Education & Certifications
B.S., The University of Tokyo
Ph.D, The University of Tokyo
Many organisms possess multiple and often divergent actins whose regulation and roles are not understood in detail. For example, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has both a conventional actin (IDA5) and a highly divergent one (NAP1); only IDA5 is expressed in normal proliferating cells. We showed previously that the drug latrunculin B (LatB) causes loss of filamentous (F-) IDA5 and strong up-regulation of NAP1, which then provides essential actin function(s) by forming LatB-resistant F-NAP1. RNA-sequencing analyses now show that this up-regulation of NAP1 reflects a broad transcriptional response, much of which depends on three proteins (LAT1, LAT2, and LAT3) identified previously as essential for NAP1 transcription. Many of the LAT-regulated genes contain a putative cis-acting regulatory site, the "LRE motif." The LatB transcriptional program appears to be activated by loss of F-IDA5 and deactivated by formation of F-NAP1, thus forming an F-actin-dependent negative-feedback loop. Multiple genes encoding proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome system are among those induced by LatB, resulting in rapid degradation of IDA5 (but not NAP1). Our results suggest that IDA5 degradation is functionally important because nonpolymerizable LatB-bound IDA5 interferes with the formation of F-NAP1. The genes for the actin-interacting proteins cofilin and profilin are also induced. Cofilin induction may further the clearance of IDA5 by promoting the scission of F-IDA5, whereas profilin appears to function in protecting monomeric IDA5 from degradation. This multifaceted regulatory system allows rapid and quantitative turnover of F-actin in response to cytoskeletal perturbations and probably also maintains F-actin homeostasis under normal growth conditions.
View details for PubMedID 29941587
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is well established that Hof1, Cyk3, and Inn1 contribute to septum formation and cytokinesis. Because hof1? and cyk3? single mutants have relatively mild defects but hof1? cyk3? double mutants are nearly dead, it has been hypothesized that these proteins contribute to parallel pathways. However, there is also evidence that they interact physically. In this study, we examined this interaction and its functional significance in detail. Our data indicate that the interaction 1) is mediated by a direct binding of the Hof1 SH3 domain to a proline-rich motif in Cyk3; 2) occurs specifically at the time of cytokinesis but is independent of the (hyper)phosphorylation of both proteins that occurs at about the same time; 3) is dispensable for the normal localization of both proteins; 4) is essential for normal primary-septum formation and a normal rate of cleavage-furrow ingression; and 5) becomes critical for growth when either Inn1 or the type II myosin Myo1 (a key component of the contractile actomyosin ring) is absent. The similarity in phenotype between cyk3? mutants and mutants specifically lacking the Hof1-Cyk3 interaction suggests that the interaction is particularly important for Cyk3 function, but it may be important for Hof1 function as well.
View details for PubMedID 29321253
Interactions between the dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium and its cnidarian hosts (e.g. corals, sea anemones) are the foundation of coral-reef ecosystems. Carbon flow between the partners is a hallmark of this mutualism, but the mechanisms governing this flow and its impact on symbiosis remain poorly understood. We showed previously that although Symbiodinium strain SSB01 can grow photoautotrophically, it can grow mixotrophically or heterotrophically when supplied with Glc, a metabolite normally transferred from the alga to its host. Here we show that Glc supplementation of SSB01 cultures causes a loss of pigmentation and photosynthetic activity, disorganization of thylakoid membranes, accumulation of lipid bodies, and alterations of cell-surface morphology. We used global transcriptome analyses to determine if these physiological changes were correlated with changes in gene expression. Glc-supplemented cells exhibited a marked reduction in levels of plastid transcripts encoding photosynthetic proteins, although most nuclear-encoded transcripts (including those for proteins involved in lipid synthesis and formation of the extracellular matrix) exhibited little change in their abundances. However, the altered carbon metabolism in Glc-supplemented cells was correlated with modest alterations (approximately 2x) in the levels of some nuclear-encoded transcripts for sugar transporters. Finally, Glc-bleached SSB01 cells appeared unable to efficiently populate anemone larvae. Together, these results suggest links between energy metabolism and cellular physiology, morphology, and symbiotic interactions. However, the results also show that in contrast to many other organisms, Symbiodinium can undergo dramatic physiological changes that are not reflected by major changes in the abundances of nuclear-encoded transcripts and thus presumably reflect posttranscriptional regulatory processes.
