Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
  • Psychiatry, Child and Adolescent

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Director, Stanford Child and Adolescent Eating Disorder Program, Divsion of Child Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (2002 - Present)
  • Director, Comprehensive Pediatric Care Unit, Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital (1993 - 2002)

Honors & Awards


  • Leadership Award in Research, The Academy of Eating Disorders (2014)
  • Price Family Award for Research Excellence, National Eating Disorder Association (2010)
  • Mid-Career Award, National Institutes of Health (2005-2010)
  • Career Development Award, National Institutes Of Health (1998-2003)
  • Member, Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society (1987)
  • Member, Eating Disorder Research Society (1999)
  • Junior Faculty Development Award, Association of Academic Psychiatrists (1998)

Professional Education


  • Residency:UCLA Medical Center (1991) CA
  • Board Certification: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (1994)
  • Board Certification: Psychiatry, American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (1993)
  • Fellowship:UC Davis (1993) CA
  • Internship:UCLA Medical Center (1988) CA
  • Medical Education:Morehouse School of Medicine (1987) GA
  • MS, Stanford University, Health Services Research (2000)
  • Child and Adolescent Residency, UCD Department of Psychiatry, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1993)
  • Residency, UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute, General Psychiatry (1991)
  • MD, Morehouse/Emory School of Medicine, Medicine (1987)
  • Ph.D, Emory University, Philosophy (1981)
  • MA, Emory University, Comparative Literature (1976)
  • BA, New College, Philosophy (1975)

Community and International Work


  • Does Hospital-Based Weight Restoration Prior to Outpatient Family Therapy Improve Outcomes for Child and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa?, Sydney, Australia

    Topic

    Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa

    Partnering Organization(s)

    National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) #457235

    Populations Served

    adolescents with anorexia nervosa

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


For the past 15 years I have been developing a research program for eating disorders in children and adolescents. I am an established scientist with over 200 publications including original peer reviewed articles, professional articles, book chapters, and books in the field. I have completed several NIH funded treatment studies and am currently involved as PI or Co-PI on three additonal awards all focused on treatment interventions for eating disorders. Despite the relative frequency of anorexia nervosa (prevalence estimated at 0.48-0.7% among adolescents)and bulimia nervosa (estimated prevalence 3% in adolescents), little systematic research has been conducted in effective treatments for these disorders. My work is beginning to remedy this through the development of systematic studies of these disorders, particularly for youth.

Clinical Trials


  • Effectiveness of Family-Based Versus Individual Psychotherapy in Treating Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa Not Recruiting

    This study will compare the effectiveness of family-based therapy versus individual psychotherapy for the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Judy Beenhakker, (650) 723 - 7885.

    View full details

  • Study of Treatment for Adolescents With Bulimia Nervosa Not Recruiting

    In the face of scant literature on the subject, the investigators aim to more clearly identify effective treatments for adolescent bulimia nervosa (BN) through a treatment study comparing two current treatments (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents, CBT-A and Family Based Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa, FBT-BN) for the disorder in comparison with a non-specific therapy, Supportive Psychotherapy for Adolescent Bulimia (SPT). Additionally, the investigators hope to provide clinicians with information on treatment efficacy, variables that might influence outcome, and processes that may affect treatment efficacy that will guide them in their efforts to treat adolescent BN.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact James Lock, MD, PhD, 650-723-5473.

    View full details

  • Comparison of Two Types of Family Therapy in the Treatment of Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa Not Recruiting

    This study will compare the effectiveness of two different family treatments for the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact William Agras, (650) 725 - 5734.

    View full details

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Postdoctoral Advisees


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Early weight gain predicts outcome in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa. International journal of eating disorders Le Grange, D., Accurso, E. C., Lock, J., Agras, S., Bryson, S. W. 2014; 47 (2): 124-129

    Abstract

    Determine whether early weight gain predicts full remission at end-of-treatment (EOT) and follow-up in two different treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN), and to track the rate of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up.Participants were 121 adolescents with AN (mean age = 14.4 years, SD = 1.6), from a two-site (Chicago and Stanford) randomized controlled trial. Adolescents were randomly assigned to family-based treatment (FBT) (n = 61) or individual adolescent focused therapy (AFT) (n = 60). Treatment response was assessed using percent of expected body weight (EBW) and the global score on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE). Full remission was defined as having achieved ≥95% EBW and within one standard deviation of the community norms of the EDE. Full remission was assessed at EOT as well as 12-month follow-up.Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the earliest predictor of remission at EOT was a gain of 5.8 pounds (2.65 kg) by session 3 in FBT (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.670; p = .043), and a gain of 7.1 pounds (3.20 kg) by session 4 in AFT (AUC = 0.754, p = .014). Early weight gain did not predict remission at follow-up for either treatment. A survival analysis showed that weight was marginally superior in FBT as opposed to AFT (Wald chi-square = 3.692, df = 1, p = .055).Adolescents with AN who receive either FBT or AFT, and show early weight gain, are likely to remit at EOT. However, FBT is superior to AFT in terms of weight gain throughout treatment and follow-up. (Int J Eat Disord 2014; 47:124-129).

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22221

    View details for PubMedID 24190844

  • Parent-Therapist Alliance in Family-Based Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Forsberg, S., Lotempio, E., Bryson, S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2014; 22 (1): 53-58

    Abstract

    This study aimed to describe the role of parent alliance in Family-Based Treatment (FBT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). Differences between parent and child alliance with the therapist, mothers' and fathers' alliance, and their relationship to outcome were examined.Independent observers rated audiotapes of early therapy sessions to assess the therapeutic alliance of parents and adolescents with AN in FBT. Outcome was defined using a previously established cut-point for recovery from AN.Mothers' and fathers' alliance scores with the therapist were similar and significantly higher than adolescent alliance scores early in treatment. Combined parent alliance did not predict recovery at the end of treatment. Difference in alliance scores between mothers and fathers, and parents and their child also did not predict recovery at the end of treatment.In FBT, parents developed a strong alliance with the therapist early in treatment. These scores were consistent with the focus in FBT on parental management of eating disorder symptoms, as was the fact that alliance between adolescents and therapists was lower. Although parental therapeutic alliance was likely important in FBT, its role in treatment response remains uncertain. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.2242

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328554600008

    View details for PubMedID 23861093

  • Do end of treatment assessments predict outcome at follow-up in eating disorders? International journal of eating disorders Lock, J., Agras, W. S., Le Grange, D., Couturier, J., Safer, D., Bryson, S. W. 2013; 46 (8): 771-778

    Abstract

    To examine the predictive value of end of treatment (EOT) outcomes for longer term recovery status.We used signal detection analysis to identify the best predictors of recovery based on outcome at EOT using five different eating disorder samples from randomized clinical treatment trials. We utilized a transdiagnostic definition of recovery that included normalization of weight and eating related psychopathology.Achieving a body weight of 95.2% of expected body weight by EOT is the best predictor of recovery for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). For adults with AN, the most efficient predictor of weight recovery (BMI > 19) was weight gain to greater than 85.8% of ideal body weight. In addition, for adults with AN, the most efficient predictor of psychological recovery was achievement of an eating disorder examination (EDE) weight concerns score below 1.8. The best predictor of recovery for adults with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) was a frequency of compensatory behaviors less than two times a month. For adolescents with BN, abstinence from purging and reduction in the EDE restraint score of more than 3.4 from baseline to EOT were good predictors of recovery. For adults with binge eating disorder, reduction of the Global EDE score to within the normal range (<1.58) was the best predictor of recovery.The relationship between EOT response and recovery remains understudied. Utilizing a transdiagnostic definition of recovery, no uniform predictors were identified across all eating disorder diagnostic groups. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2013; 46:771-778).

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22175

    View details for PubMedID 23946139

  • Do in-vivo behaviors predict early response in family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa? Behaviour research and therapy Darcy, A. M., Bryson, S. W., Agras, W. S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2013; 51 (11): 762-766

    Abstract

    The aim of the study is to explore whether identified parental and patient behaviors observed in the first few sessions of family-based treatment (FBT) predict early response (weight gain of 1.8 kg by session four) to treatment. Therapy film recordings from 21 adolescent participants recruited into the FBT arm of a multi-site randomized clinical trial were coded for the presence of behaviors (length of observed behavior divided by length of session recording) in the first, second and fourth sessions. Behaviors that differed between early responders and non-early responders on univariate analysis were entered into discriminant class analyses. Participants with fewer negative verbal behaviors in the first session and were away from table during the meal session less had the greatest rates of early response. Parents who made fewer critical statements and who did not repeatedly present food during the meal session had children who had the greatest rates of early response. In-vivo behaviors in early sessions of FBT may predict early response to FBT. Adaptations to address participant resistance and to decrease the numbers of critical comments made by parents while encouraging their children to eat might improve early response to FBT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2013.09.003

    View details for PubMedID 24091274

  • The role of the pediatrician in family-based treatment for adolescent eating disorders: opportunities and challenges. journal of adolescent health Katzman, D. K., Peebles, R., Sawyer, S. M., Lock, J., Le Grange, D. 2013; 53 (4): 433-440

    Abstract

    Empiric research supports that family-based treatment (FBT) is an effective treatment for adolescents with eating disorders. This review outlines the role of the pediatrician in FBT for adolescent eating disorders, specifically focusing on how pediatric care changes during treatment, and discusses current challenges and misconceptions regarding FBT. Although FBT introduces unique challenges to pediatricians trained in earlier eating disorder treatment approaches, effective support of the approach by pediatricians is critical to its success.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.07.011

    View details for PubMedID 24054079

  • Is outpatient cognitive remediation therapy feasible to use in randomized clinical trials for anorexia nervosa? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Lock, J., Agras, W. S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Bryson, S. W., Jo, B., Tchanturia, K. 2013; 46 (6): 567-575

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22134

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323436800005

  • Are Adolescent Treatment Studies of Eating Disorders Utilizing Clinically Relevant Samples? A Comparison of RCT and Clinic Treatment-Seeking Youth with Eating Disorders EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Stiles-Shields, C., Goldschmidt, A. B., Lock, J., Le Grange, D. 2013; 21 (5): 420-424

    Abstract

    To assess potential selection bias in participant recruitment for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of adolescent eating disorders (EDs), we compared participants recruited for RCTs evaluating psychosocial treatments with individuals seeking fee-for-service outpatient ED treatment [clinic treatment-seeking (CTS)].Participants were 214 adolescents presenting to an outpatient ED research-clinical program (92.1% female; M age = 15.4 ± 1.8 years). ANOVA and chi-square tests assessed differences between CTS participants and those presenting for no-cost treatment through RCTs. A secondary analysis compared RCT participants to participants eligible for the RCTs that opted for fee-for-service treatment.RCT participants had greater baseline ED and general psychopathology (p < .001); however, CTS participants were more likely to present with a comorbid psychiatric disorder (p < .05) and higher family income (p < .05).Results suggest that RCT participants did not have less pathology than CTS participants. While preliminary, results do not indicate a systematic population bias in selecting healthier patients for RCTs involving adolescent ED. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.2228

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322922700011

    View details for PubMedID 23483619

  • A review of attention biases in women with eating disorders. Cognition & emotion Aspen, V., Darcy, A. M., Lock, J. 2013; 27 (5): 820-838

    Abstract

    There is robust evidence that women with eating disorders (EDs) display an attention bias (AB) for disorder-salient stimuli. Emerging data suggest that the presence of these biases may be due, in part, to neurological deficits, such as poor set shifting and weak central coherence. While some have argued that these biases function to predispose and/or act to maintain disordered eating behaviours, evidence supporting this view has rarely been examined. This report summarises and integrates the existing literature on AB in EDs and other related psychiatric disorders to better understand its potential role in the development and maintenance of an ED. The domains reviewed include experimental data using the dot-probe and modified Stroop task and neurobiological findings on AB in women with EDs as well as the role of AB in current theoretical models. We conclude by proposing an integrated model on the role of AB in EDs and discuss treatment approaches aimed at modifying these biases.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/02699931.2012.749777

    View details for PubMedID 23228135

  • The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among university men and women at different levels of athleticism. Eating behaviors Darcy, A. M., Hardy, K. K., Lock, J., Hill, K. B., Peebles, R. 2013; 14 (3): 378-381

