Honors & Awards
Distinguished Clinical Scientist Award, Doris Duke Charitable Trust (2000-2005)
Treatment and evaluation of HIV infection
The purpose of this study is to obtain informed consent to use stored human biological materials (HBM) (e.g., blood and other tissues) for future studies that may include genetic testing.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Debbie Slamowitz, 650-723-2804.
The purpose of this study is to determine what combinations of anti-HIV drugs work best in patients treated over several years. The study will also assess the occurrence of side effects and opportunistic infections in patients with low viral loads compared to those with higher viral loads.
Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Debbie Slamowitz, 650-723-2804.
We created a panel of 10 representative multi-nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-resistant recombinant infectious molecular HIV-1 clones to assist researchers studying NNRTI resistance or developing novel NNRTIs. The cloned viruses contain most of the major NNRTI resistance mutations and most of the significantly associated mutation pairs that we identified in two network analyses. Each virus in the panel has intermediate- or high-level resistance to all or three of the four most commonly used NNRTIs.
View details for DOI 10.1128/AAC.00648-12
View details for Web of Science ID 000306826300069
View details for PubMedID 22664973
INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance mutations (DRM) in viral RNA are important in defining to provide effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-1 infected patients. Detection of DRM in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA is another source of information, although the clinical significance of DRMs in proviral DNA is less clear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 25 patients receiving ART at a center in Zimbabwe, 32 blood samples were collected. Dideoxy-sequencing of gag-pol identified subtype and resistance mutations from plasma viral RNA and proviral DNA. Drug resistance was estimated using the calibrated population resistance tool on www.hivdb.stanford.edu database. Numerical resistance scores were calculated for all antiretroviral drugs and for the subjects' reported regimen. Phylogenetic analysis as maximum likelihood was performed to determine the evolutionary distance between sequences. RESULTS: Of the 25 patients, 4 patients (2 of which had given 2 blood samples) were not known to be on ART (NA) and had exclusively wild-type virus, 17 had received Protease inhibitors (PI), 18, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and 19, two or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Of the 17 with history of PI, 10 had PI mutations, 5 had minor differences between mutations in RNA and DNA. Eighteen samples had NNRTI mutations, six of which demonstrated some discordance between DNA and RNA mutations. Although NRTI resistance mutations were frequently different between analyses, mutations resulted in very similar estimated phenotypes as measured by resistance scores. The numerical resistance scores from RNA and DNA for PIs differed between 2/10, for NNRTIs between 8/18, and for NRTIs between 17/32 pairs. When calculated resistance scores were collapsed, 3 pairs showed discordance between RNA and DNA for at least one PI, 6 were discordant for at least one NNRTI and 11 for at least one NRTI. Regarding phylogenetic evolutionary analysis, all RNA and DNA sequence pairs clustered closely in a maximum likelihood tree. CONCLUSION: PBMC DNA could be useful for testing drug resistance in conjunction with plasma RNA where the results of each yielded complementary information about drug resistance. Identification of DRM, archived in proviral DNA, could be used to provide for sustainable public health surveillance among subtype C infected patients.
View details for PubMedID 23019537
Disclosure of positive HIV status in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with safer sexual practices and better antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but associations with psychosocial function are unclear. We examined patterns and psychosocial correlates of disclosure in a Zimbabwean community. Two hundred HIV positive women at different stages of initiating ART participated in a cross-sectional study examining actual disclosures, disclosure beliefs, perceived stigma, self-esteem, depression, and quality of life. Ninety-seven percent of the women disclosed to at least one person, 78% disclosed to their current husband/partner, with an average disclosure of four persons per woman. The majority (85-98%) of disclosures occurred in a positive manner and 72-95% of the individuals reacted positively. Factors significantly correlated with HIV disclosure to partners included being married, later age at menses, longer duration of HIV since diagnosis, being on ART, being more symptomatic at baseline, ever having used condoms, and greater number of partners in the last year. In multivariate analysis, being married and age at menses predicted disclosure to partners. Positive disclosure beliefs, but not the total number of disclosures, significantly correlated with lower perceived stigma (? = 0.44 for personalized subscale and ? = 0.51 for public subscale, both p<0.0001), higher self-esteem (? = 0.15, p=0.04), and fewer depressive symptoms (? = -0.14, p=0.05). In conclusion, disclosure of positive HIV status among Zimbabwean women is common and is frequently met with positive reactions. Moreover, positive disclosure beliefs correlate significantly with psychosocial measures, including lower perceived stigma, higher self-esteem, and lower depression.
View details for DOI 10.1080/09540121.2011.608786
View details for Web of Science ID 000301532700011
View details for PubMedID 21902570
We conducted a nested case-control study of placental malaria (PM) and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) within a prospective cohort of 627 mother-infant pairs followed from October 1989 until April 1994 in rural Rwanda. Sixty stored placentas were examined for PM and other placental pathology, comparing 20 HIV-infected mother-infant (perinatal transmitter) pairs, 20 HIV-uninfected pairs, and 20 HIV-infected mothers who did not transmit to their infant perinatally. Of 60 placentas examined, 45% showed evidence of PM. Placental malaria was associated with increased risk of MTCT of HIV-1 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-29.1), especially among primigravidae (aOR = 12.0; 95% CI = 1.0-150; P < 0.05). Before antiretroviral therapy or prophylaxis, PM was associated with early infant HIV infection among rural Rwandan women living in a hyper-endemic malaria region. Primigravidae, among whom malaria tends to be most severe, may be at higher risk.
View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0589
View details for Web of Science ID 000293613000004
View details for PubMedID 21813835
Limited data compare once-daily options for initial therapy for HIV-1.To compare time to virologic failure; first grade-3 or -4 sign, symptom, or laboratory abnormality (safety); and change or discontinuation of regimen (tolerability) for atazanavir plus ritonavir with efavirenz-containing initial therapy for HIV-1.A randomized equivalence trial accrued from September 2005 to November 2007, with median follow-up of 138 weeks. Regimens were assigned by using a central computer, stratified by screening HIV-1 RNA level less than 100 000 copies/mL or 100 000 copies/mL or greater; blinding was known only to the site pharmacist. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00118898)59 AIDS Clinical Trials Group sites in the United States and Puerto Rico.Antiretroviral-naive patients.Open-label atazanavir plus ritonavir or efavirenz, each given with with placebo-controlled abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF)-emtricitabine.Primary outcomes were time to virologic failure, safety, and tolerability events. Secondary end points included proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA level less than 50 copies/mL, emergence of drug resistance, changes in CD4 cell counts, calculated creatinine clearance, and lipid levels.463 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive atazanavir plus ritonavir and 465 were assigned to receive efavirenz, both with abacavir-lamivudine; 322 (70%) and 324 (70%), respectively, completed follow-up. The respective numbers of participants in each group who received tenofovir DF-emtricitabine were 465 and 464; 342 (74%) and 343 (74%) completed follow-up. Primary efficacy was similar in the group that received atazanavir plus ritonavir and and the group that received efavirenz and did not differ according to whether abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine was also given. Hazard ratios for time to virologic failure were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.82 to 1.56) and 1.01 (CI, 0.70 to 1.46), respectively, although CIs did not meet prespecified criteria for equivalence. The time to safety (P = 0.048) and tolerability (P < 0.001) events was longer in persons given atazanavir plus ritonavir than in those given efavirenz with abacavir-lamivudine but not with tenofovir DF-emtricitabine.Neither HLA-B*5701 nor resistance testing was the standard of care when A5202 enrolled patients. The third drugs, atazanavir plus ritonavir and efavirenz, were open-label; the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were prematurely unblinded in the high viral load stratum; and 32% of patients modified or discontinued treatment with their third drug.Atazanavir plus ritonavir and efavirenz have similar antiviral activity when used with abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir DF-emtricitabine.National Institutes of Health.
View details for DOI 10.1059/0003-4819-154-7-201104050-00316
View details for Web of Science ID 000289078700001
View details for PubMedID 21320923
Access to reliable and low cost CD4 T-cell enumeration to stage illness and monitor anti-retroviral therapy remains elusive in resource-limited settings. We report challenges in delivering CD4 testing using the microcapillary Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) methodology (Guava EasyCD4 instrument Guava Technologies, Hayward) in Burkina Faso and Zimbabwe. Resources, instruments, reagents, and training were provided to local laboratories within the existing infrastructure and data on CD4 were collected from routine laboratory testing. Challenges encountered included frequent instrument breakdown; poor manufacturer maintenance; difficulties in managing reagent stocks; high technician turnover; reliance on antiquated data management systems; redundant service provision; and lack of repeat testing in male HIV+ patients and in patients with higher CD4 counts after initial staging. While adopting newer, less expensive technologies such as fluorescent platforms and point of care tests can facilitate access to lower cost CD4 testing, our experience suggests that supply chain, corporate commitment to implementation, and community factors also require consideration.
View details for DOI 10.1080/09540121.2010.541416
View details for Web of Science ID 000299479300006
View details for PubMedID 21400312
Great progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis, treatment, and transmission of HIV and the factors influencing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Many questions regarding the molecular evolution and genetic diversity of HIV in the context of MTCT remain unanswered. Further research to identify the selective factors governing which variants are transmitted, how the compartmentalization of HIV in different cells and tissues contributes to transmission, and the influence of host immunity, viral diversity, and recombination on MTCT may provide insight into new prevention strategies and the development of an effective HIV vaccine.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clp.2010.08.003
View details for Web of Science ID 000285485400005
View details for PubMedID 21078447
The concentration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is generally lower in breast milk than in blood. Mastitis, or inflammation of the breast, is associated with increased levels of milk HIV-1 and risk of mother-to-child transmission through breastfeeding. We hypothesized that mastitis facilitates the passage of HIV-1 from blood into milk or stimulates virus production within the breast. HIV-1 env sequences were generated from single amplicons obtained from breast milk and blood samples in a cross-sectional study. Viral compartmentalization was evaluated using several statistical methods, including the Slatkin and Maddison (SM) test. Mastitis was defined as an elevated milk sodium (Na(+)) concentration. The association between milk Na(+) and the pairwise genetic distance between milk and blood viral sequences was modeled using linear regression. HIV-1 was compartmentalized within milk by SM testing in 6/17 (35%) specimens obtained from 9 women, but all phylogenetic clades included viral sequences from milk and blood samples. Monotypic sequences were more prevalent in milk samples than in blood samples (22% versus 13%; P = 0.012), which accounted for half of the compartmentalization observed. Mastitis was not associated with compartmentalization by SM testing (P = 0.621), but Na(+) was correlated with greater genetic distance between milk and blood HIV-1 populations (P = 0.041). In conclusion, local production of HIV-1 within the breast is suggested by compartmentalization of virus and a higher prevalence of monotypic viruses in milk specimens. However, phylogenetic trees demonstrate extensive mixing of viruses between milk and blood specimens. HIV-1 replication in breast milk appears to increase with inflammation, contributing to higher milk viral loads during mastitis.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.00543-10
View details for Web of Science ID 000282642600035
View details for PubMedID 20660189
We assessed risk factors for viremia and drug resistance among long-term recipients of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in South Africa.In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional study among patients receiving ART for 12 months or more. Genotypic resistance testing was performed on individuals with a viral load higher than 400 RNA copies/ml. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations.Of 998 participants, 75% were women with a median age of 41 years. Most (64%) had been on treatment for more than 3 years. The prevalence of viremia was 14% (n = 139): 12% (102/883) on first-line [i.e. nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen] and 33% (37/115) on second-line (i.e. protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimen) ART. Of viremic patients, 78% had drug resistance mutations. For NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs, the prevalence of mutations was 64, 81 and 2%, respectively, among first-line failures and 29, 54 and 6%, respectively, among second-line failures. M184V/I, K103N and V106A/M were the most common mutations. Significant risk factors associated with viremia on first-line regimen included concurrent tuberculosis treatment [odds ratio (OR) 6.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-18.8, P < 0.01] and a recent history of poor adherence (OR 2.7, 1.3-5.6, P = 0.01). Among second-line failures, attending a public clinic (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.8-11.3, P < 0.01) and not having a refrigerator at home (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.2-37.5, P = 0.03) were risk factors for virological failure.Risk factors for viral failure were line regimen dependent. Second-line ART recipients had a higher rate of viremia, albeit with infrequent PI drug resistance mutations. Measures to maintain effective virologic suppression should include increased adherence counseling, attention to concomitant tuberculosis treatment and heat-stable formulations of second-line ART regimens.
View details for DOI 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32833a097b
View details for Web of Science ID 000279396600008
View details for PubMedID 20453629
The HIV-1 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI)-resistance mutation, K65R confers intermediate to high-level resistance to the NRTIs abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine, lamivudine, and tenofovir; and low-level resistance to stavudine. Several lines of evidence suggest that K65R is more common in HIV-1 subtype C than subtype B viruses.We performed ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS) and clonal dideoxynucleotide sequencing of plasma virus samples to assess the prevalence of minority K65R variants in subtype B and C viruses from untreated individuals. Although UDPS of plasma samples from 18 subtype C and 27 subtype B viruses showed that a higher proportion of subtype C viruses contain K65R (1.04% vs. 0.25%; p<0.001), limiting dilution clonal sequencing failed to corroborate its presence in two of the samples in which K65R was present in >1.5% of UDPS reads. We therefore performed UDPS on clones and site-directed mutants containing subtype B- and C-specific patterns of silent mutations in the conserved KKK motif encompassing RT codons 64 to 66 and found that subtype-specific nucleotide differences were responsible for increased PCR-induced K65R mutation in subtype C viruses.This study shows that the RT KKK nucleotide template in subtype C viruses can lead to the spurious detection of K65R by highly sensitive PCR-dependent sequencing techniques. However, the study is also consistent with the subtype C nucleotide template being inherently responsible for increased polymerization-induced K65R mutations in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0010992
View details for Web of Science ID 000278465900010
View details for PubMedID 20539818
As access to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) increases in sub-Saharan Africa, fertility and contraception patterns are likely to change. Two hundred HIV-positive women at an ART roll-out site in Zimbabwe responded to a questionnaire on fertility desires and condom use. Ten women (5%) reported planning a pregnancy in the next year, comprising 0% of women not yet eligible for ART, 8.22% of women on the waitlist for ART, and 4.17% of women on ART. Younger age, fewer living children, and higher quality of life were individually associated with intended pregnancy in the next year; however in multivariate analysis only the association with higher quality of life remained significant. Reported ever use of condoms was relatively low (46.5%) and condom use varied by neither ART status nor by fertility desires. In conclusion, our data demonstrates fertility desires among HIV-positive women in Zimbabwe correlate with higher perceived quality of life.
