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  • Relationship Between Male Age, Semen Parameters and Assisted Reproductive Technology Outcomes. Andrology Kasman, A. M., Li, S., Zhao, Q., Behr, B., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020


    BACKGROUND: Low semen quality often obligates the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART); however, the association between semen quality and ART outcomes is uncertain.OBJECTIVES: To further assess the impact of semen quality on ART outcomes.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out at a single academic reproductive medicine center (January 2012-December 2018). Patients undergoing at least one ART cycle utilizing freshly ejaculated sperm from the male partner were included. We assessed the association between semen quality (as stratified based on WHO 5th edition criteria), paternal age (< or ?40), and reproductive/perinatal outcomes. To evaluate the differences in ART outcomes by semen parameters and age, generalized estimating equations were applied for rates of fertilization, pregnancy, implantation, miscarriage, live birth, blast formation, gestational age, and normal embryo biopsy.RESULTS: 2063 couples were identified who underwent 4517 ART cycles. Average ages of the male and female partners were 39.8 and 37.7, respectively. Lower pregnancy rates were observed in cycles with lower sperm motility (i.e. <40%; 39.9% vs 44.1%) and total motile count (i.e. <9 million; 38.3% vs 43.5%). When examining only cycles utilizing ICSI, only a lower motility count was associated with a decline in pregnancy rate (39.1% vs 44.9%). No association was identified between semen quality and gestational age or birth weight. Paternal age was not associated with ART outcomes. However, among ART cycles in women <40, aneuploidy rate was higher for older men (p< 0.001). In cycles with women>40, no association between aneuploidy and male age was identified.DISCUSSION: Sperm motility is associated with pregnancy rates, while other semen parameters are not. In cycles in women <40, paternal age is associated with embryo aneuploidy rate.CONCLUSION: Paternal factors are associated with ART outcomes and future studies should explore mechanisms by which semen quality is associated with ART outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/andr.12908

    View details for PubMedID 32964702

  • Clinicopathologic features, outcomes, and prognostic factors of testicular sarcoma: a population-based study. International urology and nephrology Bhambhvani, H. P., Greenberg, D. R., Kasman, A. M., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020


    PURPOSE: To describe clinical characteristics and identify prognostic factors among men with testicular sarcoma, and to compare survival with other testicular cancers.METHODS: The surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database (1975-2016) was queried to identify adults with testicular sarcoma. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards, Fine and Gray competing-risks regression, propensity score matching, and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used.RESULTS: 230 men were included in this study. Median age at diagnosis was 58years (range 18-94), and median OS was 10.3years. Patients with tumors larger than 8cm in size had worse OS (HR 1.88, p=0.016) compared to patients with tumors<8cm. Disease with distant metastasis was associated with worse OS (HR 4.70, p<0.0001) and worse CSS (HR 11.41, p<0.0001) as compared to disease localized to the testis. Men with rhabdomyosarcoma had worse CSS (HR 3.25, p=0.03) as compared to men with liposarcoma. Testicular sarcoma patients had worse OS than matched patients with either seminomatous germ cell tumors (GCTs, p<0.0001) or nonseminomatous GCTs (p=0.0019), and similar survival to matched patients with sex cord stromal tumors, testicular lymphoma, or sarcomas of the lower limb-the most common anatomic site of origin of soft tissue sarcomas.CONCLUSIONS: In the largest cohort of men with testicular sarcoma to date, we identified tumor size, disease extent, and rhabdomyosarcoma histology as independent predictors of worse survival. Stage-adjusted survival was worse as compared to men with GCTs, and similar to men with sex cord stromal tumors, testicular lymphoma, and sarcomas of other primary sites.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11255-020-02634-4

    View details for PubMedID 32895865

  • Assessment of the Association of Cannabis on Female Sexual Function With the Female Sexual Function Index. Sexual medicine Kasman, A. M., Bhambhvani, H. P., Wilson-King, G., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020


    INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use has increased in the last decade, and the impact of cannabis on female sexual function remains unclear.AIM: To assess the impact of frequency of use, chemovar (tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol, or both) type, and method of consumption on female sexual function among cannabis users.METHODS: Adults who visited a single-partner cannabis dispensary's locations were invited to participate in an uncompensated, anonymous online survey October 20, 2019 and March 12, 2020. The survey assessed baseline demographics, health status, cannabis use habits as well as used the validated Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess sexual function.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcomes of this study are the total FSFI score (sexual dysfunction cutoff <26.55) and subdomain scores including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain.RESULTS: A total of 452 women responded with the majority between the ages of 30-49years (54.7%) and in a relationship or married (81.6%). Of them,72.8% reported using cannabis more than 6 times per week, usually through smoking flower (46.7%). Women who reported more cannabis use, reported higher FSFI scores (29.0 vs 26.7 for lowest vs highest frequencies of reported use, P=.003). Moreover, an increase in cannabis use frequency by one additional use per week was associated with an increase in total FSFI (beta=0.61, P=.0004) and subdomains including desire domain (P=.02), arousal domain (P=.0002), orgasm domain (P=.002), and satisfaction domain (P=.003). For each additional step of cannabis use intensity (ie, times per week), the odds of reporting female sexual dysfunction declined by 21% (odds ratio: 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.92, P=.002). Method of consumption of cannabis and chemovar type did not consistently impact FSFI scores or odds of sexual dysfunction.CONCLUSION: Increased frequency of marijuana use is associated with improved sexual function among female users, whereas chemovar type, method of consumption, and reason for use does not impact outcomes. Kasman AM, Bhambhvani HP, Wilson-King G, etal. Assessment of the Association of Cannabis on Female Sexual Function With the Female Sexual Function Index. Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.esxm.2020.06.009

    View details for PubMedID 32713800

  • Association between male infertility and male-specific malignancies: systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based retrospective cohort studies. Fertility and sterility Del Giudice, F., Kasman, A. M., De Berardinis, E., Busetto, G. M., Belladelli, F., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current evidence that correlates impaired male fertility with the risk of developing male-related malignancies.DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based retrospective cohort studies.SETTING: Not applicable.PATIENT(S): Men diagnosed with impaired fertility status and subsequently observed to determine incidence risk in developing testicular cancer (TCa) or prostate cancer (PCa).INTERVENTION(S): Not applicable.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Pooled risk ratio (RR) differences among male factor infertility subjects compared with a fertile control population, and meta-regression analysis according to age at baseline, mean follow-up, range of study time, and year of publication.RESULT(S): Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were critically examined. Four studies examined male infertility and TCa (n = 161,634; 174 TCa cases), and four examined infertility in relation to PCa (n = 183,950 men; 377 PCa cases) from 1963 to 2014. The pooled RR was 2.033 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66-2.48); heterogeneity: Q = 3.04 (degree of freedom [df] = 3); I2 = 1.55% for TCa and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.17-2.4); Q = 23.3(df = 3); I2 = 87.1% for PCa.CONCLUSION(S): Male infertility was associated with a subsequent risk of both TCa and PCa. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains uncertain, future studies should evaluate the underlying mechanisms to determine whether testis and prostate screening practices should be altered in men with male infertility.CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO 167277.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2020.04.042

    View details for PubMedID 32709378

  • Clinical correlation among male infertility and overall male health: A systematic review of the literature. Investigative and clinical urology Del Giudice, F., Kasman, A. M., Ferro, M., Sciarra, A., De Berardinis, E., Belladelli, F., Salonia, A., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020; 61 (4): 355?71