    Abstract

    The aim of the current study was to establish norms for the Eating Disorder (ED) Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among competitive athletes and to explore the contribution of level of athletic involvement and gender to ED psychopathology, as measured by the EDE-Q. University students (n=1637) from ten United States universities were recruited online via a social networking website and asked to complete an anonymous survey. The sample was then divided according to gender and level of sports participation. Females scored higher than males regardless of level of athleticism. Lower mean scores were frequently observed among those involved in competitive sports exclusively and highest scores among those involved in recreational sports (alone or in addition to competitive athletics). Recreational activity seems to be important in stratifying risk among competitive athletes; gender is an important interaction term in athletic populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.04.002

    View details for PubMedID 23910784

  • Factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) in male and female college athletes. Body image Darcy, A. M., Hardy, K. K., Crosby, R. D., Lock, J., Peebles, R. 2013; 10 (3): 399-405

    Abstract

    The study explored the psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among 1637 university students. Participants were divided into male (n=432) and female (n=544) competitive athletes, and male (n=229) and female (n=429) comparison groups comprised of individuals who had not engaged in competitive sports for at least one year. All groups were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the fit of the published factor structure in this population, and then exploratory FA (EFA). A three-factor solution was the best fit for three out of four groups, with a two-factor solution providing best fit for the male comparison group. The first factor for all groups resembled a combined Shape and Weight Concern subscale. The factor structure among male and female competitive athletes was remarkably similar; however, non-competitive athletic/low activity males appear qualitatively different from other groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.01.008

    View details for PubMedID 23453695

  • Patients' characteristics and the quality of the therapeutic alliance in family-based treatment and individual therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa JOURNAL OF FAMILY THERAPY LoTempio, E., Forsberg, S., Bryson, S. W., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2013; 35: 29-52
  • Therapeutic alliance in two treatments for adolescent anorexia nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Forsberg, S., Lotempio, E., Bryson, S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2013; 46 (1): 34-38

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between therapeutic alliance and treatment outcome (remission status) in family-based treatment (FBT) and adolescent-focused therapy (AFT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN).Independent observers rated audiotapes of early therapy sessions using the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer Version (WAI-o). Outcome was defined using established cut-points for full and partial remission. To control for effects of early symptom improvement, changes in weight- and eating-related psychopathology prior to the alliance session were calculated and entered as a covariate in each analysis.Participants in AFT had significantly higher alliance scores; however, overall scores were high in both therapies. The alliance was not a predictor of full remission for either treatment, though it was a non-specific predictor for partial remission.Therapeutic alliance is achievable in adolescents with AN in both AFT and FBT, but demonstrated no relationship to full remission of the disorder.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312300000005

    View details for PubMedID 22836506

  • Is outpatient cognitive remediation therapy feasible to use in randomized clinical trials for anorexia nervosa? The International journal of eating disorders Lock, J., Agras, W. S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Bryson, S. W., Jo, B., Tchanturia, K. 2013

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: There are limited data supporting specific treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for adults with AN are characterized by high attrition limiting the feasibility of conducting and interpreting existing studies. High dropout rates may be related to the inflexible and obsessional cognitive style of patients with AN. This study evaluated the feasibility of using cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) to reduce attrition in RCTs for AN. METHOD: Forty-six participants (mean age of 22.7 years and mean duration of AN of 6.4 years) were randomized to receive eight sessions of either CRT or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) over 2 months followed by 16 sessions of CBT for 4 months. RESULTS: During the 2-month CRT vs. CBT treatment, rates of attrition were lower in CRT (13%) compared with that of CBT (33%). There were greater improvements in cognitive inefficiencies in the CRT compared with that of the CBT group at the end of 2 months. There were no differences in other outcomes. DISCUSSION: These results suggest that CRT is acceptable and feasible for use in RCTs for outpatient treatment of AN. CRT may reduce attrition in the short term. Adequately powered future studies are needed to examine CRT as an outpatient treatment for AN.

    View details for PubMedID 23625628

  • Set-shifting among adolescents with anorexia nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Fitzpatrick, K. K., Darcy, A., Colborn, D., Gudorf, C., Lock, J. 2012; 45 (7): 909-912

    Abstract

    Set-shifting difficulties are documented for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, AN typically onsets in adolescents and it is unclear if set-shifting difficulties are a result of chronic AN or present earlier in its course. This study examined whether adolescents with short duration AN demonstrated set-shifting difficulties compared to healthy controls (HC).Data on set-shifting collected from the Delis-Kaplan executive functioning system and Wisconsin card sort task (WCST) as well as eating psychopathology were collected from 32 adolescent inpatients with AN and compared with those from 22 HCs.There were no differences in set-shifting in adolescents with AN compared to HCs on most measures.The findings suggest that set-shifting difficulties in AN may be a consequence of AN. Future studies should explore set-shifting difficulties in a larger sample of adolescents with the AN to determine if there is sub-set of adolescents with these difficulties and determine any relationship of set-shifting to the development of a chronic from of AN.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310271600014

    View details for PubMedID 22692985

  • Set-Shifting Among Adolescents With Bulimic Spectrum Eating Disorders PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Darcy, A. M., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Colborn, D., Manasse, S., Datta, N., Aspen, V., Shields, C. S., Le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2012; 74 (8): 869-872

    Abstract

    Set-shifting difficulties are observed among adults with bulimia nervosa (BN). This study aimed to assess whether adolescents with BN and BN spectrum eating disorders exhibit set-shifting problems relative to healthy controls.Neurocognitive data from 23 adolescents with BN were compared with those from 31 adolescents with BN-type eating disorder not otherwise specified and 22 healthy controls on various measures of set-shifting (Trail Making Task [shift task], Color-Word Interference, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Brixton Spatial Anticipation Task).No significant differences in set-shifting tasks were found among groups (p >.35), and effect sizes were small (Cohen f < 0.17).Cognitive inflexibility may develop over time because of the eating disorder, although it is possible that there is a subset of individuals in whom early neurocognitive difficulty may result in a longer illness trajectory. Future research should investigate the existence of neurocognitive taxons in larger samples and use longitudinal designs to fully explore biomarkers and illness effects.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00879151.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31826af636

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310047800011

    View details for PubMedID 23001391

  • Disordered Eating in a Digital Age: Eating Behaviors, Health, and Quality of Life in Users of Websites With Pro-Eating Disorder Content JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INTERNET RESEARCH Peebles, R., Wilson, J. L., Litt, I. F., Hardy, K. K., Lock, J. D., Mann, J. R., Borzekowski, D. L. 2012; 14 (5)

    Abstract

    Much concern has been raised over pro-eating disorder (pro-ED) website communities, but little quantitative research has been conducted on these websites and their users.To examine associations between levels of pro-ED website usage, disordered eating behaviors, and quality of life.We conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of adult pro-ED website users. Main outcomes were Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Eating Disorder Quality of Life (EDQOL) scores.We included responses from 1291 participants; 1254 (97.13%) participants were female. Participants had an average age of 22.0 years and a mean body mass index of 22.1 kg/m(2); 24.83% (296/1192) were underweight; 20.89% (249/1192) were overweight or obese. Over 70% of participants had purged, binged, or used laxatives to control their weight; only 12.91% (163/1263) were in treatment. Mean EDE-Q scores were above the 90th percentile and mean EDQOL scores were in the severely impaired range. When compared with moderate and light usage, heavy pro-ED website usage was associated with higher EDE-Q global (4.89 vs 4.56 for medium and 4.0 for light usage, P < .001) and EDQOL total scores (1.64 vs 1.45 for medium and 1.25 for light usage, P < .001), and more extreme weight loss behaviors and harmful post-website usage activities. In a multivariate model, the level of pro-ED website usage remained a significant predictor of EDE-Q scores.Pro-ED website visitors reported many disordered eating behaviors, although few had been treated. Heavy users reported poorer quality of life and more disordered eating behaviors.

    View details for DOI 10.2196/jmir.2023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315108100030

    View details for PubMedID 23099628

  • Recruitment and retention in an adolescent anorexia nervosa treatment trial INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Brownstone, L., Anderson, K., Beenhakker, J., Lock, J., le Grange, D. 2012; 45 (6): 812-815

    Abstract

    To investigate recruitment and retention for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN), as prior studies suggest that these are significant hurdles to completing meaningful RCTs in this population.Retrospective analyses of recruitment and retention rates were conducted for a multisite RCT of family-based treatment (FBT) versus adolescent-focused therapy (AFT) recruiting adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age with AN.Adolescent participants were recruited from a variety of both medical and nonmedical sources. Recruitment goals were met in time (October 2004-March 2007). Percent retention rates were high across both treatment types (84% for FBT and 92% for AFT), and these rates did not differ significantly.These results reveal that recruitment and retention of adolescent patients with AN to RCTs are feasible in contrast to the experience in adult studies. It is likely that characteristics of our clinical programs make recruitment easier than in other settings, e.g., child and adolescent focused, specialized eating disorders program with an emphasis on outpatient treatment, recognized leaders in the field, and a history of clinical excellence with this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.22010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307342100012

    View details for PubMedID 22407438

  • Family-based Early Intervention for Anorexia Nervosa EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Jones, M., Voelker, U., Lock, J., Taylor, C. B., Jacobi, C. 2012; 20 (3): e137-e143

    Abstract

    This study explores whether potential risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) can be modified by a family-based Internet-facilitated intervention and examines the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term efficacy of the Parents Act Now programme in the USA and Germany.Forty-six girls aged 11-17 were studied during a 12-month period and evaluated at screening, baseline, and post-intervention. Parents participated in the six-week intervention.Twenty-four per cent of girls (n?=?791) screened met the risk criteria for AN. Parents accessed the majority of the online sessions and rated the programme favourably. At post-assessment, 16 of 19 participants evidenced reduced risk status. Participants remained stable or increased in ideal body weight and reported decreased eating disorder attitudes and behaviours.Results suggest that an easily disseminated, brief, online programme with minimal therapist support is feasible, accepted favourably by parents, and may be beneficial for prevention of exacerbation of AN pathology.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.2167

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302947500004

    View details for PubMedID 22438094

  • Challenges in Conducting a Multi-Site Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Treatments for Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Lock, J., Brandt, H., Woodside, B., Agras, S., Halmi, W. K., Johnson, C., Kaye, W., Wilfley, D. 2012; 45 (2): 202-213

    Abstract

    To describe obstacles in the implementation of a controlled treatment trial of adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN).The original aim was to enter 240 participants with AN to one of four cells: Behavioral family therapy (BFT) plus fluoxetine; BFT plus placebo; systems family therapy (SFT) plus fluoxetine; SFT plus placebo.Recruitment was delayed pending a satisfactory resolution concerning participant safety. After 6 months of recruitment it became clear that the medication was associated with poor recruitment leading to a study redesign resulting in a comparison of two types of family therapy with a projected sample size of 160. One site was unable to recruit and was replaced.Problems with the delineation of safety procedures, recruitment, re-design of the study, and replacement of a site, were the main elements resulting in a 1-year delay. Suggestions are made for overcoming such problems in future AN trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20923

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301228500005

    View details for PubMedID 21495052

  • Moderators and mediators of remission in family-based treatment and adolescent focused therapy for anorexia nervosa BEHAVIOUR RESEARCH AND THERAPY le Grange, D., Lock, J., Agras, W. S., Moye, A., Bryson, S. W., Jo, B., Kraemer, H. C. 2012; 50 (2): 85-92

    Abstract

    Few of the limited randomized controlled trails (RCTs) for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) have explored the effects of moderators and mediators on outcome. This study aimed to identify treatment moderators and mediators of remission at end of treatment (EOT) and 6- and 12-month follow-up (FU) for adolescents with AN (N = 121) who participated in a multi-center RCT of family-based treatment (FBT) and individual adolescent focused therapy (AFT). Mixed effects modeling were utilized and included all available outcome data at all time points. Remission was defined as ? 95% IBW plus within 1 SD of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) norms. Eating related obsessionality (Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Total Scale) and eating disorder specific psychopathology (EDE-Global) emerged as moderators at EOT. Subjects with higher baseline scores on these measures benefited more from FBT than AFT. AN type emerged as a moderator at FU with binge-eating/purging type responding less well than restricting type. No mediators of treatment outcome were identified. Prior hospitalization, older age and duration of illness were identified as non-specific predictors of outcome. Taken together, these results indicate that patients with more severe eating related psychopathology have better outcomes in a behaviorally targeted family treatment (FBT) than an individually focused approach (AFT).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.brat.2011.11.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301019200001

