All Publications

  • Accelerating quantitative MR imaging with the incorporation of B1 compensation using deep learning. Magnetic resonance imaging Wu, Y., Ma, Y., Du, J., Xing, L. 2020


    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) attracts attention due to its support to quantitative image analysis and data driven medicine. However, the application of quantitative MRI is severely limited by the long data acquisition time required by repetitive image acquisition and measurement of field map. Inspired by recent development of artificial intelligence, we propose a deep learning strategy to accelerate the acquisition of quantitative MRI, where every quantitative T1 map is derived from two highly undersampled variable-contrast images with radiofrequency field inhomogeneity automatically compensated. In a multi-step framework, variable-contrast images are first jointly reconstructed from incoherently undersampled images using convolutional neural networks; then T1 map and B1 map are predicted from reconstructed images employing deep learning. Thus, the acceleration includes undersampling in every input image, a reduction in the number of variable contrast images, as well as a waiver of B1 map measurement. The strategy is validated in T1 mapping of cartilage. Acquired with a consistent imaging protocol, 1224 image sets from 51 subjects are used for the training of the prediction models, and 288 image sets from 12 subjects are used for testing. High degree of acceleration is achieved with image fidelity well maintained. The proposed method can be broadly applied to quantify other tissue properties (e.g. T2, T1rho) as well.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mri.2020.06.011

    View details for PubMedID 32610065

  • Deciphering tissue relaxation parameters from a single MR image using deep learning SPIE Medical Imaging Wu, Y., Ma, Y., Du, J., Xing, L. 2020

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2546025

  • Deriving new soft tissue contrasts from conventional MR images using deep learning. Magnetic resonance imaging Wu, Y., Li, D., Xing, L., Gold, G. 2020


    Versatile soft tissue contrast in magnetic resonance imaging is a unique advantage of the imaging modality. However, the versatility is not fully exploited. In this study, we propose a deep learning-based strategy to derive more soft tissue contrasts from conventional MR images obtained in standard clinical MRI. Two types of experiments are performed. First, MR images corresponding to different pulse sequences are predicted from one or more images already acquired. As an example, we predict T1? weighted knee image from T2 weighted image and/or T1 weighted image. Furthermore, we estimate images corresponding to alternative imaging parameter values. In a representative case, variable flip angle images are predicted from a single T1 weighted image, whose accuracy is further validated in quantitative T1 map subsequently derived. To accomplish these tasks, images are retrospectively collected from 56 subjects, and self-attention convolutional neural network models are trained using 1104 knee images from 46 subjects and tested using 240 images from 10 other subjects. High accuracy has been achieved in resultant qualitative images as well as quantitative T1 maps. The proposed deep learning method can be broadly applied to obtain more versatile soft tissue contrasts without additional scans or used to normalize MR data that were inconsistently acquired for quantitative analysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mri.2020.09.014

    View details for PubMedID 32956805

  • Superpixel Region Merging based on Deep Network for Medical Image Segmentation ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology Liu, H., Wang, H., Wu, Y., Xing, L. 2020; 11 (4)

    View details for DOI 10.1145/3386090

  • Incorporating prior knowledge via volumetric deep residual network to optimize the reconstruction of sparsely sampled MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging Wu, Y., Ma, Y., Capaldi, D. P., Liu, J., Zhao, W., Du, J., Xing, L. 2019


    For sparse sampling that accelerates magnetic resonance (MR) image acquisition, non-linear reconstruction algorithms have been developed, which incorporated patient specific a prior information. More generic a prior information could be acquired via deep learning and utilized for image reconstruction. In this study, we developed a volumetric hierarchical deep residual convolutional neural network, referred to as T-Net, to provide a data-driven end-to-end mapping from sparsely sampled MR images to fully sampled MR images, where cartilage MR images were acquired using an Ultra-short TE sequence and retrospectively undersampled using pseudo-random Cartesian and radial acquisition schemes. The network had a hierarchical architecture that promoted the sparsity of feature maps and increased the receptive field, which were valuable for signal synthesis and artifact suppression. Relatively dense local connections and global shortcuts were established to facilitate residual learning and compensate for details lost in hierarchical processing. Additionally, volumetric processing was adopted to fully exploit spatial continuity in three-dimensional space. Data consistency was further enforced. The network was trained with 336 three-dimensional images (each consisting of 32 slices) and tested by 24 images. The incorporation of a priori information acquired via deep learning facilitated high acceleration factors (as high as 8) while maintaining high image fidelity (quantitatively evaluated using the structural similarity index measurement). The proposed T-Net had an improved performance as compared to several state-of-the-art networks.

    View details for PubMedID 30880112

  • Self-Attention Convolutional Neural Network for Improved MR Image Reconstruction. Information sciences Wu, Y., Ma, Y., Liu, J., Du, J., Xing, L. 2019; 490: 317?28


    MRI is an advanced imaging modality with the unfortunate disadvantage of long data acquisition time. To accelerate MR image acquisition while maintaining high image quality, extensive investigations have been conducted on image reconstruction of sparsely sampled MRI. Recently, deep convolutional neural networks have achieved promising results, yet the local receptive field in convolution neural network raises concerns regarding signal synthesis and artifact compensation. In this study, we proposed a deep learning-based reconstruction framework to provide improved image fidelity for accelerated MRI. We integrated the self-attention mechanism, which captured long-range dependencies across image regions, into a volumetric hierarchical deep residual convolutional neural network. Basically, a self-attention module was integrated to every convolutional layer, where signal at a position was calculated as a weighted sum of the features at all positions. Furthermore, relatively dense shortcut connections were employed, and data consistency was enforced. The proposed network, referred to as SAT-Net, was applied on cartilage MRI acquired using an ultrashort TE sequence and retrospectively undersampled in a pseudo-random Cartesian pattern. The network was trained using 336 three dimensional images (each containing 32 slices) and tested with 24 images that yielded improved outcome. The framework is generic and can be extended to various applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ins.2019.03.080

    View details for PubMedID 32817993

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC7430761

  • Automatic marker-free target positioning and tracking for image-guided radiotherapy and interventions Zhao, W., Shen, L., Wu, Y., Han, B., Yang, Y., Xing, L., Fei, B., Linte, C. A. SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 2019

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.2512166

    View details for Web of Science ID 000483683500010

  • Learning deconvolutional deep neural network for high resolution medical image reconstruction INFORMATION SCIENCES Liu, H., Xu, J., Wu, Y., Guo, Q., Ibragimov, B., Xing, L. 2018; 468: 142?54

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