    Purpose: Ongoing evidence has suggested the role of male factor infertility as a potential predictor of mortality and general health status. The aim of the present review is to update the current knowledge base regarding the association between male factor infertility and general health through a critical review of the literature.Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the literature was carried out from inception to November 2019 in order to evaluate significant associations between male infertility and adverse health outcomes such as cardiovascular, oncologic, metabolic and autoimmune diseases as well as overall mortality.Results: In all, 27 studies met inclusion criteria and were critically examined. Five studies examined male infertility and cardiovascular disease risk, 11 examined oncologic risk (e.g., overall cancer risk, testis and prostate cancer), 8 examined aggregate chronic medical diseases and 5 infertility related to incidence of mortality, for a total of 599,807 men diagnosed with any male factor infertility covering a period from 1916 to 2016.Conclusions: A man's fertility and overall health appear to be interconnected. Therefore, a diagnosis of male infertility may allow a window into future comorbidity and/or mortality which may help guide clinical decisions and counseling. Several possible etiologies such as genetic, epigenetic, developmental, and lifestyle-based factors need to be further evaluated in order to establish the underlying mechanisms between male infertility and health.

    View details for DOI 10.4111/icu.2020.61.4.355

    View details for PubMedID 32665992

  • Development of robust artificial neural networks for prediction of 5-year survival in bladder cancer. Urologic oncology Bhambhvani, H. P., Zamora, A., Shkolyar, E., Prado, K., Greenberg, D. R., Kasman, A. M., Liao, J., Shah, S., Srinivas, S., Skinner, E. C., Shah, J. B. 2020


    PURPOSE: When exploring survival outcomes for patients with bladder cancer, most studies rely on conventional statistical methods such as proportional hazards models. Given the successful application of machine learning to handle big data in many disciplines outside of medicine, we sought to determine if machine learning could be used to improve our ability to predict survival in bladder cancer patients. We compare the performance of artificial neural networks (ANN), a type of machine learning algorithm, with that of multivariable Cox proportional hazards (CPH) models in the prediction of 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with bladder cancer.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 program database was queried to identify adult patients with bladder cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2010, yielding 161,227 patients who met our inclusion criteria. ANNs were trained and tested on an 80/20 split of the dataset. Multivariable CPH models were developed in parallel. Variables used for prediction included age, sex, race, grade, SEER stage, tumor size, lymph node involvement, degree of extension, and surgery received. The primary outcomes were 5-year DSS and 5-year OS. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was conducted, and ANN models were tested for calibration.RESULTS: The area under the curve for the ANN models was 0.81 for the OS model and 0.80 for the DSS model. Area under the curve for the CPH models was 0.70 for OS and 0.81 for DSS. The ANN OS model achieved a calibration slope of 1.03 and a calibration intercept of -0.04, while the ANN DSS model achieved a calibration slope of 0.99 and a calibration intercept of -0.04.CONCLUSIONS: Machine learning algorithms can improve our ability to predict bladder cancer prognosis. Compared to CPH models, ANNs predicted OS more accurately and DSS with similar accuracy. Given the inherent limitations of administrative datasets, machine learning may allow for optimal interpretation of the complex data they contain.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urolonc.2020.05.009

    View details for PubMedID 32593506

  • Association of preconception paternal health on perinatal outcomes: analysis of U.S. claims data. Fertility and sterility Kasman, A. M., Zhang, C. A., Li, S., Stevenson, D. K., Shaw, G. M., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020


    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether paternal health is associated with maternal peripartum and neonatal outcomes.DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.SETTING: University research departments.PATIENT(S): Analytic sample of children born to paired fathers and mothers covering live births within the United States between 2009-2016.INTERVENTION(S): Paternal health status (e.g., metabolic syndrome diagnoses, individual chronic disease diagnoses).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Primary outcome of preterm birth (i.e., live birth before 37 weeks), and secondary outcomes of low birth weight, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, eclampsia, and length of maternal stay.RESULT(S): The IBM Marketscan Research database covers reimbursed health care claims data on inpatient and outpatient encounters who are privately insured through employment-sponsored health insurance. We assessed 785,809 singleton live births, with 6.6% born preterm. The presence of paternal comorbidities was associated with higher odds of preterm birth, low birth weight (LBW), and NICU stay. After adjusting for maternal factors, fathers with most or all components of the metabolic syndrome had 19% higher odds of having a child born preterm (95% CI 1.11-1.28), 23% higher odds of LBW (95% CI 1.01-1.51), and 28% higher odds of NICU stay (95% CI 1.08-1.52). Maternal morbidity (e.g., gestational diabetes or preeclampsia) was also positively associated with preconception paternal health.CONCLUSION(S): Increased preconception paternal comorbidity may be associated with negative infant and maternal outcomes. Although the paternal effect remains modest, these findings highlight the importance of the health of both parents, particularly the mother, on healthy pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2019.12.026