    View details for PubMedID 22172564

  • Transdiagnostic Theory and Application of Family-Based Treatment for Youth With Eating Disorders COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL PRACTICE Loeb, K. L., Lock, J., Greif, R., Le Grange, D. 2012; 19 (1): 17-30
  • Cultural variability in expressed emotion among families of adolescents with anorexia nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Hoste, R. R., Labuschagne, Z., Lock, J., Le Grange, D. 2012; 45 (1): 142-145

    Abstract

    To examine the cultural variability in Expressed Emotion (EE) among families of white and ethnic minority adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN).One-hundred and eighty-nine AN patients and their parents completed the Eating Disorder Examination and the Structured Clinical Family Interview, from which EE ratings were made.No differences were found in the number of white and minority families classified as high EE. White families were higher on warmth (W) and tended to be higher on positive remarks (PR) than minority families. High EE was associated with a longer duration of illness, but was not related to eating disorder pathology.Few differences were found between white and ethnic minority families on the EE dimensions of CC, hostility (H), or EOI. Differences between families on W and PR, however, may have important treatment implications.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20888

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298063600021

    View details for PubMedID 22170027

  • The eating disorders examination in adolescent males with anorexia nervosa: How does it compare to adolescent females? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Darcy, A. M., Doyle, A. C., Lock, J., Peebles, R., Doyle, P., Le Grange, D. 2012; 45 (1): 110-114

    Abstract

    The study aimed to explore the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) for adolescent males with eating disorders (EDs) compared with adolescent females with EDs.Data were collected from 48 males and matched on percent median body weight (MBW) and age to 48 females at two sites.Adolescent males with anorexia nervosa-type presentation scored significantly lower than matched females on Shape Concern, Weight Concern, and Global score. They also scored lower on a number of individual items.The EDE has clinical utility with adolescent males with anorexic-type presentation although males' scoring ranges are consistently lower than those from adolescent females with similar clinical presentations. Males scored significantly lower on a number of items representing core symptoms such as desire to lose weight. More research is needed to gain a better understanding of the experience of adolescent males with EDs, particularly in relation to the nature of shape concern.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20896

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298063600014

    View details for PubMedID 22170022

  • Eating Disorders in Youth: Diagnostic Variability and Predictive Validity INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Loeb, K. L., Le Grange, D., Hildebrandt, T., Greif, R., Lock, J., Alfano, L. 2011; 44 (8): 692-702

    Abstract

    The primary aim was to examine the utility of DSM-IV criteria in predicting treatment outcome in a sample of adolescents with eating disorders.We (a) descriptively compared the baseline rates of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) across multiple reference points for diagnostic criteria, (b) using ROC curve analyses, assessed the sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic criterion in predicting clinical outcome, and (c) with logistic regression analyses, examined the incremental predictive value of each criterion.Results show a high degree of variability in the baseline diagnostic profiles as a function of the information used to inform each DSM-IV criterion. For AN, Criterion A yielded the best predictive validity, with Criteria B-D providing no significant incremental value. For BN, none of the measures had a significant AUC, and results from logistic regression analyses showed that none of the indicators were robust in predicting outcome.For AN, the existing Criterion A is appropriate for children and adolescents, and is sufficient to predict outcome in the context of active refusal to maintain a normal weight as well as multiple informants and behavioral indicators of the psychological aspects of AN. For BN, predictive validity could not be established.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20872

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297309300004

    View details for PubMedID 22072406

  • Parental Expressed Emotion of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: Outcome in Family-Based Treatment INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS le Grange, D., Hoste, R. R., Lock, J., Bryson, S. W. 2011; 44 (8): 731-734

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between expressed emotion (EE) and outcome in family-based treatment (FBT) for anorexia nervosa (AN).Eighty-six adolescents with AN participated in an RCT comparing two doses of FBT. Seventy-nine of these patients and their parents participated in a structured interview, from which EE ratings were made at baseline. Parents were compared on five subscales of EE as well as overall level of EE (high vs. low).Overall EE levels were low with 32.9% of families presenting as High EE at baseline. Ratings of baseline warmth for both mothers (p = .014) and fathers (p = .037) were related to good outcome at end-of-treatment.EE in parents of adolescents with AN is remarkably low. Notwithstanding, parental warmth may be a predictor of good outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20877

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297309300010

    View details for PubMedID 22072411

  • Evaluation of family treatment models for eating disorders CURRENT OPINION IN PSYCHIATRY Lock, J. 2011; 24 (4): 274-279

    Abstract

    Interest in the effectiveness of family interventions for eating disorders has increased over the past 5 years. This review considers the theoretical justification and current evidence base for the use of family treatments for eating disorders in children and adolescents.Family-based treatment is the best studied treatment. It has the strongest evidence base for effectiveness for anorexia nervosa in adolescents. Family-based treatment can be delivered in several formats and doses, and preliminary data suggest it can be disseminated by training and manuals. There is a more limited evidence base demonstrating the usefulness of family interventions for bulimia nervosa in adolescents.The implications of the findings of this review are that family interventions are the current first-line treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa and promising for adolescent bulimia nervosa. Pilot studies suggest that family interventions can be disseminated in diverse clinical settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/YCO.0b013e328346f71e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291030800003

    View details for PubMedID 21519263

  • Self-Injury in Adolescents With Eating Disorders: Correlates and Provider Bias JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Peebles, R., Wilson, J. L., Lock, J. D. 2011; 48 (3): 310-313

    Abstract

    Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is common among adolescents, and has been shown to be associated with eating disorders (ED). This study examines the prevalence of SIB and SIB screening in adolescents with ED, and associations with binge eating, purging, and diagnosis.Charts of 1,432 adolescents diagnosed with ED, aged 10-21 years, at an academic center between January 1997 and April 2008, were reviewed.Of patients screened, 40.8% were reported to be engaging in SIB. Patients with a record of SIB were more likely to be female, have bulimia nervosa, or have a history of binge eating, purging, co-morbid mood disorder, substance use, or abuse. Patients who engaged in both binge eating and purging were more likely to report SIB than those engaged in restrictive behavior or either behavior alone. Providers documented screening for SIB in fewer than half of the patients. They were more likely to screen patients who fit a profile of a self-injurer: older patients who binge, purge, or had a history of substance use.SIB was common in this population, and supports extant literature on associations with bulimia nervosa, mood disorders, binge eating, purging, abuse, and substance use. Providers may selectively screen patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.06.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287478300016

    View details for PubMedID 21338905

  • Use of Mirtazapine in an Adult with Refractory Anorexia Nervosa and Comorbid Depression: A Case Report INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Safer, D. L., Darcy, A. M., Lock, J. 2011; 44 (2): 178-181

    Abstract

    The objective of this report was to describe an efficacious treatment of an adult with long-standing anorexia nervosa (AN). A 50-year-old woman with an over 7-year history of AN and comorbid major depression had been treated unsuccessfully with numerous psychotropic medications, manualized cognitive behavior therapy, and an intensive outpatient treatment program before referral. After treatment with mirtazapine, she gained weight and her depression improved. A 9-month follow-up revealed a maintenance of these benefits. Mirtazapine may be useful for older, chronically ill patients presenting with AN and comorbid depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20793

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287551500011

    View details for PubMedID 20127940

  • Anorexia nervosa. Clinical evidence Fitzpatrick, K. K., Lock, J. 2011; 2011

    Abstract

    Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and up to 0.7% of this age group may be affected. While most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, about 5% die of the condition, and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder. Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of bone fractures later in life. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review, and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in anorexia nervosa? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat complications of anorexia nervosa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: atypical antipsychotic drugs, benzodiazepines, cyproheptadine, inpatient/outpatient treatment setting, oestrogen treatment (HRT or oral contraceptives), older-generation antipsychotic drugs, psychotherapy, refeeding, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants.

    View details for PubMedID 21481284

  • Aberrant Brain Activation During a Response Inhibition Task in Adolescent Eating Disorder Subtypes AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY Lock, J., Garrett, A., Beenhakker, J., Reiss, A. L. 2011; 168 (1): 55-64

    Abstract

    Behavioral and personality characteristics associated with excessive inhibition and disinhibition are observed in patients with eating disorders, but neural correlates of inhibitory control have not been examined in adolescents with these disorders.Thirteen female adolescents with binge eating and purging behaviors (i.e., bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosa, binge eating/purging type);14 with anorexia nervosa, restricting type; and 13 healthy comparison subjects performed a rapid, jittered event-related go/no-go task. Functional magnetic resonance images were collected using a 3 Tesla GE scanner and a spiral pulse sequence. A whole-brain three-group analysis of variance in SPM5 was used to identify significant activation associated with the main effect of group for the comparison of correct no-go versus go trials. The mean activation in these clusters was extracted for further comparisons in SPSS.The binge eating/purging group showed significantly greater activation than the healthy comparison group in the bilateral precentral gyri, anterior cingulate cortex, and middle and superior temporal gyri as well as greater activation relative to both comparison and restricting type anorexia subjects in the hypothalamus and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Within-group analysis found that only the restricting type anorexia group showed a positive correlation between the percent correct on no-go trials and activation in posterior visual and inferior parietal cortex regions.The present study provides preliminary evidence that during adolescence, eating disorder subtypes may be distinguishable in terms of neural correlates of inhibitory control. This distinction is consistent with differences in behavioral impulsivity in these patient groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10010056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285868100010

    View details for PubMedID 21123315

  • Cognitive remediation therapy for eating disorders: development, refinement and future directions. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences Tchanturia, K., Lock, J. 2011; 6: 269-287

    Abstract

    In this chapter, we aim to address some basic conceptual and practical questions about cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for eating disorders. We begin by providing an overall historical, conceptual, and theoretical framework for CRT. Next, we discuss the specific indications for how and why CRT might be useful for eating disorders based on existing neuropsychological research evidence. We also provide an overview of the types of tasks and stimuli used in CRT and a general protocol for a manualized version of CRT. In addition, modifications of the adult CRT manual for use with adolescents as well as preliminary acceptability of the approach with this younger age group are described. We also propose various ways to integrate CRT in a variety of inpatient and outpatient programmes. Finally, a discussion of potential future directions in research using the tools of neurocognitive assessment, imaging and treatment research is provided.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/7854_2010_90

    View details for PubMedID 21243481

  • Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Family-Based Treatment With Adolescent-Focused Individual Therapy for Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa ARCHIVES OF GENERAL PSYCHIATRY Lock, J., Le Grange, D., Agras, S., Moye, A., Bryson, S. W., Jo, B. 2010; 67 (10): 1025-1032

    Abstract

    Evidence-based treatment trials for adolescents with anorexia nervosa are few.To evaluate the relative efficacy of family-based treatment (FBT) and adolescent-focused individual therapy (AFT) for adolescents with anorexia nervosa in full remission.Randomized controlled trial.Stanford University and The University of Chicago (April 2005 until March 2009).One hundred twenty-one participants, aged 12 through 18 years, with DSM-IV diagnosis of anorexia nervosa excluding the amenorrhea requirement. Intervention Twenty-four outpatient hours of treatment over 12 months of FBT or AFT. Participants were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and 6 months' and 12 months' follow-up posttreatment.Full remission from anorexia nervosa defined as normal weight (?95% of expected for sex, age, and height) and mean global Eating Disorder Examination score within 1 SD of published means. Secondary outcome measures included partial remission rates (>85% of expected weight for height plus those who were in full remission) and changes in body mass index percentile and eating-related psychopathology.There were no differences in full remission between treatments at EOT. However, at both the 6- and 12-month follow-up, FBT was significantly superior to AFT on this measure. Family-based treatment was significantly superior for partial remission at EOT but not at follow-up. In addition, body mass index percentile at EOT was significantly superior for FBT, but this effect was not found at follow-up. Participants in FBT also had greater changes in Eating Disorder Examination score at EOT than those in AFT, but there were no differences at follow-up.Although both treatments led to considerable improvement and were similarly effective in producing full remission at EOT, FBT was more effective in facilitating full remission at both follow-up points.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00149786.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282917400005

    View details for PubMedID 20921118

  • All Better? How Former Anorexia Nervosa Patients Define Recovery and Engaged in Treatment EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Darcy, A. M., Katz, S., Fitzpatrick, K. K., Forsberg, S., Utzinger, L., Lock, J. 2010; 18 (4): 260-270

