Edgar Engleman, Doctoral Dissertation Advisor (AC)
Acquired dysfunction of tumor-reactive T cells is one mechanism by which tumors can evade the immune system. Identifying and correcting pathways that contribute to such dysfunction should enable novel anticancer therapy design. During cancer growth, T cells show reduced NF-?B activity, which is required for tumor rejection. Impaired T cell-intrinsic NF-?B may create a vicious cycle conducive to tumor progression and further T cell dysfunction. We hypothesized that forcing T cell-intrinsic NF-?B activation might break this cycle and induce tumor elimination. NF-?B was activated in T cells by inducing the expression of a constitutively active form of the upstream activator I?B kinase ? (IKK?). T cell-restricted constitutively active IKK? augmented the frequency of functional tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells and improved tumor control. Transfer of constitutively active IKK?-transduced T cells also boosted endogenous T cell responses that controlled pre-established tumors. Our results demonstrate that driving T cell-intrinsic NF-?B can result in tumor control, thus identifying a pathway with potential clinical applicability.
View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1501144
View details for PubMedID 26903482
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4799771
View details for DOI 10.1186/s40425-014-0045-x
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a metabolic disease that is strongly tied to obesity and often preceded by insulin resistance (IR). It has been established that chronic inflammation of hypertrophic adipose tissue depots in obese individuals leads to obesity-associated IR and is mediated by cells of the innate immune system, particularly macrophages. More recently, cells of the adaptive immune system, B and T lymphocytes, have also emerged as important regulators of glucose homeostasis, raising the intriguing possibility that antigen-driven immune responses play a role in disease. In this review, we critically evaluate the roles that various B and T cell subsets play in IR, and then we examine the data suggesting that antigen-driven mechanisms, such as antigen presentation and costimulation, may drive the activity of these lymphocytes.
View details for DOI 10.1155/2015/593075
View details for PubMedID 26146464
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4471324