    View details for PubMedID 32147174

  • New insights to guide patient care: the bidirectional relationship between male infertility and male health. Fertility and sterility Kasman, A. M., Del Giudice, F., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020


    Male reproduction is a complex process, and numerous medical conditions have the potential to alter spermatogenesis. In addition, male factor infertility may be a biomarker for future health. In the present review, we discuss the current literature regarding the association between systemic diseases and fertility, which may impact clinical outcomes or semen parameters. A number of conditions that have systemic consequences were identified, including genetic (e.g., cystic fibrosis, DNA mismatch repair alterations), obesity, psychological stress, exogenous testosterone, and a variety of common medications. As such, the infertility evaluation may offer an opportunity for health counseling beyond the discussion of reproductive goals. Moreover, male infertility has been suggested as a marker of future health, given that poor semen parameters and a diagnosis of male infertility are associated with an increased risk of hypogonadism, cardiometabolic disease, cancer, and even mortality. Therefore, male fertility requires multidisciplinary expertise for evaluation, treatment, and counseling.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2020.01.002

    View details for PubMedID 32089256

  • Association between infertility and mental health of offspring in the United States: a population based cohort study. Human fertility (Cambridge, England) Kasman, A. M., Zhang, C. A., Luke, B., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020: 1?6


    There exist conflicting data in regard to the health outcomes of offspring born to infertile couples and follow up of offspring can be challenging. The objective of the study was to determine the association between infertility in men and women and the mental health of their offspring. The present study analyzes data obtained from the IBM Marketscan? Commercial Claims and Encounters database from 2007 through 2015. Overall, 271,603 children of males with male factor infertility, 328,571 children of females with female factor infertility, 663,568 children of males who later underwent vasectomy were identified. The odds of psychosis were increased in offspring of those with male factor infertility (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.22-1.29) and female factor infertility (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.17-1.23). Offspring of infertile males (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.13-1.26) and infertile females (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.14-1.26) had an increased odds of autism compared to the reference group. In addition, offspring of infertile males (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.28-1.7) and infertile females (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.33-1.73) had higher odds of being diagnosed with an intellectual disability. Therefore, offspring of infertile men or women may have an increased risk of developing psychosis, autism, or intellectual disability.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14647273.2020.1805799

    View details for PubMedID 32781859

  • Ejaculatory Dysfunction in Patients Presenting to a Men's Health Clinic: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Sexual medicine Kasman, A. M., Bhambhvani, H. P., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020