View details for PubMedID 29217594
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5813547
The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model organism that provides an opportunity to understand the evolution and functional biology of the lineage that includes the land plants, as well as aspects of the fundamental core biology conserved throughout the eukaryotic phylogeny. Although many tools are available to facilitate genetic, molecular biological, biochemical, and cell biological studies in Chlamydomonas, expression of unselected transgenes of interest (GOIs) has been challenging. In most methods used previously, the GOI and a selectable marker are expressed from two separate mRNAs, so that their concomitant expression is not guaranteed. In this study, we developed constructs that allow expression of an upstream GOI and downstream selectable marker from a single bicistronic mRNA. Although this approach in other systems has typically required a translation-enhancing element such as an internal ribosome entry site for the downstream marker, we found that a short stretch of unstructured junction sequence was sufficient to obtain adequate expression of the downstream gene, presumably through post-termination reinitiation. With this system, we obtained robust expression of both endogenous and heterologous GOIs, including fluorescent proteins and tagged fusion proteins, in the vast majority of transformants, thus eliminating the need for tedious secondary screening for GOI-expressing transformants. This improved efficiency should greatly facilitate a variety of genetic and cell-biological studies in Chlamydomonas and also enable new applications such as expression-based screens and large-scale production of foreign proteins.
View details for DOI 10.1534/g3.116.033035
View details for PubMedID 27770025
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5144980
Canonical microRNAs (miRNAs) are embedded in duplexed stem-loops in long precursor transcripts and are excised by sequential cleavage by DICER nuclease(s). In this miRNA biogenesis pathway, dsRNA-binding proteins play important roles in animals and plants by assisting DICER. However, these RNA-binding proteins are poorly characterized in unicellular organisms. Here we report that a unique RNA-binding protein, Dull slicer-16 (DUS16), plays an essential role in processing of primary-miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii In animals and plants, dsRNA-binding proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis harbor two or three dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs), whereas DUS16 contains one dsRBD and also an ssRNA-binding domain (RRM). The null mutant of DUS16 showed a drastic reduction in most miRNA species. Production of these miRNAs was complemented by expression of full-length DUS16, but the expression of RRM- or dsRBD-truncated DUS16 did not restore miRNA production. Furthermore, DUS16 is predominantly localized to the nucleus and associated with nascent (unspliced form) pri-miRNAs and the DICER-LIKE 3 protein. These results suggest that DUS16 recognizes pri-miRNA transcripts cotranscriptionally and promotes their processing into mature miRNAs as a component of a microprocessor complex. We propose that DUS16 is an essential factor for miRNA production in Chlamydomonas and, because DUS16 is functionally similar to the dsRNA-binding proteins involved in miRNA biogenesis in animals and land plants, our report provides insight into this mechanism in unicellular eukaryotes.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1523230113
View details for Web of Science ID 000383622600068
View details for PubMedID 27582463
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5035857
Numerous studies in multiple systems support that histone H3 lysine 36 dimethylation (H3K36me2) is associated with transcriptional activation; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well defined. Here, we show that the H3K36me2 chromatin mark written by the ASH1L histone methyltransferase is preferentially bound in vivo by LEDGF, a mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-associated protein that colocalizes with MLL, ASH1L, and H3K36me2 on chromatin genome wide. Furthermore, ASH1L facilitates recruitment of LEDGF and wild-type MLL proteins to chromatin at key leukemia target genes and is a crucial regulator of MLL-dependent transcription and leukemic transformation. Conversely, KDM2A, an H3K36me2 demethylase and Polycomb group silencing protein, antagonizes MLL-associated leukemogenesis. Our studies are the first to provide a basic mechanistic insight into epigenetic interactions wherein placement, interpretation, and removal of H3K36me2 contribute to the regulation of gene expression and MLL leukemia, and suggest ASH1L as a novel target for therapeutic intervention.Epigenetic regulators play vital roles in cancer pathogenesis and represent a new frontier in therapeutic targeting. Our studies provide basic mechanistic insight into the role of H3K36me2 in transcription activation and MLL leukemia pathogenesis and implicate ASH1L histone methyltransferase as a promising target for novel molecular therapy. Cancer Discov; 6(7); 770-83. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Balbach and Orkin, p. 700This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 681.