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to explore how individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) engage in treatment and define recovery. A mixed methods design was used to triangulate the experience of 20 women with a history of AN. Interview data were analysed thematically to explore frequency of emergent themes and current eating disorder psychopathology was assessed using standardized self-report measures. Participants' mean age was 29.35 (SD = 12.11). Participants' scores were indicative of persistent psychopathology. Those with more involvement in treatment choice had better motivation to change and normalized eating. Participants' definition of recovery mapped on well to current research conceptualizations, though a substantial proportion of the group expressed some ambivalence around the concept. Results are interpreted in the context of self-determination theory of motivation and suggest that patients should be involved collaboratively in the formulation of shared goals and concepts of recovery in treatment settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.1020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280080100003

    View details for PubMedID 20589765

  • Family-based treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: a dissemination study. Eating disorders Couturier, J., Isserlin, L., Lock, J. 2010; 18 (3): 199-209

    Abstract

    This open trial of Family-Based Treatment for Anorexia Nervosa was completed in order to assess the dissemination of this treatment, including effectiveness, fidelity, and acceptability. Fourteen adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa were recruited with mean age 14.0+1.5 years (range 12-17 years). Therapists were trained using a workshop, manual and weekly supervision. Sessions were videotaped and rated for treatment fidelity. Pre- and post- treatment assessments were compared. Weight was significantly increased by an average of 7.8 kg. Dietary restraint showed significant improvement, as did interoceptive deficits and maturity fears. Of the 9 participants who had secondary amenorrhea at baseline, 8 had regained menstrual function. Treatment fidelity was rated as at least considerable 72% of the time in phase I of the treatment. Adolescents and parents found the treatment to be acceptable. This preliminary investigation of the dissemination of Family-Based Treatment for adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa indicates that this treatment is effective not only for weight restoration, but also in improving some psychological symptoms including dietary restraint, interoceptive deficits, and maturity fears. In addition, this treatment was adopted with considerable fidelity and was acceptable to adolescents and parents.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10640261003719443

    View details for PubMedID 20419524

  • Are Diagnostic Criteria for Eating Disorders Markers of Medical Severity? PEDIATRICS Peebles, R., Hardy, K. K., Wilson, J. L., Lock, J. D. 2010; 125 (5): E1193-E1201

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to compare the medical severity of adolescents who had eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS) with those who had anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN).Medical records of 1310 females aged 8 through 19 years and treated for AN, BN, or EDNOS were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with EDNOS were subcategorized into partial AN (pAN) and partial BN (pBN) when they met all Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria but 1 for AN or BN, respectively. Primary outcome variables were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, temperature, and QTc interval on electrocardiogram. Additional physiologically significant medical complications were also reviewed.A total of 25.2% of females had AN, 12.4% had BN, and 62.4% had EDNOS. The medical severity of patients with EDNOS was intermediate to that of patients with AN and BN in all primary outcomes. Patients with pAN had significantly higher heart rates, systolic blood pressures, and temperatures than those with AN; patients with pBN did not differ significantly from those with BN in any primary outcome variable; however, patients with pAN and pBN differed significantly from each other in all outcome variables. Patients with pBN and BN had longer QTc intervals and higher rates of additional medical complications reported at presentation than other groups.EDNOS is a medically heterogeneous category with serious physiologic sequelae in children and adolescents. Broadening AN and BN criteria in pediatric patients to include pAN and pBN may prove to be clinically useful.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2008-1777

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277232800055

    View details for PubMedID 20385643

  • Classification of Eating Disturbance in Children and Adolescents: Proposed Changes for the DSM-V EUROPEAN EATING DISORDERS REVIEW Bravender, T., Bryant-Waugh, R., Herzog, D., Katzman, D., Kriepe, R. D., Lask, B., le Grange, D., Lock, J., Loeb, K. L., Marcus, M. D., Madden, S., Nicholls, D., O'Toole, J., Pinhas, L., Rome, E., Sokol-Burger, M., Wallin, U., Zucker, N. 2010; 18 (2): 79-89

    Abstract

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods of neural development and physical growth. The malnutrition and related medical complications resulting from eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified may have more severe and potentially more protracted consequences during youth than during other age periods. The consensus opinion of an international workgroup of experts on the diagnosis and treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders is that (a) lower and more developmentally sensitive thresholds of symptom severity (e.g. lower frequency of purging behaviours, significant deviations from growth curves as indicators of clinical severity) be used as diagnostic boundaries for children and adolescents, (b) behavioural indicators of psychological features of eating disorders be considered even in the absence of direct self-report of such symptoms and (c) multiple informants (e.g. parents) be used to ascertain symptom profiles. Collectively, these recommendations will permit earlier identification and intervention to prevent the exacerbation of eating disorder symptoms.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/erv.994

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275096000004

    View details for PubMedID 20151366

  • Treatment of Adolescent Eating Disorders: Progress and Challenges. Minerva psichiatrica Lock, J. 2010; 51 (3): 207-216

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: Although eating disorders are common psychiatric disorders that usually onset during adolescence, few evidence-based treatments for this age group have been identified. A critical review of treatments used for Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and related conditions (EDNOS) is provided that summarizes the rationale for the treatments, evidence of effectiveness available, and outcomes. METHOD: Critical review of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs). RESULTS: There are only seven published RCTs of psychotherapy for AN in adolescents with a total of 480 subjects. There are only two published RCTs for outpatient psychotherapy for adolescent BN with a total of 165 subjects. There are no published RCTs examining medications for adolescent AN or BN. For adolescent AN, Family-Based Treatment (FBT) is the treatment with the most evidence supporting its use. Three RCTs suggest that FBT is superior to individual therapy at the end of treatment; however, at follow-up differences between individual and family approaches are generally reduced. For adolescent BN, one study found no differences between Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and FBT at the end of treatment or follow-up, while the other found FBT superior to individual therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Although the evidence remains limited, FBT appears to be the first line treatment for adolescent AN. There is little evidence to support a specific treatment for adolescent BN. There is a need for additional studies of treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders. New treatments studies may build on current evidence as well as examine new approaches based on novel findings in the neurosciences about cognitive and emotional processes in eating disorders.

    View details for PubMedID 21532979

  • Academy for Eating Disorders Position Paper: The Role of the Family in Eating Disorders INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS le Grange, D., Lock, J., Loeb, K., Nicholls, D. 2010; 43 (1): 1-5

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20751

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273106100001

    View details for PubMedID 19728372

  • Trying to Fit Square Pegs in Round Holes: Eating Disorders in Males JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Lock, J. D. 2009; 44 (2): 99-100
  • Advances in psychotherapy for children and adolescents with eating disorders. American journal of psychotherapy Lock, J., Fitzpatrick, K. K. 2009; 63 (4): 287-303

    Abstract

    There is a significant lag in the development of evidence based approaches for eating disorders in children and adolescents despite the fact that these disorders typically onset during these developmental periods. Available studies suggest that psychotherapy is the best available approach to these disorders. Specific studies support the use of family based interventions, adolescent focused individual therapy, and developmentally adapted cognitive behavioral therapy in this age group. The current report summarizes the available evidence supportive of each of these treatment modalities, as well as, provides a description of the rationale and principle therapeutic targets and intervention types. Future directions in psychotherapy research in child and adolescent eating disorders are discussed.

    View details for PubMedID 20131739

  • Is there a relationship between parental self-reported psychopathology and symptom severity in adolescents with anorexia nervosa? Eating disorders Ravi, S., Forsberg, S., Fitzpatrick, K., Lock, J. 2009; 17 (1): 63-71

    Abstract

    The current study aimed to screen for indications of psychopathology displayed by the parents of adolescents diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and examine the relationship between severity of adolescent eating disorder symptoms and parental psychopathology. Sixty female adolescents diagnosed with DSM-IV-TR AN (restricting-type and binge-purge-type) were administered the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and parents completed the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R). As compared to established non-patient norms, both fathers and mothers of adolescents with AN reported greater levels of obsessive compulsive behaviors, hostility, depression, and anxiety as measured by the SCL-90-R. In addition, duration of AN was positively associated with hostility scores in fathers, and global EDE scores were associated with hostility in mothers. While parental scores on the SCL-90 were elevated as compared to community samples, results of this study do not support a direct influence of parental psychopathology on symptom severity of adolescent AN. Increasing rates of hostility scores in parents with increased duration of AN may represent either a response to the presence of the disorder or be a maintaining factor for AN.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10640260802570122

    View details for PubMedID 19105061

  • Anorexia nervosa. Clinical evidence Lock, J. D., Fitzpatrick, K. K. 2009; 2009

    Abstract

    Anorexia nervosa is characterised by a low body mass index (BMI), fear of gaining weight, denial of current low weight and its impact on health, and amenorrhoea. Estimated prevalence is highest in teenage girls, and up to 0.7% of this age group may be affected. While most people with anorexia nervosa recover completely or partially, about 5% die of the condition, and 20% develop a chronic eating disorder. Young women with anorexia nervosa are at increased risk of bone fractures later in life. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review which aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for anorexia nervosa? What are the effects of interventions to prevent or treat complications of anorexia nervosa? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anxiolytic drugs, cyproheptadine, inpatient/outpatient treatment setting, oestrogen treatment, psychotherapy, refeeding, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants.

    View details for PubMedID 19445758

  • Exploring possible mechanisms of change in family-based treatment for adolescent bulimia nervosa JOURNAL OF FAMILY THERAPY Lock, J., Le Grange, D., Crosby, R. 2008; 30 (3): 260-271
  • Costs of remission and recovery using family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa: a descriptive report. Eating disorders Lock, J., Couturier, J., Agras, W. S. 2008; 16 (4): 322-330

    Abstract

    This paper reports on the costs of overall treatment for a cohort of adolescent patients with AN treated with a similar regimen consisting of inpatient medical stabilization, outpatient family therapy, and psychiatric medications for co-morbid psychiatric conditions. Most of the costs associated with outcome were secondary to medical hospitalization. However, the overall costs per remission varied widely depending on the threshold used. However, compared to costs described for adults with AN, adolescent treatment costs appear to be lower when families are used effectively to aid in treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10640260802115969

    View details for PubMedID 18568922

  • Predictors and moderators of outcome in family-based treatment for adolescent bulimia nervosa JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY le Grange, D., Crosby, R. D., Lock, J. 2008; 47 (4): 464-470

    Abstract

    To explore the predictors and moderators of treatment outcome for adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN) who participated in family-based treatment or individual supportive psychotherapy.Data derived from a randomized controlled trial (n = 80) of family-based treatment of BN and supportive psychotherapy were used to explore possible predictors and moderators of treatment outcome.Participants with less severe Eating Disorder Examination eating concerns at baseline were more likely to have remitted (abstained from binge eating and purging) after treatment (odds ratio [OR] 0.47; p <.01) and follow-up (OR 0.53; p <.01), regardless of the treatment that they received. Participants with lower baseline depression scores were more likely to have partial remission (no longer meeting study entry criteria) after treatment (OR 0.93; p <.01), whereas those with fewer binge-eating/purging episodes at baseline were more likely to have partial remission at follow-up (OR 0.98; p <.05). In terms of moderators, participants with less severe eating disorder psychopathology (Eating Disorder Examination global score), receiving FBT-BN, were more likely to meet criteria for partial remission at follow-up (OR 0.44; p <.05).Lower eating concerns are the best predictor of remission for adolescents with BN, and family-based treatment of BN may be most effective in those cases with low levels of eating disorder psychopathology.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181640816

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254266100015

    View details for PubMedID 18388765

  • A review of medication use for children and adolescents with eating disorders. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry = Journal de l'Académie canadienne de psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent Couturier, J., Lock, J. 2007; 16 (4): 173-176

    Abstract

    This paper aims to review the research literature on the use of medication for eating disorders in children and adolescents.The literature was reviewed on the pharmacotherapy of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The PubMed database was searched for all articles on medication use in the child and adolescent population using the terms medication, antipsychotic, antidepressant, child, adolescent, eating disorders, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.Very little literature exists on the use of medication for the treatment of eating disorders in children and adolescents. There is one retrospective study on the use of SSRIs and some case reports on atypical antipsychotics for children and adolescents with AN, and one small open trial on SSRIs for adolescent BN.Evidence-based pharmacological treatment for children and adolescents with eating disorders is not yet possible due to the limited number of studies available. It appears that olanzapine and other atypical antipsychotics may prove to be promising for AN at low body weights. It remains uncertain whether SSRIs are helpful in preventing relapse in AN. For children and adolescents with BN, the first line pharmacological option is fluoxetine given the large evidence base of this drug with the adult population and a small open trial of adolescents with BN.

