normal and post concussive eye tracking. Military and civilian athletes are included. Department of Defense.

Principal Investigator,
B-TEC (Brain Trauma Evidence-based Consortium). Combines Stanford B-TEC clinical trials coordinating center with the Brain Trauma Foundation's B-TEC evidence-based center to promote and coordinate an evidence-based approach to the spectrum of brain trauma from concussion to coma.


Journal Articles

  • Executive summary of concussion guidelines step 1: systematic review of prevalent indicators. Neurosurgery Carney, N., Ghajar, J., Jagoda, A., Bedrick, S., Davis-O'Reilly, C., du Coudray, H., Hack, D., Helfand, N., Huddleston, A., Nettleton, T., Riggio, S. 2014; 75: S1-2

    View details for DOI 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000434

    View details for PubMedID 24867198

  • Concussion guidelines step 1: systematic review of prevalent indicators. Neurosurgery Carney, N., Ghajar, J., Jagoda, A., Bedrick, S., Davis-O'Reilly, C., du Coudray, H., Hack, D., Helfand, N., Huddleston, A., Nettleton, T., Riggio, S. 2014; 75: S3-S15


    Currently, there is no evidence-based definition for concussion that is being uniformly applied in clinical and research settings.To conduct a systematic review of the highest-quality literature about concussion and to assemble evidence about the prevalence and associations of key indicators of concussion. The goal was to establish an evidence-based foundation from which to derive, in future work, a definition, diagnostic criteria, and prognostic indicators for concussion.Key questions were developed, and an electronic literature search from 1980 to 2012 was conducted to acquire evidence about the prevalence of and associations among signs, symptoms, and neurologic and cognitive deficits in samples of individuals exposed to potential concussive events. Included studies were assessed for potential for bias and confound and rated as high, medium, or low potential for bias and confound. Those rated as high were excluded from the analysis. Studies were further triaged on the basis of whether the definition of a case of concussion was exclusive or inclusive; only those with wide, inclusive case definitions were used in the analysis. Finally, only studies reporting data collected at fixed time points were used. For a study to be included in the conclusions, it was required that the presence of any particular sign, symptom, or deficit be reported in at least 2 independent samples.From 5437 abstracts, 1362 full-text publications were reviewed, of which 231 studies were included in the final library. Twenty-six met all criteria required to be used in the analysis, and of those, 11 independent samples from 8 publications directly contributed data to conclusions. Prevalent and consistent indicators of concussion are (1) observed and documented disorientation or confusion immediately after the event, (2) impaired balance within 1 day after injury, (3) slower reaction time within 2 days after injury, and/or (4) impaired verbal learning and memory within 2 days after injury.The results of this systematic review identify the consistent and prevalent indicators of concussion and their associations, derived from the strongest evidence in the published literature. The product is an evidence-based foundation from which to develop diagnostic criteria and prognostic indicators.GCS, Glasgow Coma ScaleLOC, loss of consciousnessPCE, potential concussive eventPTA, posttraumatic amnesiaSOT, Sensory Organization TestSSD, signs, symptoms, neurologic deficits, and cognitive deficits.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000433

    View details for PubMedID 25006974

  • Predictive Visual Tracking: Specificity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Sleep Deprivation MILITARY MEDICINE Maruta, J., Heaton, K. J., Mau, A. L., Ghajar, J. 2014; 179 (6): 619-625


    We tested whether reduced cognitive function associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and sleep deprivation can be detected and distinguished using indices of predictive visual tracking. A circular visual tracking test was given to 13 patients with acute mTBI (recruited within 2 weeks of injury), 127 normal control subjects, and 43 healthy subjects who were fatigued by 26-hour sleep deprivation. Eye movement was monitored with video-oculography. In the mTBI-related portion of the study, visual tracking performance of acute mTBI patients was significantly worse than normal subjects (p < 0.001). In the sleep-deprivation-related portion of the study, no change was detected between the two baseline measures separated by 2 to 3 weeks, but the 26-hour sleep deprivation significantly degraded the visual tracking performance (p < 0.001). The mTBI subjects had substantially worse visual tracking than sleep-deprived subjects that could also be identified with different visual tracking indices, indicating possible different neurophysiological mechanisms. Results suggest that cognitive impairment associated with mTBI and fatigue may be triaged with the aid of visual tracking measures.

    View details for DOI 10.7205/MILMED-D-13-00420

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340806500006

    View details for PubMedID 24902128

  • Detecting eye movement abnormalities from concussion. Progress in neurological surgery Maruta, J., Ghajar, J. 2014; 28: 226-233


    An attention-based biomarker may be useful for concussion screening. A key role of attention is to generate time-based expectancies of specific sensory information, and it is postulated that postconcussion cognitive impairments and symptoms may stem from a primary deficit in this predictive timing mechanism. There is a close relationship between gaze and attention, but in addressing predictive timing, there is a need for an appropriate testing paradigm and methods to quantify oculomotor anomalies. We have utilized a continuous predictive visual tracking paradigm because human visual tracking requires predicting the temporal course of a stimulus and dynamically synchronizing the required action with the stimulus. We have shown that concussion patients often show disrupted gaze-target synchronization characterized by large gaze position error variability and overall phase advancement. Various attention components interact with visual tracking, and thus there is a possibility that different neurological and physiological conditions produce identifiable visual tracking characteristics. Analyzing neuromotor functions, specifically oculomotor synchronization, can provide a fast, accurate, and reliable assessment of cognitive functions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000358786

    View details for PubMedID 24923406

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