View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-0058
View details for PubMedID 27154821
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4930721
Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS) formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR) constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p) neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage. In this study, we propose that cells regulate the coordination between spindle disassembly and AMR constriction via timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes, Chs2p, Chs3p, and Fks1p. Inhibition of endocytosis leads to over accumulation of cytokinetic enzymes during mitotic exit, which accelerates the constriction of the AMR, and causes spindle breakage that eventually could contribute to monopolar spindle formation in the subsequent round of cell division. Intriguingly, the mitotic spindle breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation. The findings from our study highlight the importance of timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes at the division site in safeguarding mitotic spindle integrity during mitotic exit.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006195
View details for PubMedID 27447488
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4957831
When exposed to stress such as high seawater temperature, corals and other cnidarians can bleach due to loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue and/or loss of pigments from the algae. Although the environmental conditions that trigger bleaching are reasonably well known, its cellular and molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Previous studies have reported the occurrence of at least four different cellular mechanisms for the loss of symbiotic algae from the host tissue: in situ degradation of algae, exocytic release of algae from the host, detachment of host cells containing algae, and death of host cells containing algae. The relative contributions of these several mechanisms to bleaching remain unclear, and it is also not known whether these relative contributions change in animals subjected to different types and/or durations of stresses. In this study, we used a clonal population of the small sea anemone Aiptasia, exposed individuals to various precisely controlled stress conditions, and quantitatively assessed the several possible bleaching mechanisms in parallel. Under all stress conditions tested, except for acute cold shock at 4°C, expulsion of intact algae from the host cells appeared to be by far the predominant mechanism of bleaching. During acute cold shock, in situ degradation of algae and host-cell detachment also became quantitatively significant, and the algae released under these conditions appeared to be severely damaged.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0152693
View details for Web of Science ID 000374976200010
View details for PubMedID 27119147
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4847765
Actin is one of the most conserved eukaryotic proteins. It is thought to have multiple essential cellular roles and to function primarily or exclusively as filaments ("F-actin"). Chlamydomonas has been an enigma, because a null mutation (ida5-1) in its single gene for conventional actin does not affect growth. A highly divergent actin gene, NAP1, is upregulated in ida5-1 cells, but it has been unclear whether NAP1 can form filaments or provide actin function. Here, we used the actin-depolymerizing drug latrunculin B (LatB), the F-actin-specific probe Lifeact-Venus, and genetic and molecular methods to resolve these issues. LatB-treated wild-type cells continue to proliferate; they initially lose Lifeact-stained structures but recover them concomitant with upregulation of NAP1. Thirty-nine LatB-sensitive mutants fell into four genes (NAP1 and LAT1-LAT3) in which we identified the causative mutations using a novel combinatorial pool-sequencing strategy. LAT1-LAT3 are required for NAP1 upregulation upon LatB treatment, and ectopic expression of NAP1 largely rescues the LatB sensitivity of the lat1-lat3 mutants, suggesting that the LAT gene products comprise a regulatory hierarchy with NAP1 expression as the major functional output. Selection of LatB-resistant revertants of a nap1 mutant yielded dominant IDA5 mutations that presumably render F-IDA5 resistant to LatB, and nap1 and lat mutations are synthetically lethal with ida5-1 in the absence of LatB. We conclude that both IDA5 and the divergent NAP1 can form filaments and redundantly provide essential F-actin functions and that a novel surveillance system, probably responding to a loss of F-actin, triggers NAP1 expression and perhaps other compensatory responses.
View details for DOI 10.1534/genetics.115.184663
View details for PubMedID 26715672
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4788133
Rho-type small GTPases are involved in cytokinesis in various organisms, but their precise roles and regulation remain unclear. Rho proteins function as molecular switches by cycling between the active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states; the GTP-bound proteins in turn interact with their downstream effectors to transmit the signal. Biochemical assays using Rho-binding domains of effector proteins have been used to specifically pull down GTP-bound Rho proteins from cell extracts. Here, we describe the application of such a method in combination with cell-cycle synchronization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae; this approach allows dissection of the activity of Rho1 at different stages of cytokinesis. We also present data showing the importance of caution in interpreting such biochemical data and of comparing to the results obtained with other approaches where possible. The principle of this protocol is also applicable to analyses of other Rho-type GTPases and cell-cycle events.