    View details for PubMedID 18392170

  • Classification of child and adolescent eating disturbances - Workgroup for classification of eating disorders in children and adolescents (WCEDCA) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Lock, J. 2007; 40: S117-S122

    Abstract

    : The purpose of this article is to summarize major conceptual and clinical variables related to age-appropriate and developmentally appropriate classification of eating problems and disorders in children and adolescents.A review of current classifications and related literature in child development is provided. Problems with current classification schemes are identified and discussed.Current classifications are inadequate to address the clinical and research needs of children and adolescents with eating disturbances and disorders.A range of possible changes in classification strategies for eating disorders in children and adolescents are described.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250229900026

    View details for PubMedID 17868122

  • The addition of a parent and clinician component to the eating disorder examination for children and adolescents INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Couturier, J., Lock, J., Forsberg, S., Vanderheyden, D., Lee, H. Y. 2007; 40 (5): 472-475

    Abstract

    Our goal was to evaluate the addition of parent and clinician reports to the eating disorder examination (EDE) when used with children and adolescents.The EDE was completed with 117 children and adolescents with eating disorders (mean age 14.95 +/- 1.91 years). A slightly modified version of the EDE was completed with parents, and clinician summary scores were assigned. Repeated measures analysis was used to compare child, parent, and clinician scores.In those 70 participants with anorexia nervosa (AN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified with a restrictive pattern (EDNOS-R), child scores were significantly lower than parent scores and clinician scores on restraint and weight concerns. On eating concerns and shape concerns, child scores were lower than clinician scores. Participants with bulimia nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified with binge eating or purging (EDNOS-BP), reported more restraint and shape concerns than parents (n = 47), but their scores did not differ from clinician ratings. No differences were seen in this group on weight concerns or eating concerns.Parent and clinician reports are particularly important when assessing children and adolescents with AN or EDNOS-R, but may be less critical for those with BN or EDNOS-BP.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20379

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247356400012

    View details for PubMedID 17726771

  • Open trial of family-based treatment for full and partial anorexia nervosa in adolescence: Evidence of successful dissemination JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Loeb, K. L., Walsh, B. T., Lock, J., Le Grange, D., Jones, J., Marcus, S., Weaver, J., Dobrow, I. 2007; 46 (7): 792-800

    Abstract

    There is a paucity of evidence-based interventions for anorexia nervosa (AN). An innovative family-based treatment (FBT), developed at the Maudsley Hospital and recently put in manual form, has shown great promise for adolescents with AN. Unlike traditional treatment approaches, which promote sustained autonomy around food, FBT temporarily places the parents in charge of weight restoration. This aim of this open trial was to investigate the feasibility and effectiveness of delivering FBT at a site beyond the treatment's origin and manualization.Twenty adolescents (ages 12-17) with AN or subthreshold AN were treated with up to 1 year of FBT using the published treatment manual. Outcome indices included the percentage of ideal body weight, menstrual status, the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) subscales scores, and the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised score.Of the 20 patients recruited, 15 (75%) completed a full course of treatment. Intent-to-treat analyses showed significant improvement over time in the percentage of ideal body weight (t = -4.46, p =.000), menstrual status (p =.002), EDE Restraint (z = -3.02, p =.003), EDE Eating Concern (z = -2.10, p =.04), but not in EDE Shape Concern or Weight Concern subscales or Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised score.This open trial provides evidence that FBT can be successfully disseminated, replicating the high retention rates and significant improvement in the psychopathology of adolescent AN seen at the original sites.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/chi.0b013e318058a98e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247442600003

    View details for PubMedID 17581443

  • Dialectical behavior therapy modified for adolescent binge eating disorder: A case report COGNITIVE AND BEHAVIORAL PRACTICE Safer, D. L., Lock, J., Couturier, J. L. 2007; 14 (2): 157-167
  • Predictors of dropout and remission in family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa in a randomized clinical trial INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Lock, J., Couturier, J., Bryson, S., Agras, S. 2006; 39 (8): 639-647

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to explore the predictors of dropout and remission in the treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) using family therapy.Data derived from a randomized clinical trial comparing short and long term family therapy for adolescents with AN were used. A rotated component analysis was employed to reduce the number of variables and to address problems of collinearity and multiple testing. Dropout was defined as participating in less than 80% of the assigned therapy. Participants were classified as remitted if they obtained an ideal body weight greater than 95% and a global eating disorder Examination score within two standard deviations of community norms at the end of 12 months.Co-morbid psychiatric disorder and being randomized to longer treatment predicted greater dropout. The presence of co-morbid psychiatric disorder, being older, and problematic family behaviors led to lower rates of remission. A reduction of child behavioral symptoms, a decline in problematic family behaviors, and early weight gain were all within treatment changes that increased the chance of remission.Co-morbid psychiatric disorder, family behaviors, and early response to treatment are important factors when predicting dropout and remission in family therapy for adolescent AN.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20328

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242196400003

    View details for PubMedID 16927385

  • The relationship between perfectionism, eating disorders and athletes: a review. Minerva pediatrica Forsberg, S., Lock, J. 2006; 58 (6): 525-536

    Abstract

    Perfectionism is a potentially maladaptive personality trait implicated in a number of psychopathologies. As our understanding of the construct perfectionism has shifted from more unidimensionally focused conceptualizations to multidimensional ones, our ability to assess its bearing on various disorders has grown. One particular area in which perfectionism appears to play an important role is among eating disorder patients. The personalities of both those with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are thought to be intrinsically perfectionistic, which suggests a need to understand the role perfectionism plays in the development, course and outcome of these disorders. There is also an increased focus on perfectionism among athletes and its relationship to the higher prevalence of eating disorders in this group. With the institution of Title IX in the United States (which prohibited sex discrimination in higher educational settings) the participation of women in various sports has increased exponentially and with it concerns about their well-being in a milieu where a risk for menstrual irregularities, osteoporosis and eating disorders (the female athlete triad) are common. However, conflicting data suggests that athletics may be a protective factor in the development of eating disorders on the one hand, or it may be a risk factor on the other. Thus, it has become important to examine other variables, such as perfectionism, that may influence the outcome, one way or another. This review examines the current evidence about the relations between perfectionism, athletics and eating disorders.

    View details for PubMedID 17093375

  • Role of therapeutic alliance in family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Pereira, T., Lock, J., Oggins, J. 2006; 39 (8): 677-684

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of therapeutic alliance in predicting treatment dropout, response and outcome in a cohort of adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their families who were treated using a manualized form of family-based therapy (FBT).Independent assessors scored early and late therapeutic alliances for patients and parents using the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer (WAIo). Outcomes were weights and scores on the subscales of the Eating Disorder Examination at the end of 12 months of FBT.Therapeutic alliance throughout treatment was strong both for adolescents and for their parents. A strong early alliance with adolescents was associated with early treatment response in terms of weight gain. A strong early alliance with parents prevented dropout, whereas a strong late parental alliance predicted their child's total weight gain at the end of treatment.Therapeutic alliance in both patients and parents treated with FBT is generally strong and likely contributes to treatment retention and treatment outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20303

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242196400008

    View details for PubMedID 16937386

  • How do children with eating disorders differ from adolescents with eating disorders at initial evaluation? JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Peebles, R., Wilson, J. L., Lock, J. D. 2006; 39 (6): 800-805

    Abstract

    To compare the clinical presentation of children with eating disorders (ED) to that of adolescents with ED.Demographic, medical, and psychiatric data of all 959 in- and outpatients (85 males, 874 females) 8-19 years of age diagnosed with ED that presented to an academic center between 1997 and 2005 were examined via retrospective record review. Young patients (n = 109) were defined as aged < 13 years at presentation, and older patients (n = 850) > or = 13 years and < 20 years.Compared with older adolescents (mean 15.6 years, SD 1.4), younger patients (mean 11.6 years, SD 1.2) were more likely to be male (chi2 = 9.25, p < .005) or diagnosed with eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) (chi2 = 5.09, p < or = .05), and less likely to be diagnosed with bulimia nervosa (BN) (chi2 = 13.45, p < or = .001). There were no significant differences in anorexia nervosa (AN) diagnoses between groups. Young patients were less likely to report purging (chi2 = 26.21, p < .001), binge eating (chi2 = 26.53, p < .001), diet pill (chi2 = 13.31, p < .001) or laxative use (chi2 = 6.82, p < .001) when compared with older teens. Young patients weighed less in percentage ideal body weight (p < .05), had a shorter duration of disease (p < .001), and had lost weight more rapidly than older adolescent patients (p < or = .001).There are important diagnostic and gender differences in younger patients. Young ED patients presented at a lower percentage of ideal body weight and had lost weight more rapidly, which may put them at higher risk for future growth sequelae than their older counterparts.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.05.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242360100003

    View details for PubMedID 17116508

  • Is family therapy useful for treating children with anorexia nervosa? Results of a case series JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Lock, J., Le Grange, D., Forsberg, S., Hewell, K. 2006; 45 (11): 1323-1328

    Abstract

    Research suggests that family-based treatment (FBT) is an effective treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). This retrospective case series was designed to examine its usefulness with younger children.Data were abstracted from medical records of 32 children with a mean age of 11.9 years (range 9.0-12.9) meeting diagnostic criteria for AN (n=29) and eating disorder not otherwise specified-restricting type (n=3) who were treated at two sites with FBT. Baseline characteristics, before and after weights, and Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) scores were compared with an adolescent cohort (N=78) with a mean age of 15.5 years (range 13.1-18.4) who were treated with FBT.Children with AN share most disordered eating behaviors with their adolescent counterparts; however, their EDE scores are significantly lower than adolescents at both pre- and posttreatment assessments. Over the course of treatment with FBT, children showed statistically and clinically significant weight gain and improvements in eating disordered thinking as measured by the EDE.FBT appears to be an acceptable and effective treatment for AN in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.chi.0000233208.43427.4c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241415600006

    View details for PubMedID 17075354

  • What is recovery in adolescent anorexia nervosa? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Couturier, J., Lock, J. 2006; 39 (7): 550-555

    Abstract

    The principal aim of this study is to describe the types of problems faced in defining recovery from anorexia nervosa (AN) as well as to illustrate the magnitude that various definitions have on recovery rates for AN.Comparative rates of recovery from AN using a range of definitions (percent ideal body weight, psychological recovery, and combinations of these variables) were calculated using long-term outcome data from a study of adolescents treated for AN. In addition, a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to model recovery over the long-term follow-up period.Recovery rates varied highly, depending on the definition used, from 57.1% to 94.4%. Using survival analysis, the mean time to remission for weight (>85% ideal body weight) was 11.3 months, significantly shorter than for Eating Disorder Examination score recovery at 22.6 months (log rank = 16.1, p = 0.0001).Agreement of definitions of recovery may be dependent on specific goals of a particular study or treatment; however, in order to compare and contrast categorical outcomes, a consistent definition of recovery is needed in the literature. Both weight and psychological symptoms appear to be important in a definition of recovery.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20309

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241445400003

    View details for PubMedID 16791851

  • Do supplementary items on the eating disorder examination improve the assessment of adolescents with anorexia nervosa? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Couturier, J. L., Lock, J. 2006; 39 (5): 426-433

    Abstract

    Given that adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) typically have lower scores on the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) than expected, the current study examined whether the inclusion of eight supplementary items developed by the authors of the EDE better captured the symptoms of adolescents with AN.A dataset consisting of EDEs from 86 adolescents was examined by 3 primary methods: (1) baseline subscale scores were compared before and after the addition of the supplementary items, (2) the internal consistency of the EDE with the addition of these items was examined, and (3) each of these items was compared before and after treatment.After the addition of the supplementary items, the Eating Concern and Weight Concern subscales were significantly increased, whereas the Restraint subscale was significantly decreased, and the Shape Concern subscale was unchanged. Internal consistency was improved on the Eating Concern, Weight Concern, and Shape Concern subscales, and was decreased on the Restraint subscale. Three of eight items showed a significant decrease with treatment.Although the addition of some of these eight supplementary items better captured the psychopathology of adolescents with AN, scores were still substantially below expected, indicating that the exploration of other methods of assessment is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20258