View details for PubMedID 21243916
During the course of HIV infection, some HIV-1 viruses switch from using the CCR5 (R5) coreceptor to using CXCR4 (X4). Here, we describe two subtype C isolates from a Zimbabwean patient that switched from using R5 to using both R5 and X4 with an accompanying addition of five amino acids to the V3 loop region of envelope. The insert appears to be derived from the human genome rather than a duplication within HIV-1.
View details for DOI 10.1097/QAD.0b013e328331f717
View details for Web of Science ID 000276567500018
View details for PubMedID 20299967
Saliva tests that detect antibodies are used to diagnose HIV infection. The goal of this study was to determine whether saliva could be used for nucleic acid-based tests to measure HIV-1 virus load (VL) and detect drug resistance.69 HIV infected individuals provided 5-10 ml of saliva and blood samples. Viral RNA was isolated from saliva and dried blood spots using the Nuclisens extraction. Saliva VL was measured using a modified Amplicor assay, and genotyping was performed using an in-house RT-PCR/sequencing protocol. Plasma VLs were obtained from concurrently drawn clinical tests.Thirty-six of 47 (77%) plasma viremic patients had measurable saliva HIV-1 RNA. Paired plasma and saliva HIV RNA levels were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation = .6532, p<.0001), but saliva VL was typically lower. Three of 22 patients with undetectable plasma VL (<50 copies/ml) had detectable saliva HIV RNA. Eleven of 30 patients with undetectable saliva RNA had detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA. Comparison of the protease and reverse transcriptase gene sequences from paired saliva and plasma of 20 patients showed less than 1% difference overall, and few resistance-related amino acid differencesMost patients with plasma virus >50 copies/mL had detectable saliva HIV RNA, and the genotypic data was highly concordant between saliva and plasma. In patients with high levels of plasma HIV RNA, saliva might be useful in identifying viremia and evaluating drug resistance.
View details for DOI 10.2174/1874357901004010088
View details for PubMedID 21673840
The use of fixed-dose combination nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor is recommended as initial therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but which NRTI combination has greater efficacy and safety is not known.In a randomized, blinded equivalence study involving 1858 eligible patients, we compared four once-daily antiretroviral regimens as initial therapy for HIV-1 infection: abacavir-lamivudine or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DF)-emtricitabine plus efavirenz or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir. The primary efficacy end point was the time from randomization to virologic failure (defined as a confirmed HIV-1 RNA level > or = 1000 copies per milliliter at or after 16 weeks and before 24 weeks, or > or = 200 copies per milliliter at or after 24 weeks).A scheduled interim review by an independent data and safety monitoring board showed significant differences in virologic efficacy, according to the NRTI combination, among patients with screening HIV-1 RNA levels of 100,000 copies per milliliter or more. At a median follow-up of 60 weeks, among the 797 patients with screening HIV-1 RNA levels of 100,000 copies per milliliter or more, the time to virologic failure was significantly shorter in the abacavir-lamivudine group than in the tenofovir DF-emtricitabine group (hazard ratio, 2.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.46 to 3.72; P<0.001), with 57 virologic failures (14%) in the abacavir-lamivudine group versus 26 (7%) in the tenofovir DF-emtricitabine group. The time to the first adverse event was also shorter in the abacavir-lamivudine group (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the study groups in the change from the baseline CD4 cell count at week 48.In patients with screening HIV-1 RNA levels of 100,000 copies per milliliter or more, the times to virologic failure and the first adverse event were both significantly shorter in patients randomly assigned to abacavir-lamivudine than in those assigned to tenofovir DF-emtricitabine. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00118898.)
View details for Web of Science ID 000272257100006
View details for PubMedID 19952143
To investigate the origins and evolutionary history of subtype C HIV-1 in Zimbabwe in a context of regional conflict and migration.HIV-1C pol sequence datasets were generated from four sequential cohorts of antenatal women in Harare, Zimbabwe sampled over 15 years (1991-2006).One hundred and seventy-seven HIV-1C pol sequences were obtained from four successive cohorts in Zimbabwe. Maximum-likelihood methods were used to explore phylogenetic relationships between Zimbabwean HIV-1C sequences and subtype C strains from other regions. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate evolutionary parameters for HIV-1C in Zimbabwe, including origin and demographic growth patterns.Zimbabwe HIV-1C pol demonstrated increasing sequence divergence over the 15-year period. Nearly all Zimbabwe sequences clustered phylogenetically with subtype C strains from neighboring countries. Bayesian evolutionary analysis indicated a most recent common ancestor date of 1973 with three epidemic growth phases: an initial, slow phase (1970s) followed by exponential growth (1980s), and a linearly expanding epidemic to the present. Bayesian trees provided evidence for multiple HIV-1C introductions into Zimbabwe during 1979-1981, corresponding with Zimbabwean national independence following a period of socio-political instability.The Zimbabwean HIV-1C epidemic likely originated from multiple introductions in the late 1970s and grew exponentially during the 1980s, corresponding to changing political boundaries and rapid population influx from neighboring countries. The timing and phylogenetic clustering of the Zimbabwean sequences is consistent with an origin in southern Africa and subsequent expansion. HIV-1 sequence data contain important epidemiological information, which can help focus treatment and prevention strategies in light of more recent political volatility in Zimbabwe.
View details for DOI 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283320ef3
View details for Web of Science ID 000272135800017
View details for PubMedID 19770693
Current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for treatment of HIV in resource-limited settings call for 2 antiretroviral regimens. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of increasing the number of antiretroviral regimens is unknown.Using a simulation model, we compared the survival and costs of current WHO regimens with two 3-regimen strategies: an initial regimen of 3 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors followed by the WHO regimens and the WHO regimens followed by a regimen with a second-generation boosted protease inhibitor (2bPI). We evaluated monitoring with CD4 counts only and with both CD4 counts and viral load. We used cost and effectiveness data from Cape Town and tested all assumptions in sensitivity analyses.Over the lifetime of the cohort, 25.6% of individuals failed both WHO regimens by virologic criteria. However, when patients were monitored using CD4 counts alone, only 6.5% were prescribed additional highly active antiretroviral therapy due to missed and delayed detection of failure. The life expectancy gain for individuals who took a 2bPI was 6.7-8.9 months, depending on the monitoring strategy. When CD4 alone was available, adding a regimen with a 2bPI was associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $2581 per year of life gained, and when viral load was available, the ratio was $6519 per year of life gained. Strategies with triple-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor regimens in initial therapy were dominated. Results were sensitive to the price of 2bPIs.About 1 in 4 individuals who start highly active antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa will fail currently recommended regimens. At current prices, adding a regimen with a 2bPI is cost effective for South Africa and other middle-income countries by WHO standards.
View details for Web of Science ID 000269373400015
View details for PubMedID 19448557
There is conflicting evidence about the contribution of heterosexual transmission to the spread of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) in southern Africa. This study evaluated the hypothesis that HHV-8 infection is associated with risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other sexually transmitted infections among Zimbabwean men.HHV-8 seroprevalence was determined for 2750 participants in the Zimbabwe AIDS Prevention Project cohort of male factory workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. Potential associations of HHV-8 antibody detection with risk factors for HIV-1 infection were examined by univariate analysis. Variables with P < .1 in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate logistic regression model. HHV-8 seroprevalence was also determined among 297 heterosexual couples.Prevalence of HHV-8, HIV-1, and HHV-8 and HIV-1 coinfection was 28.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.8%-30.2%), 19.5% (95% CI, 18.0%-20.9%), and 6.5% (95% CI, 5.6%-7.5%), respectively. Detection of HHV-8 antibodies was independently associated with older age and HIV-1 infection but not with number of recent sex partners, marital status, education, condom use, prior sexually transmitted infections, payment for sex, chronic hepatitis B infection, or incident HIV-1 infection. HHV-8 seroprevalence was 31.7% (95% CI, 26.3-37.0) among wives in the couples tested, but HHV-8 infection of wives was not associated with HHV-8 infection of husbands (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.62-1.88; P = .8).HHV-8 and HIV-1 infection did not have common sexual risk factors among urban Zimbabwean men. Sexual transmission does not explain the high prevalence of HHV-8 in this population.
View details for DOI 10.1086/598978
View details for Web of Science ID 000265749400017
View details for PubMedID 19400749
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C is the dominant subtype globally, due largely to the incidence of subtype C infections in sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia. We compared the relative replicative fitness (ex vivo) of the major (M) group of HIV-1 subtypes A, B, C, D, and CRF01_AE and group O isolates. To estimate pathogenic fitness, pairwise competitions were performed between CCR5-tropic (R5) or CXCR4-tropic (X4) virus isolates in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A general fitness order was observed among 33 HIV-1 isolates; subtype B and D HIV-1 isolates were slightly more fit than the subtype A and dramatically more fit than the 12 subtype C isolates. All group M isolates were more fit (ex vivo) than the group O isolates. To estimate ex vivo transmission fitness, a subset of primary HIV-1 isolates were examined in primary human explants from penile, cervical, and rectal tissues. Only R5 isolates and no X4 HIV-1 isolates could replicate in these tissues, whereas the spread to PM1 cells was dependent on active replication and passive virus transfer. In tissue competition experiments, subtype C isolates could compete with and, in some cases, even win over subtype A and D isolates. However, when the migratory cells from infected tissues were mixed with a susceptible cell line, the subtype C isolates were outcompeted by other subtypes, as observed in experiments with PBMC. These findings suggest that subtype C HIV-1 isolates might have equal transmission fitness but reduced pathogenic fitness relative to other group M HIV-1 isolates.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.02051-08
View details for Web of Science ID 000266034100029
View details for PubMedID 19297481
In resource-constrained settings, antiretroviral treatment (ART) is often continued based on clinical and CD4 responses, without virologic monitoring. ART with incomplete viral suppression was assessed in 27 subjects with subtype C HIV-1.Plasma HIV-1 RNA, drug resistance, viral tropism, and evolution in polymerase (pol) and envelope (env) genes were measured. The association between these viral parameters and CD4 cell change over time was analyzed using linear regression models.Increased area under the curve of HIV-1 RNA replication was a predictor of lower CD4 cell gains (P < 0.007), while less drug resistance measured as a genotypic susceptibility score (GSS) (P = 0.065), and lower rates of evolution in pol and env genes (P = 0.08 and 0.097, respectively) measured as genetic distance were modestly associated with increasing CD4 cell counts. Evolution of pol and env were correlated (R2 = 0.48, P = 0.005), however, greater evolution was identified in env vs. pol (P < 0.05). CXCR4-usage (X4) was detected in 14/27 (52%) but no differences in CD4 cell change or plasma viremia were associated with X4-usage.Among subtype C HIV-1 infected patients in Zimbabwe receiving incompletely suppressive ART, higher virus replication and lower CD4 cell gains were associated with drug resistance and evolution of polymerase and envelope.
View details for Web of Science ID 000262019100002
View details for PubMedID 19295330
Little is known about the psychosocial impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe to assess the impact of ART on HIV-positive women's health-related quality of life, using the Medical Outcomes Study-HIV Quality of Life (QOL) questionnaire. Additionally, we assessed socio-demographics, reproductive and sexual health, HIV-related history, disclosure, social stigma, self-esteem, and depression. Structured interviews were conducted with 200 HIV-positive women and categorized into three groups by treatment: (1) Group 1 (n=31) did not meet clinical or laboratory criteria to begin treatment; (2) Group 2 (n=73) was eligible to begin treatment but awaiting initiation of treatment; and (3) Group 3 (n=96) was on ART for a median of 13 months. The women had similar socio-demographic characteristics but varied significantly in clinical characteristics. Women on ART reported fewer AIDS-related symptoms in the last week and year and had higher current and lower baseline CD4 counts compared to women not on ART. On most QOL domains women on ART reported higher mean scores as compared to women not on ART (p<0.01). Additionally, women on ART reported less depression compared to women not on ART (p<0.001). Between the two groups of women not on ART, unexpectedly, there were no significant differences in their scores for QOL or depression. Thus, Zimbabwean women living with HIV experience better overall QOL and lower depression on ART. Altogether, our findings suggest that ART delivery in resource-poor communities can enhance overall QOL as well as psychosocial functioning, which has wide-ranging public health implications.
View details for DOI 10.1080/09540120902923055
View details for Web of Science ID 000273008700005
View details for PubMedID 20024731
In hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are linearly correlated with HBV DNA levels and lamivudine resistance. In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HBV co-infection, little is known about the association between ALT, HBV DNA, and lamivudine resistance. We assessed HBV DNA, lamivudine resistance and ALT levels in 45 time points in 11 patients with HIV/HBV co-infection during lamivudine-containing antiretroviral therapy. High HBV DNA levels (>10(6) copies/mL) and lamivudine resistance developed in 45% and 91% of patients, respectively. However, ALT levels were not elevated in the setting of high HBV DNA levels (mean ALT, 48 IU/mL) or lamivudine resistance (mean ALT, 44 IU/mL). HBV viraemia and lamivudine resistance during extended lamivudine-containing antiretroviral therapy are common in HIV/HBV co-infection, occurring in the absence of significant ALT elevations. In HIV/HBV co-infection, measurement of HBV DNA and HBV resistance mutations may identify HBV virological failure before biochemical changes and should be routinely used in the management of HIV/HBV co-infection.