View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-3145-3_15
View details for PubMedID 26519315
We have confirmed and extended previous reports of a wide distribution of septin proteins in the eukaryotic phylogeny. It now appears that septins are present in at least some representatives of every eukaryotic supergroup, with the possible exception of the Excavata. Presently, almost nothing is known of the structure, assembly, and biological roles of septins outside of the opisthokonts (animals, fungi, and their close relatives). Thus, studies of the septins in the highly diverse and distantly related nonopisthokont groups present a major opportunity to gain a much deeper understanding of septin core function and evolution, and we discuss briefly the excellent prospects for capitalizing on this opportunity in the next few years.
View details for DOI 10.1016/bs.mcb.2016.04.003
View details for PubMedID 27473900
Dicentric chromosomes are unstable products of erroneous DNA repair events that can lead to further genome rearrangements and extended gene copy number variations. During mitosis, they form anaphase bridges, resulting in chromosome breakage by an unknown mechanism. In budding yeast, dicentrics generated by telomere fusion break at the fusion, a process that restores the parental karyotype and protects cells from rare accidental telomere fusion. Here, we observed that dicentrics lacking telomere fusion preferentially break within a 25- to 30-kb-long region next to the centromeres. In all cases, dicentric breakage requires anaphase exit, ruling out stretching by the elongated mitotic spindle as the cause of breakage. Instead, breakage requires cytokinesis. In the presence of dicentrics, the cytokinetic septa pinch the nucleus, suggesting that dicentrics are severed after actomyosin ring contraction. At this time, centromeres and spindle pole bodies relocate to the bud neck, explaining how cytokinesis can sever dicentrics near centromeres.
View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.254664.114
View details for PubMedID 25644606
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4318148
Assembly of cilia and flagella requires intraflagellar transport (IFT), a highly regulated kinesin-based transport system that moves cargo from the basal body to the tip of flagella . The recruitment of IFT components to basal bodies is a function of flagellar length, with increased recruitment in rapidly growing short flagella . The molecular pathways regulating IFT are largely a mystery. Because actin network disruption leads to changes in ciliary length and number, actin has been proposed to have a role in ciliary assembly. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, conventional actin is found in both the cell body and the inner dynein arm complexes within flagella [3, 4]. Previous work showed that treating Chlamydomonas cells with the actin-depolymerizing compound cytochalasin D resulted in reversible flagellar shortening , but how actin is related to flagellar length or assembly remains unknown. Here we utilize small-molecule inhibitors and genetic mutants to analyze the role of actin dynamics in flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We demonstrate that actin plays a role in IFT recruitment to basal bodies during flagellar elongation and that when actin is perturbed, the normal dependence of IFT recruitment on flagellar length is lost. We also find that actin is required for sufficient entry of IFT material into flagella during assembly. These same effects are recapitulated with a myosin inhibitor, suggesting that actin may act via myosin in a pathway by which flagellar assembly is regulated by flagellar length.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2014.07.038
View details for PubMedID 25155506
In yeast and animal cytokinesis, the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rho1/RhoA has an established role in formation of the contractile actomyosin ring, but its role, if any, during cleavage-furrow ingression and abscission is poorly understood. Through genetic screens in yeast, we found that either activation of Rho1 or inactivation of another small GTPase, Cdc42, promoted secondary septum (SS) formation, which appeared to be responsible for abscission. Consistent with this hypothesis, a dominant-negative Rho1 inhibited SS formation but not cleavage-furrow ingression or the concomitant actomyosin ring constriction. Moreover, Rho1 is temporarily inactivated during cleavage-furrow ingression; this inactivation requires the protein Cyk3, which binds Rho1-guanosine diphosphate via its catalytically inactive transglutaminase-like domain. Thus, unlike the active transglutaminases that activate RhoA, the multidomain protein Cyk3 appears to inhibit activation of Rho1 (and thus SS formation), while simultaneously promoting cleavage-furrow ingression through primary septum formation. This work suggests a general role for the catalytically inactive transglutaminases of fungi and animals, some of which have previously been implicated in cytokinesis.