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238343800010

    View details for PubMedID 16565999

  • Comparison of long-term outcomes in adolescents with anorexia nervosa treated with family therapy JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Lock, J., Couturier, J., Agras, W. S. 2006; 45 (6): 666-672

    Abstract

    To describe the relative effectiveness of a short versus long course of family-based therapy (FBT) for adolescent anorexia nervosa at long-term follow-up.This study used clinical and structured interviews to assess psychological and psychosocial outcomes of adolescents (ages 12-18 years at baseline) who were previously treated in a randomized clinical trial using family therapy between 1999 and 2002.Eighty-three percent (71/86) of subjects participated in follow-up assessments of current psychological and psychosocial functioning. In addition, 49% (35) were interviewed using the Eating Disorder Examination. Mean length of follow-up was 3.96 years (range 2.3-6.0 years). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups on any measure at long-term follow-up. As a whole, the group was doing well with 89% above 90% ideal body weight, 74% with Eating Disorder Examination scores within the normal range, and 91% of postmenarcheal females not on birth control had menstrual return.A short course of family therapy is as effective as a longer course at follow-up.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.chi.0000215152.61400.ca

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237788200007

    View details for PubMedID 16721316

  • Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with binge eating syndromes: A case series INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Schapman-Williams, A. M., Lock, J., Couturier, J. 2006; 39 (3): 252-255

    Abstract

    Published empirically based studies of psychotherapies for bulimia nervosa (BN) have been conducted solely with adult populations. The current study extends the extant literature by piloting a version of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for BN adapted for an adolescent population.The participants were referred for treatment for binge eating and purging behaviors at a university clinic. Patients received pretreatment and posttreatment interviews assessing the frequency of their binge eating and purge behaviors, and they also completed pretreatment and posttreatment assessments with the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE).Results indicated significant reductions in the frequency of binge eating from pretreatment to posttreatment. Furthermore, all subscale scores of the EDE showed significant declines from pretreatment to posttreatment.The authors concluded that CBT adapted for adolescents with bulimic symptoms appears to be a promising intervention worthy of further study in adolescents.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20253

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236437500011

    View details for PubMedID 16511836

  • Denial and minimization in adolescents with anorexia nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Couturier, J. L., Lock, J. 2006; 39 (3): 212-216

    Abstract

    This study examines symptoms of denial in 86 adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) using a dataset from a family therapy trial.Using the Restraint subscale of the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE) at baseline, participants were divided into deniers (n = 15), minimizers (n = 21), and admitters (n = 50). These subgroups were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA; Tukey post-hoc analysis) on a variety of assessment and treatment variables at baseline and at 12 months.Although body mass index (BMI) was not significantly different, all subscale scores of the EDE were lower in the deniers compared with the admitters (p = .0001 for all subscales) at baseline. Minimizers also scored lower than admitters on 3 of 4 subscales (p = .0001 for the Restraint, Weight Concern, and Shape Concern subscales of the EDE). At baseline and at 12 months, there were no significant differences on the Youth Self-Report or the Child Behavior Checklist. At 12 months, the only significant difference was in the Restraint subscale, with deniers still scoring lower than admitters (p = .015).Denial and minimization appear to be common processes occurring in adolescents with AN and present difficulties in assessment.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20241

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236437500005

    View details for PubMedID 16485271

  • What is remission in adolescent anorexia nervosa? A review of various conceptualizations and quantitative analysis INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Couturier, J., Lock, J. 2006; 39 (3): 175-183

    Abstract

    The current article evaluated models of remission in anorexia nervosa (AN).A dataset from 86 adolescents with AN was used to model definitions of remission by using (a) Morgan-Russell categories, (b) criteria proposed by Pike, (c) criteria proposed by Kordy, et al. (d) DSM-IV-text revision criteria, (e) other weight thresholds, (f) psychological symptoms (Eating Disorder Examination [EDE] scores), and (g) combinations of these.The mean age was 15.2 +/- 1.6 years. Remission rates varied from 3% to 96% depending on the method used. Combining percent ideal body weight and EDE scores appeared to reduce the variability in rates, capture the most meaningful aspects of remission, and avoid the pitfalls of other methods.These methods of defining remission produce a wide range of outcomes, demonstrating the importance of defining remission consistently. Weight and psychological variables combined appear most important in defining remission.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20224

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236437500001

    View details for PubMedID 16485268

  • A comparison of short- and long-term family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Lock, J., Agras, W. S., Bryson, S., Kraemer, H. C. 2005; 44 (7): 632-639

    Abstract

    Research suggests that family treatment for adolescents with anorexia nervosa may be effective. This study was designed to determine the optimal length of such family therapy.Eighty-six adolescents (12-18 years of age) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa were allocated at random to either a short-term (10 sessions over 6 months) or long-term treatment (20 sessions over 12 months) and evaluated at the end of 1 year using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) between 1999 and 2002.Although adequately powered to detect differences between treatment groups, an intent-to-treat analysis found no significant differences between the short-term and long-term treatment groups. Although a nonsignificant finding does not prove the null hypothesis, in no instance does the confidence interval on the effect size on the difference between the groups approach a moderate .5 level. However, post hoc analyses suggest that subjects with severe eating-related obsessive-compulsive features or who come from nonintact families respond better to long-term treatment.A short-term course of family therapy appears to be as effective as a long-term course for adolescents with short-duration anorexia nervosa. However, there is a suggestion that those with more severe eating-related obsessive-compulsive thinking and nonintact families benefit from longer treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.chi.0000161647.82775.0a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230035300010

    View details for PubMedID 15968231

  • The dearth of psychological treatment studies for anorexia nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS le Grange, D., Lock, J. 2005; 37 (2): 79-91

    Abstract

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) was first described more than 130 years ago, yet few psychological treatments have been formally studied. Our objective was to review the available studies to understand whether these may highlight directions for future investigation.Medline and PsycINFO were consulted to identify relevant treatment studies. Twenty psychotherapy treatment studies were identified for review. These were divided in terms of patient age (adolescent vs. adult) and type of study (uncontrolled vs. controlled).Without exception, adolescent studies (uncontrolled or controlled) involved the parents or family in the treatment. The adult studies were much more varied in terms of treatments that were compared. Most studies were statistically underpowered and only one utilized manualized treatments. More recent investigations have attempted to remedy these methodologic shortcomings.The review highlights the effectiveness of one particular treatment modality for adolescents, but emphasizes the compelling need for further and larger systematic investigation into treatments for both adolescent and adult AN.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20085

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227487100001

    View details for PubMedID 15732072

  • Suicidality in adolescents being treated with antidepressant medications and the black box label: Position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Lock, J., Walker, L. R., Rickert, V. I., Katzman, D. K. 2005; 36 (1): 92-93
  • Adjusting cognitive behavior therapy for adolescents with bulimia nervosa: results of case series. American journal of psychotherapy Lock, J. 2005; 59 (3): 267-281

    Abstract

    This article reviews the types of adjustments needed to an adult protocol of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa (BN) to make it more acceptable to an adolescent population. Employing developmental principles as well as clinical experience as guidelines, these modifications include the involvement of parents, recognition of the interaction of treatment with normal adolescent developmental tasks, and allowances for typical cognitive and emotional immaturity on treatment procedures. Outcomes from a series of adolescents with BN who were treated with this modified-CBT approach show results similar to those expected in adult populations treated using CBT.

    View details for PubMedID 16370133

  • Family-based treatment of eating disorders INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Lock, J., le Grange, D. 2005; 37: S64-S67

    Abstract

    The current article provides a brief description of the theory and empirical support for family treatment of eating disorders. The main literature related to family treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) is reviewed and the findings highlighted. Family treatment, particularly as devised by researchers at the Maudsley Hospital, appears to be an effective treatment for adolescents with short-term AN. It also may be an appropriate treatment for BN in the same age group, although evidence for this is in much shorter supply. Data support the use of family treatments for adolescents with eating disorders. Controlled trials and other systematic research are needed to determine whether family treatment is the best approach.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.20122

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228980900015

    View details for PubMedID 15852323

  • Effective treatments for adolescent eating disorders Journal of Mental Health Lock, J., Gowers, S 2005; 14: 599-610
  • Athletics, perfectionism, and disordered eating. Eating and weight disorders : EWD Hopkinson, R. A., Lock, J. 2004; 9 (2): 99-106

    Abstract

    To determine the effects of sex, perfectionism, level of athletic participation (varsity vs. recreational), and type of sport (swimming, running, or soccer) on disordered eating.Male and female swimmers, runners, and soccer players at Stanford University were recruited at both the recreational and varsity level. Athletes were given the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and a survey on demographics and level of athletic competition. Of 257 athletes identified, 250 (97.3%) returned the questionnaires.A Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to assess the variables' effects on disordered eating attitudes. Significant main effects were found for Sex (F5,199=25.7, p<0.001), Level (F5,199=2.5, p<0.05), and Perfectionism (F10,400=3.0, p<0.001). Only two of the ten interaction terms were significant: Sex by Level of athletic participation (F5,199=3.2, p<0.01) and Sex by Perfectionism (F10,400=2.1, p<0.05). Females displayed higher disordered eating than males. Disordered eating attitudes increased with perfectionism and were greater for recreational athletes than varsity, but this trend was significant for females only. Type of sport showed no significant effects. When examining physiological data a higher percentage of varsity females had irregular periods (42.9%) or amenorrhea (14.3%) than recreational females (13.4% and 2.9%, respectively).Males showed little variability in their data due to low disordered eating scores overall, thus demonstrated few significant results. The greatest risk factor for disordered eating attitudes for females was perfectionism, which crossed all athletic divisions. Although recreational athletes seemed more at risk psychologically, the varsity athletes had more physiological risk.

    View details for PubMedID 15330076

  • Report of the National Institutes of Health Workshop on Overcoming Barriers to Treatment Research in Anorexia Nervosa INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Agras, W. S., Brandt, H. A., Bulik, C. M., Dolan-Sewell, R., Fairburn, C. G., HALMI, K. A., Herzog, D. B., Jimerson, D. C., Kaplan, A. S., Kaye, W. H., le Grange, D., Lock, J., Mitchell, J. E., Rudorfer, M. V., Street, L. L., Striegel-Moore, R., Vitousek, K. M., Walsh, B. T., Wilfley, D. E. 2004; 35 (4): 509-521

    Abstract

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with serious medical morbidity and has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric disorders. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Workshop on Overcoming Barriers to Treatment Research in Anorexia Nervosa convened on September 26-27, 2002 to address the dearth of treatment research in this area. The goals of this workshop were to discuss the stages of illness and illness severity, pharmacologic interventions, psychological interventions, and methodologic considerations.The program consisted of a series of brief presentations by moderators, each followed by a discussion of the topic by workshop participants, facilitated by the session chair.This report summarizes the major discussions of these sessions and concludes with a set of recommendations related to the development of treatment research in AN based on these findings.It is crucial that treatment research in this area be prioritized.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.10261

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221120900237

    View details for PubMedID 15101067

  • Is manualized family-based treatment for adolescent anorexia nervosa acceptable to patients? Patient satisfaction at the end of treatment Journal of Family Therapy Krautter, T., Lock, J 2004; 26: 66-82
  • Treatment of adolescent anorexia nervosa using family-based treatment Clinical Case Series Krautter, T., Lock, J 2004; 3: 107-123
  • What predicts maintenance of weight for adolescents medically hospitalized for anorexia nervosa? Eating disorders Lock, J., Litt, I. 2003; 11 (1): 1-7

    Abstract

    We assessed the relationship between outcomes at one year and a variety of possible predictors among a group of adolescents who were hospitalized for medical complications associated with adolescent onset AN. We reviewed the 12 month outcomes of 41 adolescent patients admitted for medical complications associated with AN to our center. Data on initial percent ideal body weight, length of initial hospitalization, and percent ideal body weight at discharge from first admission were collected. Our primary outcome measure was percent ideal body weight obtained 12 months after initial discharge. Using multiple linear regression to predict percent ideal body weight achieved at 12 months postdischarge, we found that only percent of ideal body weight at discharge predicted better outcomes. Response to initial hospitalization in terms of weight gain, rather than admission weight or length of initial hospital stay, predict better outcomes at 12 months. These results suggest the need for further study of predictors of response to intensive hospital treatment in order to improve initial response rates and ultimately to better outcomes postdischarge.