View details for DOI 10.1258/ijsa.2008.008020
View details for Web of Science ID 000260950100012
View details for PubMedID 18931274
Although the number of infected persons receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in low- and middle-income countries has increased dramatically, optimal disease management is not well defined.We developed a model to compare the costs and benefits of 3 types of human immunodeficiency virus monitoring strategies: symptom-based strategies, CD4-based strategies, and CD4 counts plus viral load strategies for starting, switching, and stopping HAART. We used clinical and cost data from southern Africa and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis. All assumptions were tested in sensitivity analyses.Compared with the symptom-based approaches, monitoring CD4 counts every 6 months and starting treatment at a threshold of 200/muL was associated with a gain in life expectancy of 6.5 months (61.9 months vs 68.4 months) and a discounted lifetime cost savings of US $464 per person (US $4069 vs US $3605, discounted 2007 dollars). The CD4-based strategies in which treatment was started at the higher threshold of 350/microL provided an additional gain in life expectancy of 5.3 months at a cost-effectiveness of US $107 per life-year gained compared with a threshold of 200/microL. Monitoring viral load with CD4 was more expensive than monitoring CD4 counts alone, added 2.0 months of life, and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US $5414 per life-year gained relative to monitoring of CD4 counts. In sensitivity analyses, the cost savings from CD4 count monitoring compared with the symptom-based approaches was sensitive to cost of inpatient care, and the cost-effectiveness of viral load monitoring was influenced by the per test costs and rates of virologic failure.Use of CD4 monitoring and early initiation of HAART in southern Africa provides large health benefits relative to symptom-based approaches for HAART management. In southern African countries with relatively high costs of hospitalization, CD4 monitoring would likely reduce total health care expenditures. The cost-effectiveness of viral load monitoring depends on test prices and rates of virologic failure.
View details for Web of Science ID 000259393000011
View details for PubMedID 18809819
Cognitive impairment continues to be a significant neurologic complication of HIV infection and has been associated with oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury. Selegiline is an MAO-B inhibitor with antioxidant and neurotrophic properties. This rationale has led to the design and implementation of this Selegiline Transdermal System (STS) study with the primary aims of assessing safety and tolerability of STS as well as improvement in cognitive performance.HIV-1 infected individuals with impaired cognitive functioning were enrolled in this placebo-controlled, three-arm study of STS across 17 sites. Cognitive impairment was determined using a standard battery of neuropsychological tests. Subjects were randomized to receive STS 3 mg/24 hours, STS 6 mg/24 hours, or matching placebo patches daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was defined as the change in neuropsychological composite Z-score (NPZ-6) from baseline to week 24. Measures of safety included frequencies of adverse experiences and abnormal results on laboratory tests.A total of 128 subjects (88% men, 51% white) were enrolled, median age 45 years. Most subjects (62%) had mild to moderate AIDS dementia complex. The 24-week NPZ-6 median (interquartile range) changes were 0.22 (-0.28, 0.55) for the selegiline 3 mg/24 hours arm, 0.21 (-0.18, 0.62) for the selegiline 6 mg/24 hours arm, and 0.28 (-0.16, 0.64) for the placebo arm (a positive score indicates improvement from baseline) (p = 0.914). Severe laboratory abnormalities were few and occurred in similar proportion among the three treatment arms.Selegiline was safe and well tolerated by HIV-infected individuals with cognitive impairment and mild to moderate immune suppression; however, no cognitive or functional improvement was observed in this phase II study.
View details for Web of Science ID 000249694800004
View details for PubMedID 17652642
Single-dose nevirapine (SD NVP) reduces intrapartum HIV-1 transmission, but nonnucleoside reverse transcription (NNRTI) resistance mutations can emerge. Population sequencing among 32 subtype C HIV-1-infected, SD NVP-exposed Zimbawean women demonstrated NNRTI resistance in 25/32 (78%) women: 23/30 (77%) at 2 weeks, 11/31 (35%) at 8 weeks, and 5/27 (19%) at 24 weeks. A total of 447 unique TA clones (median = 28 per time point), from four women with resistance at 8 weeks but wild-type virus by population sequence at 24 weeks, identified NNRTI mutations in a median of 76% (range: 55-96%) of individual clones at 2 weeks, 48% (range: 33-80%) at 8 weeks, and 5% (range: 0-15%) by 24 weeks. NNRTI mutations in breast milk clones at 2 and weeks from one woman varied significantly from plasma. Population sequencing underestimates the diversity of NNRTI resistance mutations within minority populations following SD NVP in subtype C HIV-1 viral RNA in plasma and breast milk.
View details for DOI 10.1089/aid.2007.0045
View details for Web of Science ID 000249143200014
View details for PubMedID 17725424
To describe the determinants of delayed HIV presentation in one Northern California County, the authors identify persons with an opportunistic infection (OI) at HIV diagnosis. From 2000-2002, a sample of HIV patients attending a public AIDS program (n=391) were identified. Immigrants composed 24% of our sample; 78.7% of immigrants were Hispanic. Immigrants, compared to U.S.-born patients, presented with lower initial CD4+ counts at diagnosis than U.S.-born patients (287 cells/mm(3) vs. 333 cells/mm(3), p=0.143), were more likely to have an OI at HIV diagnosis (29.8% vs. 17.2%, p=0.009), and were more likely to be hospitalized at HIV diagnosis (20.2% vs. 12.5%, p=0.064). We found only immigrant status was significantly and independently associated with delayed presentation. Interviews with 20 newly HIV diagnosed Hispanic patients suggest lack of knowledge regarding HIV risk, social stigma, secrecy and symptom driven health seeking behavior all contribute to delayed clinical presentation. The main precipitants of HIV testing for immigrants were HIV/AIDS related symptoms and sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV diagnosis in a sexual partner. These results support augmentation of STI/HIV voluntary clinical testing and partner notification services along the Mexico-California migrant corridor.
View details for PubMedID 17031578
This project evaluated perceived risks and benefits and determined predictors of acceptance of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) among pregnant women in Zimbabwe. One hundred and seventy pregnant women attending an urban antenatal clinic were surveyed. Implications of a negative or positive HIV test result and of telling a partner or community members that one is HIV positive were queried. Forty women (23.5%) consented to VCT, and 16 (40%) were HIV positive. Women who saw VCT as lower risk (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.1-5.0]) and women who had had a stillbirth or child die (OR = 0.4, 95% CI [0.16-0.97]) were more likely to consent. Prenatal HIV VCT offers the best opportunity for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV; however, less than 25% of women consented. If such interventions are to be successful, attention must be directed towards developing culturally appropriate strategies to address women's concerns and improve future acceptance of VCT in Zimbabwe.
View details for Web of Science ID 000243218900012
View details for PubMedID 17212862
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has grown from a handful of sentinel observations in New York and California, nearly 25 years ago, to an epidemic that has claimed 500,000 lives in the United States and >20 million worldwide. Tom Merigan's scientific career led him to focus on viral pathogenesis as translational "bench-to-bedside" research, aimed squarely at the development of antiretroviral treatment. As a founder and leader of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group, Tom played a pivotal role in the national response to HIV. He led the development of a succession of antiretroviral drugs, their combined use, and the introduction of new methods for monitoring HIV infection. The current response to the global epidemic and the tools now coming to bear on diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring owe much to Tom's relentless pursuit of excellence in research and the training he offered generations of clinical virologists and infectious disease physicians.
View details for Web of Science ID 000240317800008
View details for PubMedID 16921472
HIVseq was developed in 2000 to make published data on the frequency of HIV-1 group M protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations available in real time to laboratories and researchers sequencing these genes. Because most published protease and RT sequences belonged to subtype B, the initial version of HIVseq was based on this subtype. As additional non-B sequences from persons with well-characterized antiretroviral treatment histories have become available, the program has been extended to subtypes A, C, D, F, G, CRF01, and CRF02.The latest frequency of each protease and RT mutation according to subtype and drug-class exposure was calculated using published sequences in the Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database. Each mutation was hyperlinked to published reports of viruses containing the mutation.As of September 2005, the mean number of protease sequences per non-B subtype was 534 from protease inhibitor-naive persons and 133 from protease inhibitor-treated persons, representing 13.2% and 2.3%, respectively, of the data available for subtype B. The mean number of RT sequences per non-B subtype was 373 from RT inhibitor-naive persons and 288 from RT inhibitor-treated persons, representing 17.9% and 3.8%, respectively, of the data available for subtype B.HIVseq allows users to examine protease and RT mutations within the context of previously published sequences of these genes. The publication of additional non-B protease and RT sequences from persons with well-characterized treatment histories, however, will be required to perform the same types of analysis possible with the much larger number of subtype B sequences.
View details for Web of Science ID 000236421000002
View details for PubMedID 16514293
The purpose of this pilot project was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of voluntary counselling and HIV testing (VCT) by pregnant women using community volunteers in Zimbabwe to prevent mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. From July 1999 to June 2001, a short-course zidovudine (ZDV)-based perinatal HIV prevention programme was initiated in two antenatal clinics. Community volunteers, recruited from local community organizations, underwent a two-week training course in VCT, which included HIV/AIDS facts, systematic counselling approach, and practical counselling techniques using scripts and role-play. Rapid HIV testing was performed after informed consent. Lay counsellors conducted individual pre- and post-test counselling for HIV. A total of 35 women community volunteers were trained in VCT; 34 graduated and committed to work four hours per week in the clinic. Of the 6051 pregnant women presenting for antenatal clinics (ANC), 1824 (30%) underwent pre-test counselling and 1547 (26%) were tested, and 429 (28%) were HIV infected. Overall, 1283 (83%) returned for their test results including 406 (95%) of HIV-infected women. Of the 406 HIV-infected women who collected their test results, only 203 (50%) opted for ZDV prophylaxis to prevent MTCT of HIV. Over the two-year study period, two counsellors died and three sought employment at other organizations. Adherence to duty roster was 97% and no breach of confidentiality was reported. Despite many challenges, VCT delivered by community volunteers is feasible and acceptable for pregnant women aiming to reduce their risk of transmitting HIV to their infants. This programme is being implemented at several urban and rural MTCT sites in Zimbabwe and can serve as a model for other resource-poor countries.
View details for Web of Science ID 000233349700010
View details for PubMedID 16303072
Single-dose nevirapine reduces intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus 1 type (HIV-1) transmission but may also select for nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance in breast milk (BM) and plasma. Among 32 Zimbabwean women, median 8-week postpartum plasma and BM HIV-1 RNA levels were 4.57 and 2.13 log(10) copies/mL, respectively. BM samples from women with laboratory-diagnosed mastitis (defined as elevated BM Na(+) levels) were 5.4-fold more likely to have HIV-1 RNA levels above the median. BM RT sequences were not obtained for 12 women with BM HIV-1 RNA levels below the lower limit of detection of the assay used. In 20 paired BM and plasma samples, 65% of BM and 50% of plasma RT sequences had NNRTI-resistance mutations, with divergent mutation patterns.
View details for Web of Science ID 000231623700019
View details for PubMedID 16136470
The gold standard for diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants under the age of 2 years is DNA or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. However, these tests are expensive and therefore not available in resource-limited countries. With the increasing availability of antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and treatment of AIDS in resource-poor countries, there is an urgent need to develop cheaper, alternative, and cost-effective laboratory methods for early diagnosis of infant HIV-1 infection that will be useful in identifying infected infants who may benefit from early cotrimoxazole prophylaxis or commencement of antiretroviral therapy. We evaluated an alternative method, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based qualitative ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay for diagnosis of subtype C HIV-1 infection in infants under the age of 2 years using DNA polymerase chain reaction as the reference method. The assay showed a sensitivity of 96.7% (95% CI: 93.0-100) for detection of HIV-1 infection among infants 0-18 months of age with a specificity of 96.1% (95% CI: 91.7-100). These evaluated parameters were not statistically different between infants aged 0-6 and 7-18 months. The ultrasensitive p24 antigen assay is a useful diagnostic test for detection of HIV-1 infection among infants aged 0-18 months.
View details for Web of Science ID 000230572400003
View details for PubMedID 16010158
HIV-1 isolates harboring multiple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance mutations are more susceptible ("hypersusceptible") to the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) than isolates lacking NRTI resistance mutations, but this has only been reported with a single-cycle replication phenotypic assay. In fact, there was a report that a commercial multicycle assay did not readily detect hypersusceptibility.To see whether NNRTI hypersusceptibility can be demonstrated in other types of phenotypic assays, including multicycle assays and enzyme inhibition assays.The susceptibility of HIV-1 clones derived from different patients in multicycle assays was tested in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in an established cell line. In addition, the reverse transcriptase (RT) of many of these clones was expressed and their susceptibility tested in an RT inhibition assay. Nevirapine and efavirenz susceptibilities were tested and compared with a control wild-type virus or RT.Hypersusceptibility to nevirapine and efavirenz was detected using each of the methods described above. R values correlating the other methods with single-cycle assay values were between 0.66 and 0.96. In addition to the high correlations, the different methods gave similar numeric results.NNRTI hypersusceptibility is readily seen in multicycle susceptibility assays and in enzyme inhibition assays.