View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.201302001
View details for Web of Science ID 000322062300014
View details for PubMedID 23878277
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3718969
Cell morphogenesis is a complex process that relies on a diverse array of proteins and pathways. We have identified a transglutaminase-like protein (Cyk3p) that functions in fission yeast morphogenesis. The phenotype of a cyk3 knockout strain indicates a primary role for Cyk3p in cytokinesis. Correspondingly, Cyk3p localizes both to the actomyosin contractile ring and the division septum, promoting ring constriction, septation, and subsequent cell separation following ring disassembly. In addition, Cyk3p localizes to polarized growth sites and plays a role in cell shape determination, and it also appears to contribute to cell integrity during stationary phase, given its accumulation as dynamic puncta at the cortex of such cells. Our results and the conservation of Cyk3p across fungi point to a role in cell wall synthesis and remodeling. Cyk3p possesses a transglutaminase domain that is essential for function, even though it lacks the catalytic active site. In a wider sense, our work illustrates the physiological importance of inactive members of the transglutaminase family, which are found throughout eukaryotes. We suggest that the proposed evolution of animal transglutaminase cross-linking activity from ancestral bacterial thiol proteases was accompanied by the emergence of a subclass whose function does not depend on enzymatic activity.
View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E11-07-0656
View details for Web of Science ID 000306287400005
View details for PubMedID 22573890
Until recently, it had appeared that the septin family of proteins was restricted to the opisthokont eukaryotes (the fungi and animals and their close relatives the microsporidia and choanoflagellates). It has now become apparent that septins are also present in several other widely divergent eukaryotic lineages (chlorophyte algae, brown algae, and ciliates). This distribution and the details of the non-opisthokont septin sequences appear to require major revisions to hypotheses about the origins and early evolution of the septins.
View details for DOI 10.1515/BC.2011.086
View details for Web of Science ID 000293736800002
View details for PubMedID 21824002
Septins are essential for cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but their precise roles remain elusive. Currently, it is thought that before cytokinesis, the hourglass-shaped septin structure at the mother-bud neck acts as a scaffold for assembly of the actomyosin ring (AMR) and other cytokinesis factors. At the onset of cytokinesis, the septin hourglass splits to form a double ring that sandwiches the AMR and may function as diffusion barriers to restrict diffusible cytokinesis factors to the division site. Here, we show that in cells lacking the septin Cdc10 or the septin-associated protein Bud4, the septins form a ring-like structure at the mother-bud neck that fails to re-arrange into a double ring early in cytokinesis. Strikingly, AMR assembly and constriction, the localization of membrane-trafficking and extracellular-matrix-remodeling factors, cytokinesis, and cell-wall-septum formation all occur efficiently in cdc10? and bud4? mutants. Thus, diffusion barriers formed by the septin double ring do not appear to be critical for S. cerevisiae cytokinesis. However, an AMR mutation and a septin mutation have synergistic effects on cytokinesis and the localization of cytokinesis proteins, suggesting that tethering to the AMR and a septin diffusion barrier may function redundantly to localize proteins to the division site.
View details for DOI 10.1515/BC.2011.083
View details for Web of Science ID 000293736800016
View details for PubMedID 21824009
During yeast sporulation, a forespore membrane (FSM) initiates at each spindle-pole body and extends to form the spore envelope. We used Schizosaccharomyces pombe to investigate the role of septins during this process. During the prior conjugation of haploid cells, the four vegetatively expressed septins (Spn1, Spn2, Spn3, and Spn4) coassemble at the fusion site and are necessary for its normal morphogenesis. Sporulation involves a different set of four septins (Spn2, Spn5, Spn6, and the atypical Spn7) that does not include the core subunits of the vegetative septin complex. The four sporulation septins form a complex in vitro and colocalize interdependently to a ring-shaped structure along each FSM, and septin mutations result in disoriented FSM extension. The septins and the leading-edge proteins appear to function in parallel to orient FSM extension. Spn2 and Spn7 bind to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P] in vitro, and PtdIns(4)P is enriched in the FSMs, suggesting that septins bind to the FSMs via this lipid. Cells expressing a mutant Spn2 protein unable to bind PtdIns(4)P still form extended septin structures, but these structures fail to associate with the FSMs, which are frequently disoriented. Thus, septins appear to form a scaffold that helps to guide the oriented extension of the FSM.