    View details for PubMedID 16864282

  • Assessment of eating disorders in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: Self-report questionnaire versus interview INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Passi, V. A., Bryson, S. W., Lock, J. 2003; 33 (1): 45-54

    Abstract

    To compare the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) with the self-report version (EDE-Q) in a population of adolescents with anorexia nervosa.Twenty-eight adolescent women meeting criteria for anorexia nervosa were assessed using both measures. The self-report version (EDE-Q) was given both before and (Time 1) after (Time 2) administration of the interview-based version (EDE).The results comparing the EDE with the EDE-Q at Time 1 were consistent with previous studies. Specifically, high correlations were generated on each of the four subscales (Dietary Restraint, Eating Concern, Shape Concern, Weight Concern) where the EDE-Q consistently overestimated the EDE. However, significant differences between the two measures were found on all subscales except Dietary Restraint. Agreement was best for the Weight Concern subscale and worst for the Eating Concern subscales. Comparing the EDE with the EDE-Q at Time 2, agreement improved for all subscales whereas significant differences were found on only two of the four subscales (Eating Concern and Shape Concern).Adolescents with anorexia nervosa report information on the EDE-Q as well as any of the other populations that have been studied. The results suggest that providing information to participants before they complete the self-report measure could improve scores on the EDE-Q.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eat.10113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180055100005

    View details for PubMedID 12474198

  • Risk and protective factors for juvenile eating disorders. European child & adolescent psychiatry Steiner, H., Kwan, W., Shaffer, T. G., Walker, S., Miller, S., Sagar, A., Lock, J. 2003; 12: I38-6

    Abstract

    Eating disorders are prevalent and complicated disorders which are difficult to treat. Unicausal and main effects models are not likely to do justice to the complexity of psychopathology encountered, as one considers etiology and pathogenesis. Risk and protection can arise out of several domains: biological, psychological and social. Risk and protective factors aggregate in specific developmental phases and interact to produce adverse outcomes. Temperamental factors, eating dysregulation, attachment, deficient self regulation and sociocultural ideals of health and beauty all contribute to pathogenesis. Applying the insights of developmental psychopathology to these disorders has considerable potential to lead to early and preventive interventions. Reviewing the current literature from this perspective and updating a similar discussion from 8 years ago, we witness a continued accumulation of quality empirical data. Compared to previous reviews, the field's attention has shifted to psychosocial/cultural domains relevant to eating, away from biological risk. In the aggregate, these data make possible the increasing differentiation of eating disorders from other psychopathology, and the specific pathways in which anorexia and bulimia may develop. Understanding of risk and vulnerability still outweighs our knowledge of protective factors and resilience. While an ideal study would be longitudinal, such studies are still extremely difficult to conduct and costly, thus, forcing us to further our understanding from lagged designs, cross-sectional data and case control studies. While these have many limitations, they do seem to produce an increasingly coherent account of the development of these disorders and prepare us for more targeted and longitudinal study of high risk populations.

    View details for PubMedID 12567214

  • Family-based therapy for adolescents with bulimia nervosa. American journal of psychotherapy Le Grange, D., Lock, J., Dymek, M. 2003; 57 (2): 237-251

    Abstract

    Bulimia nervosa is occurring with increasing frequency among adolescents. Yet, no studies have examined effective treatments for this patient population. Involving the family in the treatment of adolescents with anorexia nervosa has proven to be helpful. A small series of cases has demonstrated that family-based treatment might also be beneficial for adolescents with bulimia nervosa. Moreover, treatment studies for adolescents with anorexia nervosa have demonstrated that family-based treatment does benefit binge eating/purging anorexics. Therefore, preliminary evidence seems to support the use of family-based treatment for adolescent bulimia nervosa. In this article, we review our current knowledge of family-based treatment for adolescents with an eating disorder, and present a case that has completed treatment in order to demonstrate the outline and main interventions of this manualized treatment. While this case demonstrates the successful resolution of bulimia in an adolescent female, at least in the short term, the efficacy of family-based treatment for this patient population is yet to be determined, and is currently being examined in a randomized controlled study at The University of Chicago.

    View details for PubMedID 12817553

  • Children and adolescents with eating disorders: The state of the art Pediatrics Rome, E., Ammerman, S, Rosen, D, Keller, R, Lock, J, Mammal, K, O'Toole, J, Rees, J, Sanders, M, Schneider, M, Sigel, E, Silber, T 2003; 111: e98-e108
  • What predicts weight maintenance for adoelscents medicaly hospitalized for anorexia nervosa Eating Disorders Lock, J., Litt, I 2003; 33: 1-7
  • Family-based treatment for adolescents with bulimia nervosa American Journal of Psychotherapy Le Grange, D., Lock, J, Dymek, M 2003; 57: 237-250
  • Eating attitudes in high school students in the Philippines: a preliminary study. Eating and weight disorders : EWD Lorenzo, C. R., Lavori, P. W., LOCK, J. D. 2002; 7 (3): 202-209

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes among high school students from Pasig Catholic College in the Philippines.Two survey questionnaires, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), were administered to 932 high school students. The height and weight of the subjects were measured, and their body mass indices (BMI) calculated.The prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes according to the EAT scores was 14.5 +/- 3.2% among males and 15.0 +/- 3.5% among females, comparable to the 7-22% found in Western countries. There was a weak correlation between the EAT scores and BMI (r=0.180, p=0.01), and between the EAT scores and Beck's Depression Inventory (r=0.187, p=0.01).The results indicate the presence of abnormal eating attitudes among Filipino high school students from Pasig Catholic College, which suggests that further study of eating disorders and their associated risks is warranted.

    View details for PubMedID 12452252

  • Treating adolescents with eating disorders in the family context - Empirical and theoretical considerations CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Lock, J. 2002; 11 (2): 331-?

    Abstract

    The author described the Maudsley approach for family treatment of adolescent AN and the empirical evidence supporting its use in this population. This treatment focuses on the family as a resource for recovery and puts the patients in charge of re-feeding their affected child. Its success seems to depend on the successful motivation of parents to take on this task and see it through while simultaneously supporting the processes of adolescent development as they reemerge. Although this treatment is promising, substantial data to support its being the best approach for adolescents with AN are lacking. The author also described a theoretical model for involving parents in CBT for adolescents with BN. Although CBT is accepted as the most efficacious treatment for adults with BN, it has not been tested systematically in adolescents. At the same time, it is clear that the adult models of CBT for BN are unlikely to be successful without modifications that take into account the realities of adolescence. Although CBT as a model is likely to be acceptable to adolescents, parents are needed to promote motivation, provide a supportive milieu for behavioral change, and provide guidance and support in stressful periods that lead to relapse. It is important that CBT that is appropriately modified to include parents be tested for its efficacy in adolescents with BN. Preliminary, uncontrolled results are promising.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176490000011

    View details for PubMedID 12109324

  • Bulimia Nervosa in adolescents: Treatment, eating pathology, and comorbidity South African Psychiatry Review Le Grange, D., Lock, J 2002; August: 19-23
  • Assessing guilt in adolescents with anorexia nervosa American Journal of Psychotherapy Bergholdt, K., Lock, J 2002; 56: 378-390
  • Viiolence and sexual minority youth Journal of School Violence Lock, J. 2002; 1: 77-89
  • The Child Abuse Potential inventory and pregnancy outcome in expectant adolescent mothers CHILD ABUSE & NEGLECT Zelenko, M. A., Huffman, L. C., Brown, B. W., Daniels, K., Lock, J., Kennedy, Q., Steiner, H. 2001; 25 (11): 1481-1495

    Abstract

    The study explores the prenatal Child Abuse Potential (pCAP) scores derived from the Child Abuse Potential Inventory administered to expectant adolescent mothers. The aim of the study was to assess the association of the pCAP scores with maternal negative prenatal behaviors, and evaluate the contribution of the pCAP scores to neonatal morbidity.The pCAP scores, demographic data, and self-report on prenatal behaviors were obtained during the second half of the pregnancy in a sample of 45 poor single adolescent mothers. A pediatrician blind to the prenatal data reviewed the neonatal records to assess neonatal morbidity. Maternal prenatal records were reviewed for obstetric risk assessment by an obstetrician who was blind to the rest of the data. The relations among the pCAP scores, prenatal behaviors, and neonatal morbidity were analyzed.In the prenatal period, the pCAP scores were positively correlated with self-reported prenatal smoking and substance use. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the pCAP scores significantly contributed to neonatal morbidity independently of obstetric risk factors.The Child Abuse Potential scores obtained during pregnancy in poor single adolescent mothers reflect domains of maternal functioning that are associated with negative prenatal behaviors and appear to be important for predicting neonatal morbidity. Further studies are warranted to validate the prenatal use of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172247300006

    View details for PubMedID 11766012

  • Can family-based treatment of anorexia nervosa be manualized? The Journal of psychotherapy practice and research Lock, J., le Grange, D. 2001; 10 (4): 253-261

    Abstract

    The authors report on the development of a manual for treating adolescents with anorexia nervosa modeled on a family-based intervention originating at the Maudsley Hospital in London. The manual provides the first detailed account of a clinical approach shown to be consistently efficacious in randomized clinical trials for this disorder. Manualized family therapy appears to be acceptable to therapists, patients, and families. Preliminary outcomes are comparable to what would be expected in clinically supervised sessions. These results suggest that through the use of this manual a valuable treatment approach can now be tested more broadly in controlled and uncontrolled settings.

    View details for PubMedID 11696652

  • Poor adolescent expectant mothers: Can we assess their potential for child abuse? JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Zelenko, M. A., Huffman, L., Lock, J., Kennedy, Q., Steiner, H. 2001; 29 (4): 271-278

    Abstract

    To explore the correlates of high scores on the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in adolescent expectant mothers.Child Abuse Potential scores and data on demographics, pregnancy desire, history of maltreatment, psychological functioning, and perceived social support were obtained by self-report and semi-structured interview. The sample consisted of 50 poor single adolescents recruited from prenatal clinics during the second half of the pregnancy. The relationships among the variables were assessed using Pearson product-moment correlation and multiple regression strategies.Higher Child Abuse Potential scores were associated with higher maternal psychological distress, maternal history of psychiatric diagnosis, and lack of perceived support by the father of the baby. Older pregnant teenagers were more likely to report childhood history of maltreatment, higher psychological distress, and perceived and expected less support by the maternal mother. Expectant mothers who were raised by a single parent were more likely to have a history of childhood maltreatment, less likely to live with the father of the baby during their pregnancy and to expect less support from him.Child Abuse Potential scores, obtained during pregnancy in a sample of poor single adolescents provide a marker of maternal prenatal functioning and perceived social support. Further studies are warranted to validate prenatal use of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI), which may help identify populations at particularly high risk for child abuse during pregnancy and inform strategies for early preventive interventions. Adolescent education on family planning, child rearing, and social support programs should address the importance of the fathers' role.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171209100006

    View details for PubMedID 11587911

  • Associated health risks of adolescents with disordered eating: How different are they from their peers? Results from a high school survey CHILD PSYCHIATRY & HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Lock, J., Reisel, B., Steiner, H. 2001; 31 (3): 249-265

    Abstract

    In this study, we compare health risks of adolescents with disordered eating to those of their peers without disordered eating. A self-report health survey from a community sample of 1769 high school students was used to compare emotional, medical, and social behaviors of these two groups. Risk data for disordered eating students was compared within and across genders. Adolescents with disordered eating are at increased risk for emotional and physical health problems compared to their peers. Overall health risks for boys and girls with disordered eating are quite similar. However, boys with disordered eating develop associated health risk profiles that differentiate them from male peers by having increased mental health, sexual and physical abuse, and general health problems. Girls with disordered eating have associated health risks for substance use and sexual risk-taking that distinguished them from their female peers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166288700006

    View details for PubMedID 11196014

  • What is the best way to treat adolescents with anorexia nervosa? Eating Disorders Lock, J. 2001; 9: 275-278
  • Perinatal complications and child abuse in a poverty sample CHILD ABUSE & NEGLECT Zelenko, M., Lock, J., Kraemer, H. C., Steiner, H. 2000; 24 (7): 939-950