View details for Web of Science ID 000228812000011
View details for PubMedID 15851917
The genetic differences among HIV-1 subtypes may be critical to clinical management and drug resistance surveillance as antiretroviral treatment is expanded to regions of the world where diverse non-subtype-B viruses predominate.To assess the impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral treatment on the distribution of mutations in protease and reverse transcriptase, a binomial response model using subtype and treatment as explanatory variables was used to analyze a large compiled dataset of non-subtype-B HIV-1 sequences. Non-subtype-B sequences from 3,686 persons with well characterized antiretroviral treatment histories were analyzed in comparison to subtype B sequences from 4,769 persons. The non-subtype-B sequences included 461 with subtype A, 1,185 with C, 331 with D, 245 with F, 293 with G, 513 with CRF01_AE, and 618 with CRF02_AG. Each of the 55 known subtype B drug-resistance mutations occurred in at least one non-B isolate, and 44 (80%) of these mutations were significantly associated with antiretroviral treatment in at least one non-B subtype. Conversely, of 67 mutations found to be associated with antiretroviral therapy in at least one non-B subtype, 61 were also associated with antiretroviral therapy in subtype B isolates.Global surveillance and genotypic assessment of drug resistance should focus primarily on the known subtype B drug-resistance mutations.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.0020112
View details for Web of Science ID 000229163300015
View details for PubMedID 15839752
Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) hypersusceptibility is seen in approximately 30% of HIV isolates with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance. NNRTI hypersusceptibility has been associated with improved outcomes to NNRTI-based therapy.To determine the genetic correlates of efavirenz hypersusceptibility.Paired baseline genotypes and phenotypes were obtained from 444 NRTI-experienced, NNRTI-naive patients. Fisher's exact tests, recursive partitioning (classification and regression trees; CART), and stepwise binary regression were used to identify specific reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations associated with efavirenz hypersusceptibility.In univariate analyses, 26 RT codons were associated with efavirenz hypersusceptibility (P < 0.05), the top five were 215 > 41 > 210 > 118 > 208 (all P < 0.000001). From stepwise model selection, the 215, 208 and 118 mutations remained independently predictive of efavirenz hypersusceptibility. A final binary regression model to predict efavirenz hypersusceptibility included one covariate for the 215 mutation (relative risk 2.6, P < 0.0001) and a second covariate representing either the 208 or 118 mutation (relative risk 1.8, P < 0.0001). Similarly, in a CART analysis, a mutation at codon 215 was the first split selected, followed by mutations at 208 and 118. An efavirenz hypersusceptibility genotypic score using the three mutations 208, 118 and 215 was as accurate at predicting efavirenz hypersusceptibility as a more complex scoring system using 26 mutations.Mutations at 215, 208 and 118 were independently associated with NNRTI hypersusceptibility. After confirmatory studies using other large datasets, incorporating a hypersusceptibility score into genotype interpretation algorithms will improve the prediction of NNRTI hypersusceptibility.
View details for Web of Science ID 000223667900006
View details for PubMedID 15316338
The optimal time for changing failing antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not known. It involves balancing the risk of exhausting future treatment options against the risk of developing increased drug resistance. The frequency with which new drug-resistance mutations (DRM) developed and their potential consequences in patients continuing unchanged treatment despite persistent viremia were assessed.A retrospective study of consecutive sequence samples from 106 patients at one institution with viral load (VL) of more than 400 copies/ml, with no change in ART for more than 2 months despite virologic failure.Two consecutive pol sequences, CD4 cell counts and VL were analyzed to quantify the development of new DRM and to identify changes in immunologic and virologic parameters. Genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS) and viral drug susceptibilities were calculated by a computer program (HIVDB). Poisson log-linear regression models were used to predict the expected number of mutations at the second time point.: After a median of 14 months of continued ART, 75% (80 of 106) of patients acquired new DRM and were assigned a significantly lower GSS, potentially limiting the success of future ART. The development of new DRM was proportional to the time between the two sequences and inversely proportional to the number of DRM in the first sequence. However, the development of DRM was not associated with significant changes in CD4 or VL counts.Despite stable levels of CD4 and VL over time, maintaining a failing therapeutic regimen increases drug resistance and may limit future treatment options.
View details for DOI 10.1097/01.aids.0000131358.29586.6b
View details for Web of Science ID 000222934500004
View details for PubMedID 15238768
View details for PubMedID 15075518
Treatment of HIV-1 with antiretroviral therapy may select mutations in the pol gene associated with resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. To provide durable clinical benefit, emergence of drug resistance is countered by prescription of alternative drug regimens. Data on sequential treatments that are effective after virologic failure and the selection of drug resistance is largely confined to HIV-1 subtype B, the clade that has circulated in North America and Europe. However, HIV-1 subtype B currently accounts for only 12% of the estimated 40 million HIV infected individuals worldwide. The global HIV-1 epidemic includes infection with nine identified HIV-1 group M subtypes (A-K), as well as distinct sub-subtypes and numerous chimerical or recombinant forms. Increasing access to treatment of HIV-1 in the developing world and increasing non-subtype B infection through travel and migration pose new questions about the susceptibility and response of these diverse HIV-1 viruses to antiretroviral drugs. Here we review HIV diversity and the published literature on drug resistance, comparing the known resistance mutations in individuals infected with subtype B to the growing experience in the treatment of non-subtype B HIV-1 worldwide.
View details for DOI 10.1016/S1386-6532(03)00115-X
View details for Web of Science ID 000189219300002
View details for PubMedID 14962783
Despite the success of antiretroviral prophylaxis in reducing mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission, postpartum transmission through breast milk remains a problem. Antiretroviral administration to the infant during the period of breast-feeding could protect against postnatal transmission. An open-label phase 1/2 study was designed to assess the safety and trough concentrations of nevirapine (NVP) given once weekly (OW), twice weekly (TW), or once daily (OD) to HIV-exposed breast-feeding infants for 24 weeks. Following maternal dosing with 200 mg NVP orally at onset of labor, breast-feeding infants were randomized within 48 hours of birth to 1 of 3 regimens: arm 1, NVP given OW (4 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 8 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks), arm 2, NVP given TW (4 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 8 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks), and arm 3, NVP given OD (2 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 4 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks). Trough NVP concentrations and clinical and laboratory abnormalities were monitored. Of the 75 infants randomized (26 to OW, 25 to TW, and 24 to OD dosing), 63 completed the 32-week follow-up visit. No severe skin, hepatic, or renal toxicity related to NVP was observed. Neutropenia occurred in 8 infants. Trough NVP levels were lower than the therapeutic target (100 ng/mL) in 48 of 75 (64.0%) samples from infants in the OW arm, 3 of 65 (4.6%) samples in the TW arm, and 0 of 72 samples in the OD arm. Median (range) trough NVP concentrations were 64 ng/mL (range: <25-1519 ng/mL) with OW dosing; 459 (range: <25-1386 ng/mL) with TW dosing; and 1348 (range: 108-4843 ng/ml) with OD dosing. Our data indicate that NVP prophylaxis for 6 months was safe and well tolerated in infants. OD NVP dosing resulted in all infants with trough concentration greater than the therapeutic target and maintenance of high drug concentrations. A phase 3 study is planned to assess the efficacy of OD infant NVP regimen to prevent breast-feeding HIV-1 transmission.
View details for Web of Science ID 000206324300006
View details for PubMedID 14657758
Antiretroviral (ARV) drugs have become the cornerstone of care and treatment for AIDS in North America, Brazil, and Europe. Twenty years into the epidemic, and more than 10 years after the introduction of ARV's, effective global treatment of AIDS, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where the epidemic is most concentrated, is an extraordinary challenge. Guidelines and experience in anti-microbial prophylaxis, prescription and monitoring of ARV's in resource-rich countries should inform the efforts to scale-up AIDS care and treatment in Africa. Here, we review the considerable experience of ARV treatment acquired largely in the Americas and Europe, and the fledgling clinical trials and observational studies in Africa. Implementation of safe, effective, and equitable access to ARV's in Africa should be cognizant of the guidelines for ARV treatment in the Northern countries. Careful observation and operational research to accrue more African data, and evaluate regional and local solutions to this daunting challenge, will identify new approaches to scaling-up of ARV treatment.
View details for PubMedID 15011998
View details for PubMedID 14986515
Virologic outcome among 104 lamivudine (3TC)-experienced individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 who switched to a didanosine (ddI)-containing triple- or quadruple-drug regimen was compared with those who continued receiving a 3TC-containing regimen. A significantly increased independent risk of virologic failure was associated with continuing a 3TC-containing regimen. In addition, most patients for whom the ddI-containing regimen failed lost the M184V/I mutation. These results show that ddI continues to provide activity against viruses with the M184V/I mutation and suggest that the presence of the M184V/I mutation should not preclude the use of ddI in nucleoside-experienced patients.
View details for Web of Science ID 000184567000008
View details for PubMedID 12898440
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C viruses have been found to almost exclusively use the chemokine receptor CCR5 as a coreceptor for entry, even in patients with advanced AIDS. We have characterized subtype C virus isolates from 28 patients from Harare, Zimbabwe, 20 of whom were receiving antiretroviral treatment. Virus from 10 of the treated patients induced syncytium formation (SI virus) when cultured with MT2 cells. Only non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) virus was cultured from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the eight patients who had not received treatment. The majority of these subtype C SI viruses were capable of using both CCR5 and CXCR4 as coreceptors for viral entry, and the consensus V3 loop sequences from the SI viruses displayed a high net charge compared to those of NSI viruses. While those on treatment had reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease mutations, there was no clear association between RT and protease drug resistance mutations and coreceptor tropism. These results suggest that CXCR4-tropic viruses are present within the quasispecies of patients infected with subtype C virus and that antiretroviral treatment may create an environment for the emergence of CXCR4 tropism.
View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.77.13.7682-7688.2003
View details for Web of Science ID 000183598600057
View details for PubMedID 12805470
To evaluate phenotypic drug susceptibility and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor hypersusceptibility as predictors of the time to virological failure.In a randomized clinical trial, phenotypic susceptibility was retrospectively determined among 131 exclusively nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-experienced patients with baseline HIV-RNA levels greater than 2000 copies/ml. Subjects were assigned two NRTI drugs and were randomly assigned to nelfinavir, efavirenz, or both. Virological failure was defined as two HIV-RNA measurements of 2000 copies/ml or greater at or after week 16 and before treatment discontinuation.Using biological cut-offs to define resistance, assigned NRTI and randomized drug regimens, continuous and dichotomous phenotypic susceptibility scores (PSS) were calculated for each virus. Efavirenz hypersusceptibility as a dichotomous value was defined as less than 0.4-fold resistance. Associations between virological failure and continuous and dichotomous PSS were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression models.A higher baseline viral load (P < 0.02) and lower dichotomous or continuous baseline PSS (P = 0.004 and P < 0.001, respectively) were independently associated with virological failure. In the 85 subjects who received efavirenz, efavirenz hypersusceptibility (P = 0.042, hazard ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.97) was independently associated with a reduced risk of virological failure.Reduced phenotypic susceptibility was a significant independent risk factor for virological failure. The presence of efavirenz hypersusceptibility appeared to enhance virological responses during treatment with efavirenz in combination with NRTIs. The retrospective calculation of continuous PSS accurately identified treatment regimens containing sufficient drug activity to prevent virological failure.
View details for DOI 10.1097/01.aids.0000050869.71999.40
View details for Web of Science ID 000182779700009
View details for PubMedID 12660529
HIV-1 non-subtype B viruses are predominant worldwide. At least 9 different HIV-1 group M subtypes and 14 circulating recombinant forms differ from one another by 10-15% in their pol gene, which includes the coding regions for the viral protease and reverse transcriptase (RT), the current targets of antiretroviral drugs. Inter-subtype genotypic diversity includes polymorphism at amino acid residues known to be related to drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype B. Whether polymorphism alters protease and RT function, drug susceptibility, or clinical response to treatment, is unclear. Worldwide dissemination of non-subtype B viruses and increasing availability of antiretroviral drugs in the developing world will expand drug use and the likelihood of drug resistance in non-subtype B viruses. In this review we define and characterize inter-subtype RT and protease polymorphism, and examine the evidence for genotypic and phenotypic differences between HIV-1 subtypes as well as the potential for different clinical responses and evolution of drug resistance among non-B infected individuals.
View details for PubMedID 12875105
HIV-1 drug resistance mutations have been identified and characterized mostly in subtype B HIV-1 infection. The extent to which antiretroviral drugs select for drug resistance mutations in non-subtype B HIV-1 is not known. We obtained HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease sequences from 21 Zimbabwean patients failing antiretroviral drug therapy. We compared these sequences with 56 published RT and protease subtype C sequences from untreated patients, 990 RT and 1140 protease subtype B sequences from treated patients, and 340 RT and 907 protease subtype B sequences from untreated patients and identified four mutation categories of subtype C HIV-1. Seventeen of the 21 patients (81%) had known drug resistance mutations. Mutations at 15 RT and 11 protease positions were more common in subtype C isolates than in subtype B isolates. HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy develop many of the known subtype B drug resistance mutations. Comparison of subtype C RT and protease sequences with a large database of subtype B sequences identified subtype C-specific polymorphisms and candidate drug resistance mutations.
View details for Web of Science ID 000179813400009
View details for PubMedID 12512512
To identify the level of phenotypic susceptibility for stavudine (d4T) that is associated with a diminished virologic response to d4T therapy, phenotyping was performed on archived baseline HIV isolates from 26 subjects who received d4T monotherapy in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 302 who had received >3 years of prior zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. Seven of 26 subjects achieved a virologic response of >0.3-log10 copies/mL reduction in plasma HIV RNA after 8 weeks of d4T. Responders had lower fold changes in susceptibility to d4T (1.0 vs. 1.6, p=.003), lower baseline viral loads (4.26 vs. 4.74 log10 copies/mL, p=.004), and fewer thymidine analog mutations (TAMS) (1 vs. 2, p=.059). Lower baseline d4T fold change in susceptibility predicted greater reductions in HIV RNA from baseline to week 8 after adjusting for baseline HIV RNA, ZDV fold change in susceptibility, and number of TAMS. Using the same phenotypic assay, drug susceptibility among 240 antiretroviral-naive patients found all HIV isolates to have d4T susceptibility
View details for DOI 10.1097/01.QAI.0000038335.74605.52
View details for Web of Science ID 000178884500001
View details for PubMedID 12394789
View details for DOI 10.1097/01.QAI.0000038335.74605.52
View details for Web of Science ID 000178884500001
View details for PubMedID 12394789
Providing low-cost interventions such as co-trimoxazole as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections among HIV-infected individuals depends on the identification of those at risk. This article describes the prevalence of self-reported signs and symptoms and CD4 cell counts in a cohort of 447 HIV seropositive men. A scoring system using self-reported signs and symptoms was developed and tested in the prediction of low CD4 cell counts. This approach may allow health care providers in low-resource settings to predict severe immunodeficiency and to provide care.Data on clinical manifestations of HIV infection and blood samples for HIV serology were collected prospectively from an ambulatory cohort of men seen at their workplace at enrollment and every 6 months thereafter. CD4+ cell counts were obtained on samples testing positive on ELISA. Using data reduction techniques and logistic modeling, we developed a prognostic score system.20% of the men had CD4+ cell counts below 200. All reported signs and symptoms were more frequent in men with less than 200 CD4+ cell counts compared to men with CD4+ cell counts greater than 200. History of malaria, fever, lymphadenopathy, persistent diarrhea, persistent cough, and skin infections robustly predicted low CD4+ count. A scoring system equation was developed based on the coefficients of the multivariate logistic regression: 1x(tuberculosis) + 3.2x(herpes zoster) + 4.5x(malaria) + 5.7x(fever) + 5.8x(cough) + 8.2x(lymphadenopathy) + 8.5x(skin infection). Setting the score cutoff value greater than or equal 5, the model had moderately high sensitivity of 61% and specificity of 72%. The scoring system had an overall classification error rate of 30%.By using this simple scoring system, physicians can correctly identify 72% of patients who do not require immediate intervention, thereby channeling scarce resources to those who have both low CD4+ cell counts and symptoms and are most likely to benefit from prophylactic and antiretroviral interventions.