View details for DOI 10.1128/MCB.01529-09
View details for Web of Science ID 000275980900017
View details for PubMedID 20123972
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2849465
Cytokinesis requires coordination of actomyosin ring (AMR) contraction with rearrangements of the plasma membrane and extracellular matrix. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, new membrane, the chitin synthase Chs2 (which forms the primary septum [PS]), and the protein Inn1 are all delivered to the division site upon mitotic exit even when the AMR is absent. Inn1 is essential for PS formation but not for Chs2 localization. The Inn1 C-terminal region is necessary for localization, and distinct PXXP motifs in this region mediate functionally important interactions with SH3 domains in the cytokinesis proteins Hof1 (an F-BAR protein) and Cyk3 (whose overexpression can restore PS formation in inn1Delta cells). The Inn1 N terminus resembles C2 domains but does not appear to bind phospholipids; nonetheless, when overexpressed or fused to Hof1, it can provide Inn1 function even in the absence of the AMR. Thus, Inn1 and Cyk3 appear to cooperate in activating Chs2 for PS formation, which allows coordination of AMR contraction with ingression of the cleavage furrow.
View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.200903125
View details for Web of Science ID 000267134000009
View details for PubMedID 19528296
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2711614
Sporulation of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a developmental process that generates gametes and that includes the formation of spore envelope precursors called the forespore membranes. Assembly and development of forespore membranes require vesicular trafficking from other intracellular membrane compartments. We have shown that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns 3-kinase) is required for efficient and proper development of forespore membranes. The role of a FYVE domain protein, Sst4p, a homolog of Vps27p/Hrs, as a downstream factor for PtdIns 3-kinase in sporulation was investigated. sst4Delta asci formed spores with oval-shaped morphology and with reduced viability compared to that of the wild-type spores. The extension of forespore membranes was inefficient, and bubble-like structures emerged from the leading edges of the forespore membranes. Sst4p localization was examined using fluorescent protein fusions and was found to be adjacent to the forespore membranes during sporulation. The localization and function of Sst4p were dependent on its FYVE domain and on PtdIns 3-kinase. Sst4p colocalized and interacted with Hse1p, a homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hse1p and of mammalian STAM. Mutations in all three UIM domains of the Sst4p/Hse1p complex resulted in formation of spores with abnormal morphology. These results suggest that Sst4p is a downstream factor of PtdIns 3-kinase and functions in forespore membrane formation.
View details for DOI 10.1128/EC.00211-07
View details for Web of Science ID 000251896100019
View details for PubMedID 17951524
The multivesicular body (MVB) sorting pathway is required for a number of biological processes, including downregulation of cell-surface proteins and protein sorting into the vacuolar lumen. The function of this pathway requires endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) composed of class E vacuolar protein sorting (Vps) proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many of which are conserved in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Of these, sst4/vps27 (homologous to VPS27) and sst6 (similar to VPS23) have been identified as suppressors of sterility in ste12Delta (sst), although their functions have not been uncovered to date. In this report, these two sst genes are shown to be required for vacuolar sorting of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) and an MVB marker, the ubiquitin-GFP-carboxypeptidase S (Ub-GFP-CPS) fusion protein, despite the lack of the ubiquitin E2 variant domain in Sst6p. Disruption mutants of a variety of other class E vps homologues also had defects in sorting of CPY and Ub-GFP-CPS. Sch. pombe has a mammalian AMSH homologue, sst2. Phenotypic analyses suggested that Sst2p is a class E Vps protein. Taken together, these results suggest that sorting into multivesicular bodies is dependent on class E Vps proteins, including Sst2p, in Sch. pombe.