    Abstract

    Perinatal medical illness has been associated with child maltreatment. Using a Child Protective Service (CPS) report as the defining event, this study explores to what extent perinatal morbidity is a risk factor for maltreatment.Medical charts of 206 children ages 0-3 years were reviewed. Data regarding birth history were collected and analyzed in three groups of children: children whose medical record indicated a report to CPS based on prenatal findings (Early Maternal Inadequacy group [EMI]), children whose medical record indicated a report to CPS based only on postnatal findings (Child Maltreatment group [CM]), and a control group without CPS report (NM).Compared to the CM and the NM groups, children in the EMI group showed significantly lower birth weight and higher neonatal morbidity as measured by Apgar scores, frequency of oxygen requirement and intubation at birth, frequency of admission to Neonatal Intensive Care unit, and frequency of neonatal medical problems. There was no significant difference between the CM and the NM groups in birth weight, gestational age, and other measures of morbidity.The results of the study suggest that perinatal complications are associated with prenatal maltreatment. Previously reported strong associations between neonatal morbidity and child abuse are more likely a result of antecedent prenatal maternal behaviors (early maternal inadequacy). Early maternal inadequacy, a clinically and demographically distinct phenomenon, is important due to serious health, development and financial implications and deserves further exploration.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087428700006

    View details for PubMedID 10905418

  • Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth risks for emotional, physical, and social problems: Results from a community-based survey JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Lock, J., Steiner, H. 1999; 38 (3): 297-304

    Abstract

    Health problems of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) youth are reported as differing from those of heterosexual youth. Increased depression, suicide, substance use, homelessness, and school dropout have been reported. Most studies of GLB youth use clinical or convenience samples. The authors conducted a community school-based health survey that included an opportunity to self-identify as GLB.An anonymous self-report health care questionnaire was used during a community-based survey in 2 high schools in an upper middle class district.Significantly increased health risks for self-identified GLB youth were found in mental health, sexual risk-taking, and general health risks compared with self-identified heterosexuals, but not in health domains associated with substance abuse, homelessness, or truancy.Self-identified GLB youth in community settings are at greater risk for mental health, sexual risk-taking, and poorer general health maintenance than their heterosexual peers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078832100018

    View details for PubMedID 10087691

  • How clinical pathways can be useful: An example of a clinical pathway for the treatment of anorexia nervosa in adolescents Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Lock, J. 1999; 4: 331-340
  • Relationships between sexual orientation and coping styles in gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth from a community high school Jounal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association Lock, J., Steiner, H 1999; 3: 77-82
  • Multi-center open label sertraline study in adolescent outpatients with major depression Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Ambrosini, P., Wagner, K, Biederman, J, Glick, I, Tan, C, Elia, J, Hebeler, J, Rabinovich, H, Lock, J 1999; 38: 566-572
  • Severe somatoform disorders in adolescence: A case series using a rehabilitation model for intervention Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Lock, J., Giamona, A 1999; 4: 341-351
  • Origins of homophobia in males - Psychosexual vulnerabilities and defense development AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY Lock, J., Kleis, B. 1998; 52 (4): 425-436

    Abstract

    To better understand the origins of homophobia among males.Literature review and clinical illustration.Data suggest that there is a range of homophobic attitudes.We illustrate how homophobic attitudes can be associated with a hierarchy of defensive styles. We propose that these defensive styles are used to manage a range of psychosexual developmental anxieties in boys and men.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081787400003

    View details for PubMedID 9861423

  • Pregnancy and early parenthood: Factors in the development of anorexia nervosa? INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EATING DISORDERS Benton-Hardy, L. R., Lock, J. 1998; 24 (2): 223-226

    Abstract

    Most psychologic and social theories of anorexia focus on the developmental pressures that challenge adolescent girls. Pregnancy, which causes profound physical, emotional, and cognitive changes, could represent an amplification of these developmental pressures. In this case study, pregnancy is suggested as a possible contributor to the development of anorexia in a 17-year-old female. Although she has other factors associated with the development of anorexia, the psychological and physical changes of pregnancy appear to be the crucial changes which precipitated anorexia nervosa.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075022100012

    View details for PubMedID 9697021

  • Psychosexual development in adolescents with chronic medical illnesses PSYCHOSOMATICS Lock, J. 1998; 39 (4): 340-349

    Abstract

    The author provides a literature review and developmental formulation, with the goal to assist clinicians working with medically ill adolescents with psychosexual issues. MEDLINE and PsychINFO database searches of English-language medical journal articles published between 1986 and 1997 for articles related to medical illness and psychosexual development in adolescence were done. The author found that little systematic research on the psychosexual implications of medical illnesses for adolescents has been undertaken, but existing studies suggest that psychosexual development is negatively affected by medical illness. A three-phase model of adolescent psychosexual development is presented, with specific psychosexual tasks associated with each phase. Impediments to progressing through adolescent psychosexual phases due to medical conditions are identified, and case examples are provided. The author concludes that clinicians working with adolescents with medical conditions should attend to the possibility of psychosexual impediments in these adolescents and use developmentally appropriate methods for assessing and treating these difficulties when they arise.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075014800005

    View details for PubMedID 9691703

  • A primer on homophobia for the child and adolescent psychiatrist JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Lock, J., Kleis, B. N. 1998; 37 (6): 671-673

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073978700020

    View details for PubMedID 9628089

  • Anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in children and adolescents: A review of the past 10 years JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Steiner, H., Lock, J. 1998; 37 (4): 352-359

    Abstract

    To critically review the research in juvenile anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa over the past 10 years and highlight recent advances in normal development as it pertains to these disorders and their diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.Computerized search methods were combined with manual searches of the literature. A detailed review of the most salient articles is provided. Preference was given to studies involving children and adolescents that approached the subject from a developmental perspective.The information from these studies is presented in a developmental framework. Research in eating disorders has progressed, but definitive longitudinal data are still absent from the literature. Research specific to treatment of child and adolescent eating disorders remains rare.Data approaching eating disorders from a developmental perspective are available in only a few studies. Research is needed addressing normative data on the development of eating behavior and specific risk and resilience factors for pathology in specific developmental periods. Especially lacking are studies regarding the continuities and discontinuities of eating disturbances across the life span. Best documented are epidemiological studies of prevalence and incidence, long-term outcome in anorexia nervosa, and short-term treatment response in bulimia.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072657600011

    View details for PubMedID 9549954

  • Treatment of homophobia in a gay male adolescent AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY Lock, J. 1998; 52 (2): 202-214

    Abstract

    Gay teenagers experience normal adolescent developmental processes, but need assistance negotiating the effect of homophobia on their development. Homophobia in the early phase may increase reliance upon the family. This can make it difficult to extricate oneself from family sufficiently to develop peer relationships. Supportive individual and interpretative family work can help modify these problems. Problems in the middle phase are associated with societal homophobia in the institutions where adolescents develop. High school social dynamics support homophobia and make opportunities to develop a peer network difficult. Therapeutic interventions that support a gay teen's efforts through fantasy and symbolic action are key to success in to this period. Referral to gay teen support groups are more likely to be successful during this phase. During the late phase of adolescence, homophobia complicates the quest for an acceptable social role and the need for more intimate relationships as plans for work and pairing become the focus. The therapist helps the gay teen overcome stereotypes and see themselves as individuals and as a members of a group called "gay." This makes it possible to integrate personal aspects of the self with gay-group identity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074445100006

    View details for PubMedID 9656056

  • Report of eroticized vomiting Psychosomatic Medicine Lock, J. 1998; 38: 661
  • The coming out process: Develomental stages for sexual minority youth Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry Carrion, V., Lock, J 1997; 2: 369-377
  • Developmental considerations in the treatment of school-age boys with ADHD: An example of a group treatment approach JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Lock, J. 1996; 35 (11): 1557-1559

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VN95400026

    View details for PubMedID 8936924

  • Acting out and the narrative function: Reconsidering Peter Blos's concept of the second individuation process AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PSYCHOTHERAPY Lock, J. 1995; 49 (4): 548-557

    Abstract

    The role and meaning of narratives in psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy has begun to be explored over the past few years. Little, if any, of this material has been related to adolescent psychotherapy and it is the purpose of this paper to make some preliminary inquiries into how narratives might operate in this sphere. To explore this hypothesis, Peter Blos's ideas on adolescent acting out are related to a theory of narrative developed by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur. Blos conceives of adolescent acting out as a part of attempts by adolescents to develop a coherent identity in what he refers to as a second individuation process. A link is proposed between adolescent acting out and Ricoeur's notion of narrative as the structure that undergirds the process of identity formation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TY47600007

    View details for PubMedID 8669499

  • CAN EXPERTS AGREE WHEN TO HOSPITALIZE ADOLESCENTS JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Strauss, G., Chassin, M., Lock, J. 1995; 34 (4): 418-424

    Abstract

    Rates of psychiatric hospitalization and lengths of stay for adolescents have been a focus of recent controversy. With the advent of managed care, hospital systems and third-party payers are looking for ways to decide when hospitalization is indicated. The authors sought to determine whether experts could agree on the appropriateness of putative indicators for hospitalization of adolescents for conduct disorder or substance abuse.Using a methodology developed at the Rand Corporation and previously applied to procedures in medicine and surgery, the authors developed a list of possible indications for hospitalization of adolescents with conduct disorder and/or substance abuse. A nine-member panel of experts in these areas, balanced by geography, academics/clinical practice, and whether the expert was in charge of a hospital unit, then rated the appropriateness of each indication twice under a modified Delphi procedure.Using prespecified definitions for agreement, after the initial rating the panel had low levels of disagreement (11%) and moderate levels of agreement (28%) on more than 1,900 possible indications for hospitalization. Despite an expanded number of indications, the panel reduced disagreement to less than 5% and increased agreement to more than 55% after the second round of ratings.The consensus achieved compared favorably with the results of similar panels judging the appropriateness of procedures in medicine and surgery. The methodology is applicable to studies of the appropriateness of pharmacological or psychotherapeutic interventions in both child and adult psychiatry. The results of such studies can form the basis for rational utilization review and treatment authorization decisions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QP33500010

    View details for PubMedID 7751255

  • PSYCHIATRIC-HOSPITALIZATION OF ADOLESCENTS FOR CONDUCT DISORDER HOSPITAL AND COMMUNITY PSYCHIATRY Lock, J., Strauss, G. D. 1994; 45 (9): 925-928

    Abstract

    The authors' goal was to review current published literature on the psychiatric hospitalization of adolescents with a diagnosis of conduct disorder.The English-language literature from 1980 to 1991 cited in the MEDLINE database was searched using the key words conduct disorder, adolescent psychiatric hospitalization, psychiatric hospitalization criteria, adolescent psychiatric inpatient hospitalization, and adolescent psychiatric admissions.A diagnosis of conduct disorder or presenting symptoms and behaviors consistent with that diagnosis are commonly reported for adolescent psychiatric admissions. Estimates of the percentage of admissions to psychiatric inpatient treatment facilities of adolescents with conduct disorder or symptoms consistent with that disorder range from 30 to 70 percent. There are no research-based criteria for hospitalization of adolescents for conduct disorder, and systematic studies of the outcome of psychiatric hospitalization for this group have not been published. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses and similar behavioral symptoms in conduct disorder and comorbid disorders complicate inpatient treatment of adolescents with conduct disorder.Studies of the outcome of psychiatric hospitalization of adolescents for conduct disorder are needed to determine the appropriate use of this modality.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PE81900016

    View details for PubMedID 7989027

  • Can experts agree on when to hospitalize adolescents? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Strauss, G., Chassin, M, Lock, J 1994; 34: 418-424
  • Psychiatric hospitalization of adolescents for conduct disorder Hospital and Community Psychiatry Lock, J., Strauss, G 1994; 45: 925-928
  • The role and function of residents' organizations in psychiatric education Academic Psychiatry Lock, J., Kleis, B, Strouse, T, Jacobson, S, Yager, J, Servis, M 1993; 17: 26-30
  • Dissociative symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders Dissociation Journal McCallum, K., Lock, J, Kulla, M, Rorty, M, Wetzel, R 1992; 5: 227-235
  • Possible adverse interactions between fluoxetine and other psychotropics Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Lock, J., Gwirtzman, H, Targ, G. 1990; 10: 283
  • Some aspects of medical hermeneutics: The role of dialectic and narrative Theoretical Medicine Lock, J. 1990: 41

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