View details for PubMedID 11976993
Prior evidence suggests that resistance to zidovudine (ZDV) confers some degree of cross-resistance to stavudine (d4T), but no genotypic correlates of clinical d4T susceptibility and resistance exist. To identify the genotypic correlates of a virologic response to d4T, reverse transcriptase (RT) sequencing of archived plasma HIV isolates was performed on 31 subjects who received d4T monotherapy in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group 302 study, all of whom received more than 3 years of ZDV monotherapy. Baseline characteristics and all RT mutations were analyzed for impact on virologic suppression. Eight of 31 subjects (27%) achieved a virologic response of greater than 0.3 log reduction in plasma HIV RNA after 8 weeks of d4T. Responders were more likely to have lower median baseline viral loads (4.2 vs. 4.7; p =.01) and a trend toward fewer ZDV-associated mutations (median: 1 vs. 2; p =.09). No subject with greater than one ZDV mutation had a virologic response to d4T. Seven of the 8 responders had only a K70R mutation at baseline. We conclude that in patients with prior ZDV treatment, those with only one ZDV mutation, particularly at position 70, can still get reasonable virologic activity from d4T. Those with more mutations are not likely to have much benefit.
View details for Web of Science ID 000170145500008
View details for PubMedID 11468426
Enhanced susceptibility to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) was recently described in association with increased resistance to nucleoside analogs (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors; NRTI).To determine the prevalence of NNRTI hypersusceptibility, the genotypic correlates, and its impact on virologic response to efavirenz-based salvage therapy.Genotype and phenotype testing was performed retrospectively on baseline isolates from 30 patients who received salvage therapy containing efavirenz. NNRTI hypersusceptibility was defined as a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of < 0.5 that of the wild-type control.Eight isolates had major NNRTI mutations. Among the 22 isolates with no major NNRTI mutations, 11 (50%) were hypersusceptible to efavirenz, 10 (45%) to delavirdine, and eight (36%) to nevirapine. Among eight isolates with NNRTI mutations, NNRTI resistance was present, but at lower than expected levels. The number of NRTI mutations was correlated inversely with the fold decrease in susceptibility to efavirenz (Spearman's rho, -0.57; P = 0.005), delavirdine (rho, -0.43; P = 0.04), and nevirapine (rho, -0.69; P < 0.001). Excluding subjects with NNRTI mutations, subjects with efavirenz hypersusceptibility at baseline had significantly better virologic suppression over 24 weeks than those without efavirenz hypersusceptibility (P < 0.001).NNRTI hypersusceptibility is common in heavily treated but NNRTI naive patients and is related directly to NRTI resistance mutations. Among patients receiving efavirenz-containing regimens, NNRTI hypersusceptibility was associated with an improved virologic outcome after 24 weeks of therapy. A reversal of phenotypic resistance was seen in patients with NNRTI mutations in the presence of multiple NRTI mutations, but no obvious virologic benefit of this phenomenon was seen in this study.
View details for Web of Science ID 000169319400007
View details for PubMedID 11416714
To optimize nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nRTI) antiretroviral therapy, 137 subjects who had been treated with didanosine monotherapy for more than 3 years in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 175 study were randomized to zidovudine and didanosine (dual therapy) or zidovudine, didanosine, and lamivudine (triple therapy). Evaluation of early (8 week) change in HIV plasma RNA demonstrated that addition of lamivudine and zidovudine provided significantly greater virologic suppression compared to the addition of zidovudine alone (mean decrease of 1.27 vs. 0.74 log(10) copies/ml, n = 108, p = 0.007). Both dual and triple therapy provided significant long-term decreases (from study entry to mean at Weeks 40 and 48) in HIV plasma RNA: 0.62 and 0.86 log(10) copies/ml, respectively (n = 110). However, the difference between treatments was not significant (p = 0.16). At 48 weeks, 26% of subjects starting study treatment had <500 copies/ml of plasma HIV RNA. The CD4 count response was greater at 4 weeks for triple versus dual therapy: a mean increase of 51 vs. 12 CD4 cells/ml(3) (n = 126, p = 0.039). The difference at Weeks 40 and 48 was not significant (a 22 cell increase vs. a 1 cell decrease, n = 129, p = 0.41). Zidovudine and didanosine treatment, with or without lamivudine, was well tolerated and only 2 of 137 (1.5%) of study participants developed an AIDS-defining event over 48 weeks.
View details for Web of Science ID 000166856500002
View details for PubMedID 11177402
View details for PubMedID 11590505
HIV-1 envelope sequence patterns have implications for virus cell tropism and for the development of an effective vaccine. To identify the sequence characteristics of recently transmitted HIV-1 isolates in southern Africa, we sequenced the V3-V5 envelope regions of 24 male seroconverters in Harare, Zimbabwe. Each of the sequences clustered with previously reported subtype C isolates and there was a mean 17% intersequence pairwise genetic distance between the Zimbabwean isolates. Three isolates were syncytium inducing (SI). One of the SI isolates had an unusual GIGK crown and a deletion at codon 23; one had the codon 23 deletion alone; and one had a high net positive charge in the V3 loop. The extensive genetic diversity within the envelope of subtype C HIV-1 isolates must be considered in vaccine development. Further analysis of subtype C SI isolates and site-directed mutagenesis experiments are required to determine the molecular basis of SI activity in global HIV-1 isolates.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088006300006
View details for PubMedID 10890359
Clinical benefit of zidovudine alone in the treatment of HIV infection wanes after several years, with decreasing CD4+ cell numbers and increasing HIV RNA in plasma. To develop treatment strategies following prolonged zidovudine treatment, 92 subjects from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 175 study after a median of 3.6 years of zidovudine monotherapy were randomized to treatment with stavudine or zidovudine and lamivudine. Evaluation of long-term changes, the average of 40- and 48-week HIV plasma RNA, demonstrated that lamivudine and zidovudine provided significantly greater virologic suppression compared with stavudine (mean decrease 0.70 versus 0.18 1og10 copies/ml,p = 0.003). Twenty-nine percent of zidovudine plus lamivudine recipients had HIV RNA levels below 500 copies per milliliter at 48 weeks as compared with 4% of stavudine recipients (p = 0.02). Both regimens significantly increased CD4+ cell numbers, the means of weeks 40 and 48 rose to 49 and 36 CD4+ cells per cubic millimeter among zidovudine plus lamivudine and stavudine recipients, respectively. Treatments were well tolerated and only 3 of 92 subjects died or developed AIDS within 48 weeks. In zidovudine-experienced subjects, addition of lamivudine resulted in significantly decreased plasma HIV RNA levels at 48 weeks compared with treatment with stavudine alone.
View details for Web of Science ID 000088122900003
View details for PubMedID 10933617
To determine the impact of prior nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) therapy, genotypic resistance, and other variables on response to efavirenz (EFV)- and adefovir dipivoxil (ADV)-based salvage therapy.Retrospective clinical cohort study.One university and one community-based HIV clinic.All 33 patients who were coenrolled in both the EFV and ADV expanded access programs.Patients received EFV 600 mg/day and ADV 120 mg/day in addition to other antiretroviral agents.HIV viral load (<500 copies/ml) at 12 and 24 weeks.10 of 33 (30%) patients at 12 weeks and 8 of 33 (24%) patients at 24 weeks had viral loads <500 copies/ml. Prior NNRTI use and a history of any NNRTI-associated mutations predicted failure. Patients with Y181C or G190A single mutations had an initial greater magnitude of viral load suppression than those with K103N, but this advantage was short lived. No one with any NNRTI mutations responded with a viral load <500 copies/ml at 12 or 24 weeks.EFV/ADV-based salvage yielded viral load suppression at 24 weeks in 42% (8 of 19) of patients who were highly NRTI and protease inhibitor experienced but NNRTI naive. NNRTI-experienced study subjects had a poor response regardless of the specific NNRTI resistance mutation they harbored.
View details for Web of Science ID 000086883600002
View details for PubMedID 10839657
Tests for resistance to HIV drugs are available for clinical use; however, their predictive value has not been fully assessed.To determine HIV-1 genotypic predictors of a virologic response to saquinavir-ritonavir therapy in patients in whom at least one previous protease inhibitor-containing regimen had failed and to compare the predictive value of baseline genotype with that of standard clinical evaluation.Retrospective clinical cohort study.University-based HIV clinic.54 HIV-1-infected adults treated with saquinavir-ritonavir who had experienced virologic failure while receiving a protease inhibitor-containing regimen for at least 3 months.HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease gene sequences, CD4 cell counts, clinical characteristics, detailed antiretroviral treatment history, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels at baseline and at three follow-up time points (median, 4, 12, and 26 weeks). Virologic failure was defined as a plasma HIV RNA level greater than 1000 copies/mL.In 22 patients (41%), a plasma HIV-1 RNA level less than 500 copies/mL was achieved by week 12; in 15 patients (28%), this response was maintained through week 26. Clinical characteristics predicting a poorer response included a diagnosis of AIDS, lower CD4 cell count, and higher plasma HIV RNA level (P<0.03). Number of previous nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, previous protease inhibitor therapy, and duration of previous protease inhibitor therapy were predictors of poorer response (P<0.01). Multivariate regression models revealed that protease mutations present at the initiation of saquinavir-ritonavir therapy were the strongest predictors of virologic response. A model of clinical features explained up to 45% of the variation in virologic outcomes by week 12, whereas the explained variance was 71% when genotypic predictors were included.In patients in whom protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy fails, HIV-1 genotype is predictive of virologic response to subsequent therapy. This predictive capacity adds to that of standard clinical evaluation.
View details for Web of Science ID 000084053200002
View details for PubMedID 10610625
Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to intradermal recombinant HIV envelope glycoprotein (rgp160) may assess cell-mediated immune responses to HIV envelope. In three studies, DTH and lymphocyte proliferation responses to rgp160 were obtained in a total of 106 HIV-seropositive subjects with CD4+ counts >400 cells/mm3. Several subjects participated in more than one study. Before immunization, DTH responses were seen in 5 of 56 (9%) of HIV-infected study subjects. After immunization with an alum-adjuvanted experimental rgp160 vaccine, DTH responses were seen in 46 of 52 (89%). Using in vitro lymphocyte proliferation activity (LPA) to rgp160 as an indication of cellular immune response, skin testing has a sensitivity of 0.75 (95% confidence Interval [CI], 0.59-0.88) and a specificity of 0.84 (95% CI, 0.72-0.92). Biopsy samples of skin that had tested positive confirmed the presence of a DTH reaction with a predominance of CD4+ T cells in the perivascular, inflammatory infiltrate. Skin testing before and after immunization with candidate AIDS vaccines could provide a simple method in the field to assess new cell mediated immune responses.
View details for Web of Science ID 000085336400004
View details for PubMedID 10634195
Maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA load, vertical transmission of subtype C HIV, and infant mortality were examined in 251 HIV-seropositive women and their infants in Zimbabwe. Demographic characteristics, health and medical histories, serum HIV RNA loads, and CD4+ lymphocyte counts for mothers were examined by logistic regression analysis to determine significant risk factors and their odds ratios for transmission and infant mortality. Tenfold (1 log10) incremental increases in maternal HIV RNA were associated with a 1.9-fold increase (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.9) in transmission and a 2.1-fold increase (95% CI, 1.3-3.5) in infant mortality (P<.01). Maternal CD4 cell counts and demographic and medical characteristics were not significant predictors of transmission. However, maternal CD4 cell counts below the median (400/mm3) were significantly associated with infant mortality (P=. 035, Fisher's exact test). The maternal level of serum HIV is an important determinant of vertical transmission and infant mortality in subtype C infection in Zimbabwe.
View details for Web of Science ID 000080561100010
View details for PubMedID 10228058
Heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 is widespread in Southern Africa. Heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) and phylogenetic analyses of V3-V5 envelope (env) gene sequences demonstrate that subtype C predominates in Zimbabwe. To elucidate factors contributing to the epidemic in Zimbabwe, clinical and virologic characteristics of recently acquired subtype C HIV-1 infection among 21 men and 1 woman were determined. In 12 of 19 men providing clinical histories, a sexually transmitted infection preceded serologic evidence of HIV-1, and 14 of 19 men complained of rash or fever before seroconversion. Quantitative p24 antigen levels, reverse transcriptase activity, and HIV RNA levels of 22 viral isolates correlated with in vitro infectivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (p < .05). Biologic phenotype assessed in MT-2 cells demonstrated that 3 of 22 isolates (14%) were syncytia inducing (SI) and the remaining 19 nonsyncytium inducing (NSI). Early growth of virus in culture was associated with increased plasma HIV RNA levels, decreased CD4 cell levels, and SI virus. Recent subtype C HIV-1 infection through heterosexual transmission in Zimbabwe demonstrated clinical and virologic features consistent with reports of seroconversion to subtype B viruses.