View details for DOI 10.1099/mic.0.2007/006072-0
View details for Web of Science ID 000249044900038
View details for PubMedID 17660439
Schizosaccharomyces pombe defective in phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase shows various defects in forespore membrane formation, including onset, growth orientation, and closure. Downstream factors of PtdIns 3-kinase in this system were explored. Among various phox homology (PX) domain-containing proteins, Vps5p and Vps17p, homologues of sorting nexins, were found to be required for efficient sporulation. Cells defective in these proteins showed a disordered growth orientation of the forespore membrane, as is the case with Deltapik3 cells. Vps5p and Vps17p with mutations in the PX domains failed to suppress the defects of their relevant disruptants. Vps5p and Vps17p migrated toward the the forespore membrane in a pik3+-dependent manner, suggesting that these proteins may interact with PtdIns(3)P. Electron-microscopic analysis revealed that the forespore membrane fails to engulf the nucleus in some of these cells, accumulating vesicle-like bodies similar to those seen in Deltaspo3 cells. These results suggest that Vps5p and Vps17p are the targets of PtdIns(3)P in vesicle transport required for onset of the forespore membrane formation.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2443.2004.00744.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000222300100006
View details for PubMedID 15189449
The ste12+ gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe codes for a phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-phosphate 5'-kinase, which is required for efficient mating. Suppressor mutants for sterility of ste12Delta cells were screened for. Most of the mutant genes turned out to be recessive. Six genes were cloned and the open reading frames responsible for the suppressor activity were identified. They included genes coding for proteins with domains homologous to calcium transporters, casein kinase II, UBC13, AMSH, Vps23p, and Vps27p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Disruption of these genes resulted in suppression of the defects of the ste12Delta cells, including low mating efficiency and formation of large vacuoles. Since many of these gene products are homologous to the proteins involved in vesicle transport, sterility caused by inactivation of ste12 may be due to a disordered vesicle transport system.
View details for Web of Science ID 000185193700021
View details for PubMedID 12951513
From the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe we have identified and deleted vps33, a gene encoding a homologue of VPS33, which is required for vacuolar biogenesis in S. cerevisiae cells. When the vps33(+) gene is disrupted, Sz. pombe strains are temperature-sensitive for growth and contain numerous small vesicular structures stained with FM4-64 in the cells. Deletion of the Sz. pombe vps33(+) gene results in pleiotropic phenotypes consistent with the absence of normal vacuoles, including missorting of vacuolar carboxypeptidase Y, various ion- and drug-sensitivities, and sporulation defects. These results are consistent with Vps33p being necessary for the morphogenesis of vacuoles and subsequent expression of vacuolar functions in Sz. pombe cells.
View details for DOI 10.1002/yea.1011
View details for Web of Science ID 000184466200001
View details for PubMedID 12868054
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pik3p phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (PI) to produce PI 3-P, which is further phosphorylated by Ste12p to yield PI 3,5-P2. Pik3p is required for both conjugation and sporulation. To test which of PI 3-P and PI 3,5-P2 is required for sporulation, diploid cells defective in production of PI 3,5-P2 were used. They underwent sporulation almost normally provided that the osmotic pressure of the medium was controlled, suggesting that not PI 3,5-P2 but PI 3-P was important. Electron microscopic analysis confirmed normal sporulation in the absence of PI 3,5-P2 although the forespore membrane was found to be less dense in these cells.
View details for Web of Science ID 000183266100042
View details for PubMedID 12834310
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (encoded by the pik3(+) gene) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been identified as a homologue of VPS34p, a protein required for proper vesicular protein sorting. The clone defective in this protein carries enlarged vacuoles and exhibits sensitivity to high temperature or high ion concentration. The effect of disruption of pik3(+) on sporulation of Sz. pombe was examined. The diploid cells underwent G(1) arrest and meiosis. However, the spores formed by the deltapik3 cells were not viable. Electron-microscopic analysis revealed that the growth of the forespore membrane of deltapik3 cells was not correctly orientated, failing to engulf the nucleus or forming extremely small spores, as was confirmed by the use of Spo3p-GFP and GFP-Psy1p, which are markers of the forespore membrane. The coating materials found along the forespore membrane of the wild-type were greatly reduced in these cells. PI 3-P, the product of Pik3p, was detected on the forespore membrane, suggesting that PI 3-P-dependent vesicle transport may take place in formation of the forespore membrane. Misshaped forespore membrane, accumulation of vesicles, formation of small non-viable spores, and suppression by over expression of Psy1p were the phenotypes commonly seen in deltapik3 and deltaspo3 cells, suggesting a relationship between the functions of Pik3p and Spo3p in formation of the forespore membrane in Sz. pombe.
View details for DOI 10.1002/yea.953
View details for Web of Science ID 000181059400001
View details for PubMedID 12557273