Bio

Academic Appointments


Honors & Awards


  • Resident Teaching Scholar, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine (2019-2020)

Professional Education


  • Residency, Stanford Hospital & Clinics, Anesthesiology (2020)
  • Internship, Yale-New Haven Hospital, Internal Medicine (2017)
  • M.D., Yale University School of Medicine, Medicine (2016)
  • M.Sc., University of Oxford, Migration Studies (2012)
  • B.A., Yale College, East Asian Languages and Literature (2011)

Research & Scholarship

Clinical Trials


  • Magnesium for Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy Not Recruiting

    Postoperative pain after peroral endoscopic myotomy occurs due to involuntary esophageal smooth muscle spasms. Magnesium has antispasmodic properties as a smooth muscle relaxant. This study hypothesizes that among patients having peroral endoscopic myotomy, magnesium will reduce the incidence of postoperative pain while decreasing perioperative opioid requirements.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Richard K Kim, MD, 347-586-9661.

    View full details

Publications

All Publications


  • Perioperative analgesic administration during the 2018 parenteral opioid shortage in the United States - A retrospective analysis. Journal of clinical anesthesia Kim, R. K., Gao, Z., Hastie, T., Obal, D. 2020; 66: 109892

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.109892

    View details for PubMedID 32502773

  • Risk of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Patients With Monocular Vision Loss of Vascular Etiology. Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society Zhang, L. Y., Zhang, J., Kim, R. K., Matthews, J. L., Rudich, D. S., Greer, D. M., Lesser, R. L., Amin, H. 2018; 38 (3): 328?33

    Abstract

    To evaluate the risk of concurrent acute ischemic stroke and monocular vision loss (MVL) of vascular etiology.Retrospective, cross-sectional study.Patients aged 18 or older diagnosed with MVL of suspected or confirmed vascular etiology who had no other neurologic deficits and who received brain MRI within 7 days of onset of visual symptoms were included.A medical record review was performed from 2013 to 2016 at Yale New Haven Hospital. Patients were included if vision loss was unilateral and due to transient monocular vision loss (TMVL), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), or branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). Any patients with neurologic deficits other than vision loss were excluded. Other exclusion criteria were positive visual phenomena, nonvascular intraocular pathology, and intracranial pathology other than ischemic stroke.The presence or absence of acute stroke on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on brain MRI.A total of 641 records were reviewed, with 293 patients found to have MVL. After excluding those with focal neurologic deficits, there were 41 patients who met the inclusion criteria and received a brain MRI. Eight of the 41 subjects (19.5%) were found to have findings on brain MRI positive for acute cortical strokes. The proportion of lesion positive MRI was 1/23 (4.3%) in TMVL subjects, 4/12 (33.3%) in CRAO subjects, and 2/5 (40%) in BRAO subjects. Brain computed tomography (CT) scans were not able to identify the majority of acute stroke lesions in this study.Patients with MVL of vascular etiology such as TMVL, CRAO, or BRAO may have up to 19.5% risk of concurrent ischemic stroke, even when there are no other neurologic deficits. These strokes were detected acutely with brain MRI using DWI but were missed on CT.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000613

    View details for PubMedID 29369960

  • Four Cancers and a Rash: Henoch-Schonlein Purpura AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Kim, R. K., Thomas, A. R., Card, M., Malhotra, D., Holleck, J. L. 2017; 130 (10): 1158?60

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.06.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000410998300030

    View details for PubMedID 28711558

  • Glucagon-induced hypertensive emergency: a case report. Journal of clinical anesthesia Legler, A., Kim, R. K., Chawla, N. 2016; 35: 493?96

    Abstract

    Glucagon is well acknowledged as a sphincter of Oddi relaxant for both diagnostic and therapeutic uses in choledocholithiasis, and an empiric treatment for ?-blocker overdose. Although it has been implicated in inducing cardiovascular crises in patients with asymptomatic pheochromocytoma, adverse effects in other patient populations have not been characterized. This case report describes a patient with hypertension controlled on ? blockers who, after glucagon administration during an intraoperative cholangiography, experienced hypertensive emergency despite adequate pain control. Nitroglycerin acted as a key agent to decrease the patient's blood pressure as well as a secondary relaxant of the sphincter of Oddi. The patient had no radiographic evidence of pheochromocytoma. As out-of-operating room and intraoperative uses of glucagon continue to increase, perioperative physicians should be aware of its potential hemodynamic effects even in healthy populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jclinane.2016.08.033

    View details for PubMedID 27871582

  • Efficacy and Safety of Nonopioid Analgesics in Perioperative Pain Control. Current drug safety Thomas, D. A., West, M., Legler, A., Maslin, B., Kim, R. K., Vadivelu, N. 2016; 11 (3): 196?205

    Abstract

    Opioids have been the mainstay for management of acute postoperative pain for several decades. Extensive use, however, has been associated with multiple side effects. Multimodal approaches that incorporate nonopioid medications and techniques have been observed to achieve optimum pain control whilst decreasing side effects. Such strategies are particularly important to consider for opioid-dependent and tolerant patients with various comorbidities undergoing different types of surgery. This review assesses recent data on nonopioid analgesics for postoperative pain control, highlighting evidence of their safety profiles in contemporary pain management.

    View details for DOI 10.2174/1574886311666160426130444

    View details for PubMedID 27113953

  • Tumor necrosis factor disrupts claudin-5 endothelial tight junction barriers in two distinct NF-?B-dependent phases. PloS one Clark, P. R., Kim, R. K., Pober, J. S., Kluger, M. S. 2015; 10 (3): e0120075

    Abstract

    Capillary leak in severe sepsis involves disruption of endothelial cell tight junctions. We modeled this process by TNF treatment of cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMEC) monolayers, which unlike human umbilical vein endothelial cells form claudin-5-dependent tight junctions and a high-resistance permeability barrier. Continuous monitoring with electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing revealed that TNF disrupts tight junction-dependent HDMEC barriers in discrete steps: an ~5% increase in transendothelial electrical resistance over 40 minutes; a decrease to ~10% below basal levels over 2 hours (phase 1 leak); an interphase plateau of 1 hour; and a major fall in transendothelial electrical resistance to < 70% of basal levels by 8-10 hours (phase 2 leak), with EC50 values of TNF for phase 1 and 2 leak of ~30 and ~150 pg/ml, respectively. TNF leak is reversible and independent of cell death. Leak correlates with disruption of continuous claudin-5 immunofluorescence staining, myosin light chain phosphorylation and loss of claudin-5 co-localization with cortical actin. All these responses require NF-?B signaling, shown by inhibition with Bay 11 or overexpression of I?B super-repressor, and are blocked by H-1152 or Y-27632, selective inhibitors of Rho-associated kinase that do not block other NF-?B-dependent responses. siRNA combined knockdown of Rho-associated kinase-1 and -2 also prevents myosin light chain phosphorylation, loss of claudin-5/actin co-localization, claudin-5 reorganization and reduces phase 1 leak. However, unlike H-1152 and Y-27632, combined Rho-associated kinase-1/2 siRNA knockdown does not reduce the magnitude of phase 2 leak, suggesting that H-1152 and Y-27632 have targets beyond Rho-associated kinases that regulate endothelial barrier function. We conclude that TNF disrupts TJs in HDMECs in two distinct NF-?B-dependent steps, the first involving Rho-associated kinase and the second likely to involve an as yet unidentified but structurally related protein kinase(s).

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0120075

    View details for PubMedID 25816133

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4376850

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