View details for Web of Science ID 000078390800006
View details for PubMedID 10048901
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) DNA, consistently found in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tissues, was sought in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-infected individuals. To determine quantitative relationships between the presence of KSHV DNA in PBMCs, CD4 cell counts, plasma HIV RNA levels, and the development of KS, we designed a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected PBMC samples from ongoing cohort studies. PBMCs were collected from 142 HIV-seropositive individuals in California, 7 of whom had a clinical diagnosis of KS. KSHV sequences were detected in extracted PBMC DNA by nested polymerase chain amplification using two nonoverlapping primer sets. KSHV DNA was detected in PBMCs of 5 of 7 (71%) subjects with KS and in 18 of 135 (13%) HIV-infected subjects without KS. Among HIV-seropositive individuals without KS, detection of KSHV was more common in men than women (19 versus 4%, p = 0.01) and was associated with lower mean CD4 percent (14.8 versus 20.7% CD4 cells, p = 0.03), lower mean CD4 cell count (244 versus 334 CD4 cells/microl, p = 0.05), and higher geometric mean plasma HIV RNA (4.83 versus 4.03 1og10 copies/ml, p = 0.0002). Semiquantitative analysis found 5 to 15,625 copies of KSHV per microgram of PBMC DNA with increased plasma HIV RNA levels and a trend toward increased subsequent development of KS in subjects with higher KSHV loads. The association of the presence of KSHV DNA in PBMCs with lower CD4 cell counts and higher plasma HIV RNA provides evidence of a relationship between immunosuppression, HIV replication, and KSHV expression.
View details for Web of Science ID 000078069400007
View details for PubMedID 10024052
To assess adherence to study medications in an AIDS clinical trial, to evaluate whether study participants adhered to only one component of a multidrug regimen ('differential adherence'), and to determine whether there was evidence of non-uniform adherence to study medications among treatment groups.This was a substudy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 175, a large, double-blind, randomized study of monotherapy versus combination dideoxynucleoside therapy. Participants were required to adhere to a complex regimen of zidovudine, zalcitabine and didanosine, or their matching placebos.Between October 1992 and January 1994, study sites were selected at random, and a 1-week period was designated during which study participants attending routine clinic visits provided a blood sample and dosing history. Participants were not informed of the purpose of the substudy.Adherence was assessed using plasma drug concentrations and defined by the presence of detectable drug in a plasma sample obtained within a specified analysis window.Of 722 plasma samples analyzed, approximately 75% contained detectable concentrations of the assigned drugs and 5-14.5% contained no detectable drugs. Approximately 7 and 13% of samples from participants assigned to monotherapy arms contained non-prescribed dideoxynucleosides, and 14 and 19% assigned to combination therapies contained only one drug.Various non-adherence behaviors were observed, including patterns of underdosing and taking non-prescribed drugs. Non-adherence was moderate but uniform amongst the treatment groups and may have contributed to a marginal reduction in the power of the primary intent-to-treat analysis to detect differences in efficacy amongst the assigned treatments.
View details for Web of Science ID 000077173000012
View details for PubMedID 9863873
To characterize drug-taking behavior using continuous electronic monitoring in an AIDS clinical trial.This was a substudy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocol 175, a phase II/III study of dideoxynucleoside monotherapy versus combination therapy in asymptomatic HIV-positive subjects. Participants were required to comply with regimens containing zidovudine, zalcitabine and didanosine, or matching placebos; the total daily pill count was 16.For participants at two ACTG 175 sites, electronic devices were used to monitor drug-taking behavior of all study medications over a period of approximately 90 days.Four indices of drug-taking behavior were calculated and their distributions and relationship to the prescribed regimen were examined.Data from 41 subjects were analyzed. Of the prescribed doses of zidovudine, zalcitabine and didanosine, 88, 84 and 82%, respectively, were taken. Of these, 55, 66 and 79%, respectively, were taken at the prescribed dosing frequency. The median percentage of days on which participants failed to take any of the doses was 2-5%. There was a trend towards lower adherence in the combination therapy arms compared with those assigned to receive monotherapy. In this analysis, older patients demonstrated better adherence, although patient characteristics, in general, were poorly predictive of adherence.Drug-taking behavior for all three active study medications differed from that prescribed. One result of this erratic adherence was that study participants sustained little antiretroviral effect during more than 25% of the monitoring period.
View details for Web of Science ID 000077173000011
View details for PubMedID 9863872
While many point mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) confer resistance to antiretroviral drugs, inserts or deletions in this gene have not been previously characterized. In this report, 14 RT inhibitor-treated patients were found to have HIV-1 strains possessing a 6-basepair insert between codons 69 and 70 of the RT gene. Known drug resistance mutations were also observed in these strains, with T215Y appearing in all strains. Genotypic analysis indicated that the inserts had substantial nucleotide variability that resulted in relatively restricted sets of amino acid sequences. Linkage of patients' treatment histories with longitudinal sequencing data showed that insert strains appeared during drug regimens containing ddI or ddC, with prior or concurrent AZT treatment. Drug susceptibility tests of recombinant patient isolates showed reduced susceptibility to nearly all nucleoside RT inhibitors. Site- directed mutagenesis studies confirmed the role of the inserts alone in conferring reduced susceptibility to most RT inhibitors. The addition of AZT-associated drug resistance mutations further increased the range and magnitude of resistance. These results establish that inserts, like point mutations, are selected in vivo during antiretroviral therapy and provide resistance to multiple nucleoside analogs.
View details for Web of Science ID 000077205900001
View details for PubMedID 9819361
To test the hypothesis that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) gB genotype may differ with geographic origin or patient demographics, CMV DNA was amplified for gB typing from immunocompromised patients in Italy and Africa and compared with previously reported frequencies in California. Increased gB2 frequency occurred in Italian homosexual AIDS patients, as compared with both Italian heterosexual injection drug users with AIDS and heterosexual Zimbabwe AIDS patients. Occurrence of gB3 in Italy was higher in injection drug users than in homosexual AIDS patients. The incidence of gB4 was higher overall in the Italian as compared with the California patients. Therefore geographic and demographic differences in patients affect gB distribution and should be considered before associations of gB genotypes and virulence are made.
View details for Web of Science ID 000072993500009
View details for PubMedID 9566556
Cervical and plasma samples obtained twice, at 2-week intervals, from 49 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive women were assayed for HIV-1 RNA. More than 100 copies of HIV-1 RNA were detected in cervical swab supernatants (CSS) from 24 (49%) of 49 women. HIV-1 RNA in CSS was detected in younger women with higher levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA (median, 31,984 vs. 2880 copies/mL; P = .0004), lower CD4 cell counts (median, 190 vs. 390 per mm3; P = .012), and lower CD4 cell percents (median, 16% vs. 25%; P = .03). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only plasma HIV-1 RNA was significantly associated with CSS HIV-1 RNA, with an odds ratio of 4.79/log10 increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA (95% confidence interval, 1.4-16; P = .01). Detection of HIV-1 RNA in cervical secretions is primarily associated with increased plasma HIV-1 RNA.
View details for Web of Science ID 000072719400040
View details for PubMedID 9534992
Treatment of HIV infection with zidovudine (ZDV) may select for changes in the genetic sequence of the viral reverse transcriptase (RT) that imparts drug resistance. The presence of a 2-bp mutation at codon 215 of RT (from threonine to phenylalanine or tyrosine) was assessed in plasma viral RNA in 85 subjects treated with ZDV in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 175 virology substudy. Median CD4 cell numbers, HIV plasma RNA levels, and infectious titers of virus were significantly different over 56 weeks of treatment among 58 subjects with the wild-type threonine at codon 215 virus at study entry compared with the 27 subjects with mutations to phenylalanine or tyrosine (MUT) virus. Thirty percent (13 of 44 subjects) with wild-type virus at study entry developed a new codon 215 mutation. Genotypic resistance at codon 215 in plasma HIV RNA is associated with the subsequent immunologic and virologic failure of ZDV monotherapy in subjects with 200 to 500 CD4 cells/mm3.
View details for Web of Science ID 000072312900003
View details for PubMedID 9495218
To develop a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to detect Haemophilus ducreyi DNA in cultured isolates and clinical material.Primers specific to the H ducreyi 16s rRNA gene were synthesised. PCR conditions were optimised and products were verified by restriction endonuclease digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis.The method was able to detect all 28 H ducreyi strains tested; specificity was demonstrated using lysates of 12 related organisms. Applied to clinical samples from genital ulcer swabs obtained in Harare, Zimbabwe, H ducreyi DNA was detected in repeated assays in 35 clinical samples.PCR amplification using primers from the 16s rRNA gene may be a useful alternative to culture for the detection of H ducreyi and the diagnosis of chancroid.
View details for Web of Science ID 000073154900016
View details for PubMedID 9634308
Therapeutic vaccination has been proposed as a strategy to augment immune mechanisms to control viral replication and slow clinical progression of HIV infection to disease. Following recombinant gp160 (r-gp160) immunization in three clinical trials, plasma HIV-1 RNA and cellular proviral DNA were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 76 HIV-seropositive subjects with CD4+ T cell counts > or = 300/mm3. Immunization increased HIV-specific cellular immune responses (e.g., cytotoxic T lymphocyte [CTL] activities, lymphocyte proliferative responses); however, there were no significant effects of immunization or cellular immune responses on measures of plasma RNA or cellular DNA viral load.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997YA52500004
View details for PubMedID 9292585
Naturally occurring human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) variability has implications for the success of antiretroviral therapy. We determined the sequence of the polymerase-coding region of RT from virus isolates from 12 Zimbabwean individuals recently infected with HIV-1. The 12 RT sequences differed from the consensus B RT sequence at 10.5% of nucleotides and 5.8% of amino acids. Susceptibility testing of five isolates to zidovudine, didanosine, lamivudine, and nevirapine demonstrated susceptibilities similar to those of wild-type subtype B isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 40 HIV-1 RT sequences, including the 12 Zimbabwean subtype C sequences, 11 subtype B sequences, and the 17 remaining published non-subtype B sequences showed sufficient intrasubtype RT sequence variation to differentiate subtype A, B, C, and D isolates. Five recently reported subtype C RT sequences from India grouped with the Zimbabwean subtype C sequences but had significantly less intraisolate sequence variation. Both intra- and intersubtype RT comparisons were notable for extraordinarily high ratios of synonymous to nonsynonymous differences. Although substitutions in the HIV-1 RT gene are limited by functional constraints, variation between RT sequences demonstrates phylogenetic relationships that parallel env and gag gene variation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XD82900068
View details for PubMedID 9188616
It has become clear that the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome follows continuous replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and a decrease in immune capability, most obviously a decline in the number of CD4 lymphocytes. An understanding of key elements in the infectious life cycle of HIV has led to the development of potent antiretroviral drugs selectively targeting unique reverse transcriptase and protease enzymes of the virus. Completed clinical trials have shown that antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection, begun early, reduces viral replication and reverses the decline in CD4 lymphocyte numbers. Recent studies of combination therapies have shown that decreases in plasma HIV viremia to low levels and sustained increases in CD4 cell numbers are associated with longer survival. Potent combination regimens including protease inhibitors and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors suppress detectable viral replication and have demonstrated clinical benefits in patients with advanced disease. Progress in antiretroviral therapy and methods to monitor responses to treatment are providing new hope in the treatment of HIV infection.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XG11900003
View details for PubMedID 9217434
View details for PubMedID 9356962
Suboptimal therapeutic doses of HIV protease inhibitors lead to the emergence of drug resistance and reduced drug efficacy. It is imperative, then, that patients and clinicians alike are fully educated about the importance of patients taking all the pills in these new, admittedly complex, antiretroviral regimens. With protease inhibitors especially, missing doses and/or taking drug holidays or partial doses will mean the rapid emergence of HIV isolates that are resistant to these drugs.
View details for PubMedID 9356957
We studied measures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, the viral phenotype, and immune function (CD4 cell counts) and the relation of changes in these indicators to clinical outcomes in a subgroup of patients in a controlled trial of early antiretroviral treatment for HIV, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 175.The 391 subjects, each of whom entered the study with a single screening CD4 cell count of 200 to 500 per cubic millimeter, were randomly assigned to receive zidovudine alone, didanosine alone, zidovudine plus didanosine, or zidovudine plus zalcitabine. Plasma concentrations of HIV RNA were assessed in 366 subjects, and viral isolates from 332 subjects were assayed for the presence of the syncytium-inducing phenotype.After eight weeks, the mean (+/-SE) decrease from base line in the concentration of HIV RNA, expressed as the change in the base 10 log of the number of copies per milliliter, was 0.26+/-0.06 for patients treated with zidovudine alone, 0.65+/-0.07 for didanosine alone, 0.93+/-0.10 for zidovudine plus didanosine, and 0.89+/-0.06 for zidovudine plus zalcitabine (P<0.001 for each of the pairwise comparisons with zidovudine alone). Multivariate proportional-hazards models showed that higher base-line concentrations of plasma HIV RNA, less suppression of plasma HIV RNA by treatment, and the presence of the syncytium-inducing phenotype were significantly associated with an increased risk of progression to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and death. After adjustment for these measures of viral replication and for the viral phenotype, CD4 cell counts were not significant predictors of clinical outcome.Both the risk of the progression of HIV disease and the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy are strongly associated with the plasma level of HIV RNA and with the viral phenotype. The changes in the plasma concentration of HIV RNA predict the changes in CD4 cell counts and survival after treatment with reverse-transcriptase inhibitors.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VN39900002
View details for PubMedID 8813039
Six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women were studied weekly over 8 weeks to detect HIV RNA in plasma and cervical secretions and proviral DNA in cervical, vaginal, and cervicovaginal lavage samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification techniques. In cervical swab samples, cell-free HIV RNA was detected more frequently than cell-associated HIV proviral DNA (22/48 vs. 7/48, respectively). Cervical HIV RNA was consistently detected in 2 women with plasma HIV RNA > 100,000 copies/mL but was not detected in 2 women with plasma HIV RNA < 10,000 copies/mL, regardless of menstruation status. HIV-specific IgA was detected in the plasma of 2 women and in at least 1 cervicovaginal lavage sample from all 6 women. Thus, quantitation of cervical HIV RNA can be accomplished by PCR techniques and may be useful in evaluation genital viral shedding.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996VK04500028
View details for PubMedID 8843230
The safety and antiviral effects of polyethylene glycolated interleukin-2 (PEG-IL-2) and thymosin alpha 1 in addition to zidovudine were studied in 12 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with 50-250 CD4 T cells/mm3. PEG-IL-2 was administered by intravenous infusions every 2 weeks at 10(6) IU/m2 for 20 weeks. Thymosin alpha 1 was administered subcutaneously at 400 microgram/m2 after four doses of PEG-IL-2, escalating to 1600 microgram/m2 weekly for an additional 2 months. Significant elevations of CD4 T cell numbers of 30%-40% were seen after PEG-IL-2 infusions, but no additional increase in CD4 cell count was observed with thymosin alpha 1. Virologic monitoring by polymerase chain reaction quantitation of proviral DNA and plasma RNA and p24 antigen assays showed no evidence of increased HIV activation during PEG-IL-2 or thymosin alpha 1 therapy. Patients tolerated both PEG-IL-2 and thymosin alpha 1 without significant toxicities.