    Prevalence and bother of ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) has yet to be evaluated in a men's health referral population.To evaluate the prevalence and associated risk factors of EjD in men presenting to a men's health clinic.A retrospective review examined patients presenting to an outpatient men's health clinic who completed the Sexual Health Inventory for Men and the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire Ejaculatory Dysfunction (MSHQ-EjD) Short Form. Patient factors including demographics, comorbidities, and medication were examined. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used.The main outcomes of this study are Sexual Health Inventory for Men and MSHQ-EjD scores.A total of 63 (24%) of patients presenting to the urology clinic were characterized as having EjD based on questionnaire responses. The mean age for men with EjD was 53.8 years, while those without was 42.6 years (P < .001). Of men with EjD, 74.6% were at least moderately bothered (MSHQ-EjD ?3). Men with EjD were more likely to have erectile dysfunction (77.8%) compared with those without (21%, P < .001) as well as a history of a pelvic cancer (20.6% vs 6%, P = .001). On multivariable regression, erectile dysfunction (odds ratio: 15.04, 95% confidence interval: 6.76-35.92, P < .0001) and alpha inhibitor prescription (odds ratio: 6.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.57-30.16, P = .01) were associated with a higher odds of EjD. ED was found to be a mediator of the relationship between EjD and age, as the age association was lost in the ED population on multivariable regression compared with the non-ED population where it remained significant.EjD is common among patients presenting to a men's health clinic and may present at varying ages, though it is more common in those aged 50 years or older; it is independent of age and race. EjD is associated with erectile dysfunction, pelvic cancer history, and use of alpha inhibitors, presenting a population that could be considered for screening. Kasman AM, Bhambhvani HP, Eisenberg ML. Ejaculatory Dysfunction in Patients Presenting to a Men's Health Clinic: A Retrospective Cohort Study. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.esxm.2020.05.002

    View details for PubMedID 32553504

  • A Survey Exploring the Relationship Between Cannabis Use Characteristics and Sexual Function in Men. Sexual medicine Bhambhvani, H. P., Kasman, A. M., Wilson-King, G., Eisenberg, M. L. 2020


    Cannabis is the most commonly used drug in the United States; however, the effects of cannabis use on male sexual function are poorly understood.To characterize the contemporary landscape of cannabis use and to assess the associations between male sexual function and the frequency of use, the primary method of consumption, or cannabis chemovar (tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol) among current users.We surveyed adults who visited a single cannabis dispensary for baseline demographic information, medical history, cannabis use habits, and sexual function as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). An IIEF-5 < 21 was considered erectile dysfunction.The main outcome measure of the study was male sexual function via the IIEF domain scores.A total of 325 men completed the survey with a mean age of 46.7 years. 71.1% of the men were Caucasian and 52.6% were married. 13 men (4%) were never users; 29 men (8.9%) used 1-2 times/week; 51 men (15.7%) used 3-5 times/week, and 232 men (71.4%) used 6+ times/week. The average IIEF-5 score was 22.3 with 19.4% of the men having erectile dysfunction. In univariate analysis, men using cannabis more frequently had a higher overall IIEF (65.36 vs 60.52, P = .001), erectile domain (27.32 vs 25.74, P = .03), orgasm domain (9.08 vs 8.12, P < .001), intercourse satisfaction domain (12.42 vs 11.31, P = .006), and overall satisfaction domain (8.11 vs 7.05, P = .002). In multivariable analysis, compared to men who used cannabis 0 times/week, those who used 6 times/week had an increased overall IIEF (69.08 vs 64.64, P-value adjusted = 0.02), intercourse satisfaction domain (P-value adjusted = 0.04), and overall satisfaction domain (P-value adjusted = 0.02). The primary method of consumption (eg, smoking, edibles, etc.) and cannabinoid composition (eg, cannabidiol vs tetrahydrocannabinol dominant) were not associated with sexual function.We report an association between the increased frequency of cannabis use and increased male sexual function. However, while the increased frequency of use was statistically significant with regard to the IIEF scores, the clinical significance of this is likely low, and selection bias may limit the generalizability of these findings. The method of consumption and cannabis chemovar were not associated with sexual function. Bhambhvani HP, Kasman AM, Wilson-King G, et al. A Survey Exploring the Relationship Between Cannabis Use Characteristics and Sexual Function in Men. J Sex Med 2020;XX:XXX-XXX.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.esxm.2020.06.002

    View details for PubMedID 32561331

  • Male infertility and future cardiometabolic health: Does the association vary by sociodemographic factors? Urology Kasman, A. M., Li, S., Luke, B., Sutcliffe, A. G., Pacey, A. A., Eisenberg, M. L. 2019


