Clinical Scholar, Radiology
Although peripheral nerve injuries secondary to angiography and endovascular interventions are uncommon and usually not permanent, they can result in significant functional impairment. Most arteries used in access for angiography and endovascular therapies lie in close proximity to a nerve. The nerve may be injured by needle puncture, or by compression from hematoma, pseudoaneurysm, hemostasis devices, or by manual compression with incidence in literature ranging from as low as 0.04% for femoral access in a large retrospective study to 9% for brachial and axillary access. Given the increasing frequency of endovascular arterial procedures and the increasing use of nontraditional access points, it is important that the interventionalist have a working knowledge of peripheral nerve anatomy and function as it relates to relevant arterial access sites to avoid injury.
View details for DOI 10.5152/dir.2019.18296
View details for Web of Science ID 000484265700008
View details for PubMedID 31310240
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6727823
Peripheral neurons regenerate their axons after injury. Transcriptional regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) is one possible mechanism controlling regeneration. We profiled miRNA expression in mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons after a sciatic nerve crush, and identified 49 differentially expressed miRNAs. We evaluated the functional role of each miRNA using a phenotypic analysis approach. To predict the targets of the miRNAs we employed RNA-Sequencing and examined transcription at the isoform level. We identify thousands of differentially expressed isoforms and bioinformatically associate the miRNAs that modulate neurite growth with their putative target isoforms to outline a network of regulatory events underlying peripheral nerve regeneration. MiR-298, let-7a, and let-7f enhance neurite growth and target the majority of isoforms in the differentially expressed network.
View details for DOI 10.1002/1873-3468.12718
View details for Web of Science ID 000406240400005
View details for PubMedID 28626869
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5864114
View details for Web of Science ID 000218489600002
Beta-ketothiolase (BKT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder, which causes episodic severe metabolic acidosis. Average onset of disease is from 6 to 24 months. Imaging findings relating to this entity have rarely been reported. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl with BKT deficiency with isolated focal T2 hyperintensities involving the globi pallidi, which demonstrated restricted diffusion. To our knowledge, these imaging findings have not been previously reported in the setting of BKT deficiency.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1552-6569.2012.00772.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000340666200017
View details for PubMedID 23163837
View details for Web of Science ID 000330540200458
Subclinical atherosclerotic plaque is an important marker of increased vascular risk. Identifying factors underlying the variability in burden of atherosclerotic carotid plaque unexplained by traditional vascular risk factors may help target novel preventive strategies.As a part of the carotid substudy of the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), 1790 stroke-free individuals (mean age, 69±9; 60% women; 61% Hispanic, 19% black, 18% white) were assessed for total plaque area (TPA) burden using 2-dimensional carotid ultrasound imaging. Multiple linear regression models were constructed. Model 1 used prespecified traditional risk factors: age, sex, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, pack-years of smoking, blood pressure, and treatment for blood pressure; and Model 2, an addition of socioeconomic and less traditional risk factors. The contributions of the components of the Framingham heart risk score and the NOMAS Global Vascular Risk Score to the TPA were explored.Prevalence of carotid plaque was 58%. Mean TPA was 13±19 mm2. Model 1 explained 19.5% of the variance in TPA burden (R2=0.195). Model 2 explained 21.9% of TPA burden. Similarly, the Framingham heart risk score explained 18.8% and NOMAS global vascular risk score 21.5% of the TPA variance.The variation in preclinical carotid plaque burden is largely unexplained by traditional and less traditional vascular risk factors, suggesting that other unaccounted environmental and genetic factors play an important role in the determination of atherosclerotic plaque. Identification of these factors may lead to new approaches to prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease.
View details for DOI 10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.651059
View details for Web of Science ID 000305882000016
View details for PubMedID 22550054
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3383876
To fully understand cell type identity and function in the nervous system there is a need to understand neuronal gene expression at the level of isoform diversity. Here we applied Next Generation Sequencing of the transcriptome (RNA-Seq) to purified sensory neurons and cerebellar granular neurons (CGNs) grown on an axonal growth permissive substrate. The goal of the analysis was to uncover neuronal type specific isoforms as a prelude to understanding patterns of gene expression underlying their intrinsic growth abilities. Global gene expression patterns were comparable to those found for other cell types, in that a vast majority of genes were expressed at low abundance. Nearly 18% of gene loci produced more than one transcript. More than 8000 isoforms were differentially expressed, either to different degrees in different neuronal types or uniquely expressed in one or the other. Sensory neurons expressed a larger number of genes and gene isoforms than did CGNs. To begin to understand the mechanisms responsible for the differential gene/isoform expression we identified transcription factor binding sites present specifically in the upstream genomic sequences of differentially expressed isoforms, and analyzed the 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) for microRNA (miRNA) target sites. Our analysis defines isoform diversity for two neuronal types with diverse axon growth capabilities and begins to elucidate the complex transcriptional landscape in two neuronal populations.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0030417
View details for Web of Science ID 000301454400126
View details for PubMedID 22272348
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3260295
Nucleosomes compact and regulate access to DNA in the nucleus, and are composed of approximately 147 bases of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer. Here we report a genome-wide nucleosome positioning analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana using massively parallel sequencing of mononucleosomes. By combining this data with profiles of DNA methylation at single base resolution, we identified 10-base periodicities in the DNA methylation status of nucleosome-bound DNA and found that nucleosomal DNA was more highly methylated than flanking DNA. These results indicate that nucleosome positioning influences DNA methylation patterning throughout the genome and that DNA methyltransferases preferentially target nucleosome-bound DNA. We also observed similar trends in human nucleosomal DNA, indicating that the relationships between nucleosomes and DNA methyltransferases are conserved. Finally, as has been observed in animals, nucleosomes were highly enriched on exons, and preferentially positioned at intron-exon and exon-intron boundaries. RNA polymerase II (Pol II) was also enriched on exons relative to introns, consistent with the hypothesis that nucleosome positioning regulates Pol II processivity. DNA methylation is also enriched on exons, consistent with the targeting of DNA methylation to nucleosomes, and suggesting a role for DNA methylation in exon definition.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature09147
View details for Web of Science ID 000279867100053
View details for PubMedID 20512117
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2964354