View details for Web of Science ID A1996UB27400032
View details for PubMedID 8603940
Plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA levels, CD4 lymphocyte changes, and drug resistance were studied in HIV-infected patients with 200-500 CD4 lymphocytes/microL who received zidovudine and didanosine combination therapy for 2 years. Among 35 patients, 10 had sustained and 16 had transient > 10-fold reductions in HIV RNA: 9 did not have 10-fold HIV RNA reductions. Only patients with sustained HIV suppression maintained increased CD4 cell counts for 2 years (370 to 501 cells/microL; P = .006). Patients with transient HIV suppression were more likely to develop drug-resistant HIV strains (12/16 vs. 5/19, P = .01) and reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations (4.5 vs. 2.5/strain; P = .02) than were patients with sustained or no HIV suppression. Zidovudine resistance occurred with RT mutations at codons 41, 67, 70, 215, and 219. Multidrug resistance occurred with mutations at codons 62, 75, 77, 116, and 151. Mutations occurred at codons 60, 68, 118, 210, and 228 in > or = 4 patients each. Heterogeneity exists among individual virologic responses to zidovudine and didanosine combination therapy. HIV resistance mechanisms during combination therapy appear more complex than reported with monotherapy.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995RF04100010
View details for PubMedID 7541064
We are moving rapidly beyond a "black box" understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV. The sites of virus replication, the molecular regulation of virus production in the host, and the dynamics between productive virus infection and immunological and clinical events are areas of intense study using powerful new tools. The quantitation of virus load and genetic characterization of replicating virus has important implications for the development and evaluation of drugs and treatment strategies for HIV. As new compounds are introduced, their ability to reduce virus load in vivo has become a primary consideration in the decision to initiate large efficacy trials and may soon be used, in combination with other markers, in the licensing of new agents. In parallel, rapid molecular evaluation of virus from patients, targeting those who break through drug-induced suppression, provides an explanation for the failure of drugs to sustain an effect on virus load. This approach has compressed the process of drug evaluation and set the stage for the evaluation of complex combinations and sequences of drugs to maintain suppression of virus and prevent the development of drug resistance. The most controversial question for the next few years is whether the measurement of virus load or detection of drug resistance can be incorporated into the practice of medicine and the management of individual patients. There is evidence that changes in virus load are the most proximate markers of drug response and that detection of resistance mutations can predict clinical and immunological decline. However, the window of time between a change in load or the development of drug resistance and a decline in CD4 cells is relatively short. With dideoxynucleoside therapies, a CD4 cell decline follows a rise in virus load or development of resistance within 3-6 months. In early studies with protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the development of resistance and a return to baseline of virus load may occur within 2-3 months, mirrored by a fall in CD4 cells. The challenge to investigators is how to best use these new tools to determine whether changes or additions in therapy, initiated on the basis of virological measurements, result in more effective management of disease.
View details for PubMedID 7488557
Treatment of AIDS and HIV infection is increasingly dependent on the use of surrogate markers to assess the efficacy of drug and biologic therapies in individual patients and in the clinical trials. Recent developments in laboratory techniques have resulted in new assays to measure circulating viral RNA in HIV-infected individuals, standardized methods to assess genotypic changes in virus associated with drug resistance and biologic assays for syncytia-inducing phenotype, a viral characteristic associated with rapid clinical progression. Studies from our laboratory have examined the relationship between surrogate markers of drug efficacy, CD4 cell changes, quantitative HIV plasma RNA and cell dilution cultures, genotypic changes associated with drug resistance and the syncytia-inducing phenotype. The results of these studies suggest that drug-resistance genotype and syncytia-inducing phenotype are independent factors that contribute to disease progression in patients receiving zidovudine. The design of studies of drugs and biologics for the treatment of HIV should include assessment of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of HIV in addition to CD4 cell numbers and virus load.
View details for Web of Science ID A1995TD18600005
View details for PubMedID 7552510
The safety, immunologic, and antiviral effects of a recombinant biologic product that combines the second and third domains of the CD4 molecule and Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE40) were evaluated in 21 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects in a phase III open-label dose-ranging study. Subjects with CD4+ lymphocyte counts of 100-500/mm3 received CD4-PE40 at 40, 80, or 160 micrograms/m2 by infusion three to seven times over 10 days. At the maximum tolerated dose (80 micrograms/m2), peak CD4-PE40 levels were 65-130 ng/mL with a serum half-life of 3.6 +/- 1.5 h. Toxicity, primarily increased hepatic transaminases, was dose-related and reversible. HIV DNA proviral levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma HIV RNA remained stable during and after CD4-PE40 infusions. The relative resistance of clinical isolates of HIV, limits of the tolerated dose, and the immunogenicity and short half-life of the protein may explain the lack of in vivo antiviral effect of CD4-PE40.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994PJ69400041
View details for PubMedID 7930696
To determine the frequency and pattern of development of specific drug resistance mutations for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase in patients switched from zidovudine to didanosine therapy and to examine the relation of the didanosine resistance mutation at codon 74 of the HIV reverse-transcriptase gene to CD4+ T-cell changes and virus burden.Retrospective analysis of all patients enrolled at Stanford University in protocols where patients were switched from zidovudine to didanosine monotherapy.A university hospital.64 patients infected with HIV who were switched from zidovudine to didanosine monotherapy. Patients had the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), AIDS-related complex, or were asymptomatic (mean [+/- SD] starting CD4+ T-cell count of 129 +/- 88 cells/mm3).Serial serum specimens were tested for the didanosine resistance mutation at codon 74 of the HIV reverse-transcriptase gene and for a zidovudine resistance mutation at codon 215 using selective polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Serum HIV RNA levels were determined by quantitative PCR. CD4+ T-cell counts were determined at serial time points.By 24 weeks of didanosine therapy, the proportion of patients with the didanosine resistance mutation at codon 74 increased from 0% to 56% (36 of 64). In contrast, the proportion of patients with the zidovudine resistance mutation at codon 215 decreased from 84% at the start to 59% after 24 weeks of didanosine therapy (a 25% decrease, 95% lower CI, 15%; P < 0.0001). Patients who developed the codon 74 mutation had a greater decrease in CD4+ T cells after the development of the mutation than did patients without the mutation (P < 0.001). In addition, after 24 weeks of didanosine, patients who developed the codon 74 mutation had a greater serum HIV RNA burden than patients who remained wild type (did not have the mutation) at codon 74 (225,000 compared with 82,400 HIV RNA copies/mL serum; P = 0.01).Among patients infected with HIV who had advanced disease and were switched from zidovudine to didanosine therapy, more than one half developed the didanosine resistance mutation at codon 74 by 24 weeks of didanosine therapy. Patients who developed the codon 74 mutation had a greater decline in CD4+ T cells after the development of the mutation and had a greater serum virus burden than did patients without the codon 74 mutation.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994PB10200005
View details for PubMedID 7518658
The variable rate of disease progression in HIV-1-infected patients treated with zidovudine may be related to certain viral characteristics, such as, antiviral drug resistance, virus burden, and viral syncytium-inducing (SI) capacity. Thirty-two HIV-1-infected patients treated with zidovudine (mean of 34 months) were studied to determine the relationship of SI phenotype and the codon 215 pol gene mutation (a marker of zidovudine resistance) to virus burden and CD4 cell decline. Patients with SI strains and the codon 215 mutation in their proviral DNA had a 54% decline in CD4 cells and a virus burden of 21,480 proviral DNA copies/10(6) CD4 cells. In contrast, patients with non-SI (NSI) strains and wild-type at codon 215 had a 10% increase in CD4 cells and had a viral burden 1/46 that of patients with SI and the 215 mutation. Among patients with NSI strains, changes in CD4 cells depended on the presence of the codon 215 mutation (-160 CD4 cells/microliters), compared with those wild-type at codon 215 (+28 CD4 cells/microliters) (p < 0.01). There was a concordant rise in virus burden between proviral DNA and plasma HIV RNA depending on HIV phenotype and genotype. Using multiple linear regression, SI phenotype and the codon 215 mutation were found to independently predict CD4 cell decline and increased virus burden in zidovudine-treated patients.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NX17100007
View details for PubMedID 7517448
Drug resistance conferred by specific human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pol gene mutations has been associated with clinical progression in HIV-infected patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy. This study examined drug susceptibilities and pol mutations of HIV-1 strains from patients treated for 1 year with zidovudine, didanosine (ddI), or zidovudine and ddI. Ten (42%) of 24 patients receiving combination therapy versus 8/26 (31%) receiving only zidovudine had HIV-1 strains with phenotypic zidovudine resistance or a zidovudine resistance pol mutation at codon 215 (P = .6). In contrast, a ddI resistance mutation at codon 74 was less common among patients receiving combination therapy (2/24) than among those receiving ddI only (17/26; P < .001). Two patients receiving combination therapy developed resistance to zidovudine and ddI; they had HIV strains with amino acid mutations at codons 62, 75, 77, 116, and 151. Combination therapy with zidovudine and ddI selects for zidovudine-resistant HIV-1 strains lacking a ddI resistance mutation and for multidrug-resistant strains containing novel pol mutations.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994NP11100002
View details for PubMedID 8133086
Measurements of human immunodeficiency virus by quantitative RNA and DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cell and plasma infectivity dilution cultures, and immune complex-disassociated p24 antigen-capture ELISA were made repeatedly in 10 subjects receiving long-term zidovudine treatment before and after therapy was changed to didanosine. Comparison of baseline assays showed that quantitative cell cultures, plasma RNA, and proviral DNA were measurable in all subjects and that cell culture results were significantly correlated with measures of nucleic acids. Plasma viremia (as indicated by culture) and p24 antigen were detected in three measurements in 3 of 8 and 6 of 10 subjects, respectively. Significant decreases in plasma RNA and cell dilution cultures from baseline were maintained for up to 6 months after initiation of didanosine therapy. These findings demonstrate a decrease in virus burden with the use of didanosine; however, continued detection of plasma RNA suggests that additional antiviral therapy will be required to suppress viral replication.