    To determine whether the association between male infertility and incident cardiometabolic disease is modified by socioeconomics, race, or geographic region.Retrospective review of data from insurance claims from Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database. Subjects were men, 18-50 years old, with an associated diagnosis of infertility in the United States between 2003 and 2016. Analytic sample were men captured by the Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database with an associated diagnosis of infertility. Men were classified as either infertile, or not, based on diagnosis or procedural codes. Cardiometabolic health outcomes were then assessed using CPT codes for diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease. Confounding factors were controlled for such as race, education, socioecomonic status, and region. The main outcomes were development of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease.A total of 76,343 males were diagnosed with male factor infertility, 60,072 males who underwent fertility testing, and 183,742 males that underwent vasectomy (control population). For all men, infertile men had a higher risk of incident hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and heart disease when compared to those undergoing vasectomy. Identical associations were found across all education, income, racial, and geographic strata.Our study suggests that men with infertility have a higher risk of cardiometabolic disease in the years following a fertility evaluation regardless of race, region, or socioeconomic status.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.urology.2019.06.041

    View details for PubMedID 31377255

  • Combination therapy in overactive bladder-untapped research opportunities: A systematic review of the literature. Neurourology and urodynamics Kasman, A., Stave, C., Elliott, C. 2019


    Overactive bladder (OAB) affects over 17% of the population and significantly effect the health-related quality of life. The treatments for OAB include first line (lifestyle modification, pelvic floor muscle training), second line (anticholinergic or beta-3 agonist medications), and third line therapies (intradetrusor botulinum toxin injection, sacral neurostimulation [SNM], or percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation [PTNS]). For those with urinary incontinence secondary to OAB, complete continence is the goal of therapy, though cure rates are only 5% to 40%. The use of combination therapies can be employed in refractory OAB, however, the efficacy of pooled modalities is relatively unknown. Our objective was to determine the volume of data supporting combination therapy in treating OAB.We systematically reviewed PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for articles published before October 2018. Each was independently reviewed by two reviewers and examined in detail if they met inclusion criteria.A total of 32 studies met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Most large prospective studies evaluated combinations of medications with behavioral therapy or medications together. Combination therapy studies of third-line treatments were rare and centered on medication with PTNS. No studies examined intradetrusor botulinum toxin injections in combination with another therapy and only one retrospective study briefly examined SNM therapy in combination with medication.Combination therapy, with certain first, second, and third-line OAB therapies, appears to be efficacious. There is a further need for carefully designed combination therapy studies, particularly those including third line modalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/nau.24158

    View details for PubMedID 31483070

  • Association between use of marijuana and time to pregnancy in men and women: findings from the National Survey of Family Growth FERTILITY AND STERILITY Kasman, A. M., Thoma, M. E., McLain, A. C., Eisenberg, M. L. 2018; 109 (5): 866?71


    To determine if regular use of marijuana has an impact on time to pregnancy.Retrospective review of cross-sectional survey data from male and female respondents aged 15-44 years who participated in the 2002, 2006-2010, and 2011-2015 National Survey of Family Growth.Not applicable.The National Survey of Family Growth is a nationally representative population-based sample derived from stratified multistage area probability sampling of 121 geographic areas in the U.S. Our analytic sample was participants who were actively trying to conceive.Exposure status was based on the respondents' answers regarding their marijuana use in the preceding 12 months.The main outcome was estimated time to pregnancy, which was hypothesized before analysis to be delayed by regular marijuana use.A total of 758 male and 1,076 female participants responded that they were actively trying to conceive. Overall, 16.5% of men reported using any marijuana while attempting to conceive, versus 11.5% of women. The time ratio to pregnancy for never smokers versus daily users of marijuana in men was 1.08 (95% confidence interval 0.79-1.47) and in women 0.92 (0.43-1.95), demonstrating no statistically significant impact of marijuana use on time to pregnancy.Our study suggests that neither marijuana use nor frequency of marijuana use was associated with time to pregnancy for men and women.

    View details for PubMedID 29555335

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