Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Emergency Medicine

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Medical Education: Hahnemann University Medical College (2000) PA
  • Board Certification: American Board of Preventive Medicine, Clinical Informatics (2015)
  • Residency: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2003) MD
  • Board Certification: American Board of Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine (2004)
  • Internship: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (2001) MD

Publications

All Publications


  • Social Determinants of Hallway Bed Use. The western journal of emergency medicine Kim, D. A., Sanchez, L. D., Chiu, D., Brown, I. P. 2020; 21 (4): 949?58

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: Hallway beds in the emergency department (ED) produce lower patient satisfaction and inferior care. We sought to determine whether socioeconomic factors influence which visits are assigned to hallway beds, independent of clinical characteristics at triage.METHODS: We studied 332,919 visits, across 189,326 patients, to two academic EDs from 2013-2016. We estimated a logistic model of hallway bed assignment, conditioning on payor, demographics, triage acuity, chief complaint, patient visit frequency, and ED volume. Because payor is not generally known at the time of triage, we interpreted it as a proxy for other observable characteristics that may influence bed assignment. We estimated a Cox proportional hazards model of hallway bed assignment on length of stay.RESULTS: Median patient age was 53. 54.0% of visits were by women. 42.1% of visits were paid primarily by private payors, 37.1% by Medicare, and 20.7% by Medicaid. A total of 16.2% of visits were assigned to hallway beds. Hallway bed assignment was more likely for frequent ED visitors, for lower acuity presentations, and for psychiatric, substance use, and musculoskeletal chief complaints, which were more common among visits paid primarily by Medicaid. In a logistic model controlling for these factors, as well as for other patient demographics and for the volume of recent ED arrivals, Medicaid status was nevertheless associated with 22% greater odds of assignment to a hallway bed (odds ratio 1.22, [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.18-1.26]), compared to private insurance. Visits assigned to hallway beds had longer lengths of stay than roomed visits of comparable acuity (hazard ratio for departure 0.91 [95% CI, 0.90-0.92]).CONCLUSION: We find evidence of social determinants of hallway bed use, likely involving epidemiologic, clinical, and operational factors. Even after accounting for different distributions of chief complaints and for more frequent ED use by the Medicaid population, as well as for other visit characteristics known at the time of triage, visits paid primarily by Medicaid retain a disproportionate association with hallway bed assignment. Further research is needed to eliminate potential bias in the use of hallway beds. [West J Emerg Med. 2020;21(4)949-958.].

    View details for DOI 10.5811/westjem.2020.4.45976

    View details for PubMedID 32726269

  • Rates of Co-infection Between SARS-CoV-2 and Other Respiratory Pathogens. JAMA Kim, D., Quinn, J., Pinsky, B., Shah, N. H., Brown, I. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2020.6266

    View details for PubMedID 32293646

  • Emergency department implementation of abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging for pediatric traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians open Lumba-Brown, A., Lee, M. O., Brown, I., Cornwell, J., Dannenberg, B., Fang, A., Ghazi-Askar, M., Grant, G., Imler, D., Khanna, K., Lowe, J., Wang, E., Wintermark, M. 2020; 1 (5): 994?99

    Abstract

    Pediatric head injury is a common presenting complaint in the emergency department (ED), often requiring neuroimaging or ED observation for diagnosis. However, the traditional diagnostic neuroimaging modality, head computed tomography (CT), is associated with radiation exposure while prolonged ED observation impacts patient flow and resource utilization. Recent scientific literature supports abbreviated, or focused and shorter, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a feasible and accurate diagnostic alternative to CT for traumatic brain injury. However, this is a relatively new application and its use is not widespread. The aims of this review are to describe the science and applications of abbreviated brain MRI and report a model protocol's development and ED implementation in the evaluation of children with head injury for replication in other institutions.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/emp2.12055

    View details for PubMedID 33145550

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7593499

  • Characteristics of Emergency Department Patients With COVID-19 at a Single Site in Northern California: Clinical Observations and Public Health Implications. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Duanmu, Y., Brown, I. P., Gibb, W. R., Singh, J., Matheson, L. W., Blomkalns, A. L., Govindarajan, P. 2020

    Abstract

    In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China and spread globally, resulting in the first World Health Organization (WHO) classified pandemic in over a decade.1 As of April 2020, the United States (US) has the most confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide, but public health interventions and testing availability have varied across the country. 2.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/acem.14003

    View details for PubMedID 32344458

  • Introduction of a Horizontal and Vertical Split Flow Model of Emergency Department Patients as a Response to Overcrowding. Journal of emergency nursing: JEN : official publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association Wallingford, G., Joshi, N., Callagy, P., Stone, J., Brown, I., Shen, S. 2017

    Abstract

    ED overcrowding is an issue that is affecting every emergency department and every hospital. The inability to maintain patient flow into and out of the emergency department paralyzes the ability to provide effective and timely patient care. Many solutions have been proposed on how to mitigate the effects of ED overcrowding. Solutions involve either hospital-wide initiatives or ED-based solutions. In this article, the authors seek to describe and provide metrics for a patient flow methodology that targets ESI 3 patients in a vertical flow model.In the Stanford Emergency Department, a vertical flow model was created from existing ED space by removing fold-down horizontal stretchers and replacing them with multiple chairs that allowed for assessment and medical management in an upright sitting position. The model was launched and sustained through frequent interdisciplinary huddles, detailed inclusion and exclusion criteria, scripted text on how to promote the flow model to patients, and close analytics of metrics. Metrics for success included patient length of stay (LOS) for those triaged to the vertical flow area compared with ESI 3 patients triaged to the traditional emergency department as a comparison group. The secondary outcome is the total number of patients seen in the vertical flow area. This was a 6-month-September 2014, to February 2015-retrospective pre- and postintervention study that examined LOS as a marker for effective launch and implementation of a vertical patient workflow model.The patients triaged to the vertical flow area in the study period tended to be younger than in the control period (43 years versus 52 years, P = 0.00). There was a significant decrease in our primary end point: the total LOS for ESI 3 patients triaged to the vertical flow area (270 minutes versus 384 minutes, P = 0.00).Implementation of a vertical patient flow strategy can decrease LOS for the vertical ESI 3 patients based upon the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Furthermore, this is accomplished with minimal financial investment within the physical constraints of an existing emergency department.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jen.2017.10.017

    View details for PubMedID 29169818

  • Civil-Military Collaboration in the Initial Medical Response to the Earthquake in Haiti NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Auerbach, P. S., Norris, R. L., Menon, A. S., Brown, I. P., Kuah, S., Schwieger, J., Kinyon, J., Helderman, T. N., Lawry, L. 2010; 362 (10)

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMp1001555

    View details for PubMedID 20181962

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