View details for Web of Science ID A1994MV82900028
View details for PubMedID 7906292
Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in the plasma of seropositive individuals was performed by using an external control assay with techniques to standardize and control each measurement. Rigorous study of the variability of the assay showed that the median intraassay reproducibility was log10 0.15 RNA copies per ml of plasma, while the median interassay reproducibility on replicate plasma samples was log10 0.25 copies perml. Specimen stability studies showed reproducible recovery of RNA from plasma stored at -70 degrees C for up to 12 months. In clinically stable patients who were either untreated or taking zidovudine, the average week-to-week variation in plasma RNA levels, measured in real time, was log10 0.30 RNA copies per ml. In contrast, patients either initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy showed a fall of log10 0.8 to log10 2.0 copies per ml in plasma RNA levels. Overall, 105 of 110 (96%) HIV-1-seropositive individuals with CD4 counts of 36 to 868 cells per mm3 had quantifiable HIV-1 RNA over a range of log10 2.70 to log10 6.23 RNA copies per ml, including 81% (13 of 16) of the individuals with greater than 500 CD4 cells per mm3. Accurate and reproducible quantitation of plasma viremia in real time by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, particularly in asymptomatic HIV-1-infected individuals with high CD4 counts, provides a basis for the use of this virologic measure to monitor the short- and long-term effects of early intervention therapeutic strategies on viral burden.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993MC28900022
View details for PubMedID 7903317
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was quantitated in 61 HIV-1-seropositive individuals by a nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction assay. Primers from the gag region (SK38, SK39) were used to determine the log10 HIV-1 proviral copy number per 10(6) CD4+ T lymphocytes (peripheral blood proviral load). A standard curve was generated for each assay by using ACH-2 cell DNA. The peripheral blood proviral load was followed in 15 individuals in a longitudinal study and was measured in 45 individuals in a cross-sectional analysis. Three of four untreated patients who were followed for 14 months had stable PBMC proviral loads and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts; one untreated patient had a sustained increase in PBMC proviral load followed 5 months later by a significant decline in the CD4+ T lymphocyte count. Eleven previously untreated individuals were monitored for 1 year following initiation of zidovudine and/or 2',3'-dideoxyinosine therapy. The mean log10 number of proviral HIV-1 copies per 10(6) CD4+ T cells decreased from 4.3 +/- 0.4 at the baseline to 3.5 +/- 0.6 after 2 to 4 months of therapy (P < 0.01). This initial 0.8 log10 fall in the PBMC proviral load after the initiation of therapy was followed by a rise in the PBMC proviral load by the sixth month of therapy. The PBMC proviral load in 45 subjects, both treated (n = 25) and untreated (n = 20), correlated inversely with the CD4+ T lymphocyte count (P < 0.01, R = 0.49). PBMC proviral DNA quantification by a nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction assay correlates with HIV-1 disease progression and could be used to monitor the effect of antiretroviral therapy.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993LY05900024
View details for PubMedID 7902845
Quantification of viral load in HIV disease has become increasingly important as a marker of antiviral efficacy. We applied gene amplification techniques in vivo to asses antiretroviral activity of combination therapy. Five HIV-infected subjects, four of whom were drug naive, were administered combination therapy with zidovudine (ZDV) and didanosine (ddI). Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained twice at baseline and then at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after the initiation of therapy. Results show that plasma HIV RNA copy number fell from 2,170 +/- 660/ml to undetectable at 1 month, with continued suppression at 12 months. HIV proviral DNA copy number decreased from 3.9 to 3.0 log10/10(6) CD4+ T cells at 12 months. Cell dilution cultures were positive in 4 of 5 subjects at baseline and in only 1 of 5 after 12 months. CD4+ T-cell count increased from 390 +/- 30/mm3 pretherapy, to 505 +/- 66/mm3 after 6 months of therapy, but returned to baseline levels after 12 months of therapy. No mutations were detected from PBMC DNA for codon 215 and 74 in the HIV pol gene from the drug-naive subjects. These findings suggest that gene amplification techniques can be used to study changes in viral load or genotype and can be applied in real time to samples from patients involved in clinical trials.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993KU22100007
View details for PubMedID 8095981
The effects of clinical stage of infection and antiviral therapy on the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleic acids in semen were investigated by the polymerase chain reaction. HIV-1 was detected in 45 (87%) of 52 semen specimens from 29 (81%) of 36 men. Seventeen (77%) of 22 stage II or III subjects and 12 (86%) of 14 stage IV subjects had positive specimens. The CD4+ lymphocyte count was not significantly different comparing subjects with positive and negative semen. Moreover, 6 (67%) of 9 untreated men had positive specimens compared with 23 (85%) of 27 men treated with zidovudine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, or both for a mean of 20 months. Thus, the detection of HIV-1 in semen was independent of both stage of infection and long-term treatment. In a semiquantitative analysis of 6 men followed for 8 weeks after the start of nucleoside therapy, a decrease in HIV-1 RNA in seminal plasma was demonstrated in 2.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993KU08600002
View details for PubMedID 8450243
A nested polymerase chain reaction assay was used to define the sequence of a specific codon, amino acid 215, of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pol gene in DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and viral RNA from serum from 38 patients treated with zidovudine for > or = 2 years. After treatment for a mean of 34 months, 17 patients with sequences with a codon 215 mutation had a mean 50% decrease in CD4 cells, compared with 21 patients with sequences wild-type at codon 215, who had a mean 11% increase in CD4 cells (P < .0001). Patients with a mutation at 215 had a ninefold higher provirus burden in PBMC. Detection of the codon 215 mutation in plasma viral RNA preceded detection of the mutation in DNA from PBMC and decline in CD4 cells. The appearance of a mutation at codon 215 in the HIV reverse transcriptase gene in patients receiving zidovudine may be a marker for impending immunologic decline.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993KN15200002
View details for PubMedID 7680058
HIV proviral load was determined by quantitative DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lymphocyte subsets isolated by cell sorter. Provirus measured in PBMC, when expressed as HIV copy number per million CD4+ cells, resulted in values which approximated those obtained from sorted CD4+ T lymphocytes. A cross sectional analysis of HIV proviral load in CD4+ T cells from 25 previously untreated and 30 zidovudine-treated seropositive patients with CD4+ T-cell counts between 25 and 802/mm3 demonstrated HIV copy numbers ranging from 1 copy per 10,000 cells in early disease to 1 copy per 10 cells in advanced disease. HIV proviral load can be rapidly assayed by PCR to give a reproducible value which varies over a 1,000-fold range and is positively correlated with cell infectivity as measured by a quantitative micrococulture assay. A less technically demanding assay using PBMC as substrate can give similar results to those obtained with sorted CD4+ T cells.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993KN54200004
View details for PubMedID 8450397
Traditional antiviral susceptibility testing methods using cell lines can be applied to no more than about 30% of clinical HIV isolates (Larder et al., 1989a; Fenyo et al., 1989). We tested the cell-free supernatant from low passage clinical HIV isolates using donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Drug susceptibility was assessed by measuring the effect of increasing zidovudine (ZDV) concentrations on HIV P24 antigen production. Susceptibility results were obtained on 24/27 consecutive clinical isolates and 6/6 laboratory isolates. The mean IC90 of isolates from untreated patients was 0.008 microM ZDV (range: 0.002-0.038). The IC90s of isolates from ZDV-treated patients ranged from 0.007 to greater than 10 microM ZDV. All isolates with an IC90 < 0.1 microM ZDV had a wild type sequence at codon 215 of the HIV pol gene; 11/12 isolates with an IC90 > 0.1 microM ZDV had a mutation at codon 215 (P < 0.001). Among 16 ZDV-treated patients, there was a modest correlation between the change in CD4 count from the start of ZDV treatment and the IC90 of the patient's isolate following treatment (r = 0.51). Susceptibility testing using donor PBMC can be a sensitive means of testing a broad range of clinical HIV isolates.
View details for Web of Science ID A1993KR99500004
View details for PubMedID 8097199
Twenty-six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected asymptomatic patients with CD4+ lymphocytes > 400 per mm3 were randomly allocated to a range of doses of recombinant gp160 or a control (recombinant hepatitis B vaccine) on a double-blind basis. Each patient received an injection at 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks. Treatment assignments were decoded when all patients reached 28 weeks of the study period. HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activities were assessed in vitro before vaccination and 2 weeks after each injection. There were significant increases in major histocompatibility complex-restricted HIV-1 Env-specific CD4+ and CD8+ CTL activities in 18 of 21 gp160 vaccinees. No control-injected patients showed a significant change. Neither gp160 nor control recipients showed significant changes in HIV-1 Gag- and Pol-specific CTL activities. HIV-1 Env-specific CD4+ and CD8+ CTL precursor frequencies were also measured in three vaccinees before and at 24 weeks after vaccine was started. CTL precursor frequencies also increased in both CD4+ and CD8+ populations. This study shows that this gp160 vaccine is immunogenic in enhancing HIV-1 Env-specific cytotoxic T-cell-mediated immunity in HIV-seropositive individuals.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992KA90300022
View details for PubMedID 1360665
We have developed a quantitative gene amplification procedure to assess the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in cell cultures and evaluate the effect of drugs on viral replication. Increases in HIV gag RNA and DNA in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated normal peri-pheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with HIV at very low multiplicity of infection paralleled the production of HIV p24 antigen in culture supernatants. Quantitative gene amplification was able to monitor the accumulation of viral nucleic acids in control cultures and demonstrate the effect of various concentrations of azidothymidine (AZT) on the replication of both AZT-sensitive and -resistant strains of HIV. The sensitivity of patient-derived virus strains to AZT could also be successfully measured by these procedures. The results of our studies suggest that quantitative measurement of HIV gag RNA and DNA can be used to monitor the kinetics of viral replication, antiviral activity, viral drug resistance, and mechanism of drug action.
View details for PubMedID 1477661
Quantitative culture of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was performed on 121 plasma samples from 76 HIV-infected individuals to determine the sensitivity of the assay at different stages of disease and to measure the effect of antiviral therapy on plasma viremia. Plasma virus was detected in 49 of 76 (64%) of patients, primarily those with AIDS and AIDS-related complex (36 of 38) versus asymptomatic subjects (13 of 38) (p less than 0.001, chi 2). Similarly, plasma cultures were more often positive in patients with less than 250 CD4+ T cells per microliter (38 of 40) than in those with greater than 250 CD4+ T cells per microliter (11 of 36) (p less than 0.001, chi 2). Plasma virus cultures were also more likely to be positive in patients with detectable serum p24 antigen (24 of 26) than in those without detectable p24 antigen (25 of 50) (p = 0.0023, chi 2). An effect of zidovudine (ZDV) treatment on plasma viremia was seen in a comparison of treated and untreated patients with less than 250 CD4+ T cells per microliter. Geometric mean titers of plasma viremia from 16 patients treated with ZDV for more than 3 months were significantly lower than titers from 24 untreated patients (10(1.3) versus 10(2.1), p less than 0.05, Student's t test. A comparison of pre- and posttherapy titers in 33 patients receiving antiviral treatment showed that plasma virus was not detectable at either time in 17 patients; there was a fall in plasma virus titer in 12; and titers were unchanged or increased in 4. In patients with advanced disease, plasma viremia is a potential marker of antiviral drug activity.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992GZ90200001
View details for PubMedID 1732501
Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was performed in 13 HIV-seropositive asymptomatic individuals during 10-24 months by polymerase chain reaction amplification of multiple half-log dilutions of cellular DNA. At enrollment, subjects had a geometric mean titer of 100 copies of HIV provirus per 10(6) PBMC (mean +/- SD, 2 +/- 0.9 log10). In four untreated individuals there was no significant change in provirus levels during a mean period of 13.3 months. In eight patients treated with zidovudine (ZDV) and human recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2), HIV provirus copies declined to 13 per 10(6) cells (1.1 +/- 0.8 log10) at the end of the first course of ZDV and rIL-2 at week 20 (p less than 0.01), and to 40 per 10(6) cells (1.6 +/- 0.9 log10) after 12 months of treatment (p less than 0.04). Subsequent courses, which included 12 weeks of ZDV alone or 4 weeks of IL-2 alone, did not significantly change the already depressed provirus copy numbers. Proviral copy number also remained depressed during drug-free "washout periods" between courses. Finally, we observed a return to a geometric mean of 400 copies per 10(6) cells (2.6 +/- 0.3 log10) a mean of 7.9 months after discontinuation of therapy. Measurement of changes in HIV provirus should provide a direct marker for defining antiviral activity of drugs, biologics, and combination therapy.
View details for Web of Science ID A1992GW91300009
View details for PubMedID 1738087
View details for PubMedID 1376615
Cell-free HIV RNA in plasma was detected and quantitated after antiviral therapy by the polymerase chain reaction. RNA was extracted from plasma, reverse transcribed to cDNA, amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and quantitated by absorbance based on an enzyme-linked affinity assay. 72 HIV antibody-positive subjects had one plasma sample taken. 39 who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time had a mean plasma HIV RNA copy number of 690 +/- 360 (mean +/- SEM) per 200 microliters of plasma, while 33 subjects who had been receiving zidovudine therapy for a minimum of 3 mo had a mean copy number of 134 +/- 219 (P less than 0.05). 27 additional HIV antibody-positive patients had two plasma samples taken before and 1 mo after initiating dideoxynucleoside therapy. Plasma HIV RNA copy number fell from 540 +/- 175 to 77 +/- 35 (P less than 0.05). Finally, nine of these subjects had two baseline samples obtained before initiating therapy and two posttreatment samples 1 and 2 mo after therapy was begun. Mean plasma RNA copy number declined from 794 +/- 274 to less than 40 (below the lower limit of sensitivity) after 1 mo of therapy, with suppression maintained after 2 mo of therapy. These results suggest that gene amplification can be used to detect and quantitate changes in plasma HIV RNA after dideoxynucleoside therapy. Plasma HIV polymerase chain reaction may be a more sensitive marker to monitor antiviral therapy, particularly in asymptomatic patients where measurement of p24 antigen or quantitative plasma cultures are negative.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991GN72700044
View details for PubMedID 1682345
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and semen of 23 men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were examined for the presence of HIV DNA and RNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a nonisotopic detection assay. None of the men was receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of collection. Semen samples were separated into cell-free seminal fluid, nonspermatozoal mononuclear cells (NSMC), and spermatozoa. All of the PBMC samples, 17 (74%) of 23 NSMC samples, and none of the spermatozoal samples were positive for HIV gag gene DNA. Of 23 cell-free seminal fluid samples, 15 (65%) were positive for HIV gag gene RNA by PCR. Cell-free HIV RNA was more likely to be present in the semen of men with less than 400 than in those with greater than or equal to 400 cells/mm3 (P less than .04) and was present in all patient with p24 antigen in serum. The presence of HIV DNA in NSMC samples was not related to CD4 cell count, disease status, or the presence of p24 antigen in the serum. This study shows that HIV nucleic acid can be detected by PCR in either the cell-free seminal fluid or NSMC of 87% of semen samples but not in the DNA of spermatozoa from HIV-infected men.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991GF80500022
View details for PubMedID 1680138
Gene amplification of virus-specific sequences is widely used as a method to detect or confirm human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In this study we used an enzyme-linked affinity assay to quantify polymerase chain reaction products from whole blood, plasma, and separated mononuclear cells collected in the presence of four common anticoagulants: acid citrate dextrose, sodium EDTA, potassium oxalate, and sodium heparin. Attenuation of the product signal was observed after amplification of nucleic acid extraction from whole blood, washed mononuclear cells, and plasma from specimens collected in sodium heparin. These inhibitory effects on gene amplification could be reversed with heparinase. The addition of as little as 0.05 U of heparin completely inhibited amplification of an HLA-DQa sequence from placental DNA. We conclude that heparin can cause attenuation or inhibition of gene amplification. Acid citrate dextrose and EDTA, which lack inhibitory activity, are the most appropriate anticoagulants for clinical blood samples when polymerase chain reaction amplification is anticipated.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991FC91900003
View details for PubMedID 1909709
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA was detected and quantified in the serum of HIV-seropositive individuals using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a nonisotopic enzyme-linked affinity assay. Of 55 HIV-infected patients who were not receiving therapy, serum HIV RNA was detected in 9 of 19 who were asymptomatic, 11 of 16 with AIDS-related complex (ARC), and 18 of 20 with AIDS, with copy numbers ranging from 10(2) to greater than or equal to 5 x 10(4) 200 microliters of serum based on a relationship between absorbance and known copy number of gag gene RNA. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a correlation between infectious titer in 42 patient sera cocultured with donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and PCR product absorbance (r = .70, P less than .01). Serum HIV RNA detected by PCR also correlated with serum p24 antigen positivity, CD4 counts less than 400/mm3, and the presence of HIV-related symptoms or disease. Quantification of infectious HIV RNA in cell-free serum by PCR may be useful as a marker for for disease progression or in monitoring antiviral therapy.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991FD93900031
View details for PubMedID 2010639
This paper reviews functionally important insights into the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The major sequela of this infection is early and progressive involvement of the immune system, with widespread immune dysfunction. This pathogenetic feature has a major impact on strategies for control of the infection. The immunosuppression caused by the virus leads to higher levels of viral replication and enhanced potential for development or selection of variant viruses, including forms that are more virulent or even drug resistant. Therefore, control of HIV infection and disease may require antiviral agents and CD4 receptor competitors as well as recombinant DNA-derived lymphokines and subunit vaccine immunotherapies. To be successful, such therapies must work to counter infection in monocytes and nonlymphoid cells as well as in T4 lymphocytes. Because many limbs of the immune system are affected by HIV infection, the complexities of this pathogen can be unraveled only by the careful study of immune functions during the disease and of effective interventions to control infection and disease and to restore immune functions.
View details for Web of Science ID A1991FD04700018
View details for PubMedID 2041962